COLUMBUS, LOWNDES COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 1851.
IS ISSUED EVERY WEDNESDAY MORNING BY
CHAPMAN & SMITH,
nt throe dollars per annum, in advatice.f
, Advertisements First insertion (ten lines or less)
Si, 00 ; for each subsequent insertion 50 cents. The
' immber of insertions must be specified on the faqe of
the copy furnished, or else it will be published until
forbid and charged as above. f . ,.
All articles of a personal chafacter will be charged
" uouble the above ratei-MrsA in advance vhrn admitted.
Political circulars or public addresses for thehenefit
tf individuals will be charged as advertiscioents.
On yearly advertisements, a liberal discount will be
tnade. The privilege of yearly advertisers will be lim
ited to their own immediate business; advertisement
Vent in by them embracing other matter.will be charg
ed for by the square.
07" Letters on business connected withthe office
must be post paid to insure attention.
Ve published on Monday last a statement, of th'e
appropriations by Congress at the last session a
mounting to about forty-two millions and a half.
'We have been looking over the appropriation bills to
see iri what manner this enormous sum was-distributed
or divided between the two great sections of tho Union.
We know that such an inquiry is factious, and per
haps rather treasonable. For even if it should appear
that the North gets the money, it is well known that it
is voted away lor national objects, and that the North
is much the most national section of the two. We
thought, however, that as the Presidential election
was soon to come on, it would be well, for the sake of
the large assortment of candidates now on hand, and
their friends, to have an eye to this part of the national
polirr, so that they could vote understandin-ly and
Of the total sum expended, about eleven millions is
local or devoted to various national purposes in the
several States, or for the use of the several States and
territories. Of this sum the South gets about three
millions the North the balance. These appropria
tions are for docks, harbor?, new light-houses, custom
houses, hospitals, magazines, forts, surveys, mints,
roads, salaries," &c, and include the annual instal
ment, with interest, due und.nhe treaty with Mexico,
which we place to the account of the' North, as she
gets nil the territory, and more too.
For the support of the army the appropriation is
S-,3;)G,oG0. The army is recruited chiefly from the
Northern cities, and is remarkable thatonlyone-fourth
of those . who apply to enlist are accepted, the others
being rejected fur infirmity of constitution, and other!
isahilities. The nrnvuioiw :ln,l rlthlnrr i
nd fabricated chiefly at the North. And as the prin- i
opal service of the army now. is the protection of the
Jrontier from Indians, and the great portion of the
frontier and territories now belong to the North, it is
safe to assume that four-tilths of the military expendi
ture belongs to the Xorth.
The navy appropriation is .$f).53.j,r02. We have
six navy yards for the construction of public vessels
located at Norfolk, Washington, Philadelphia, New
York, Boston and Kitten- two-thirds of them at the
North. The iron and cordage are manufactured chiefly
there i portion of the timber, hemp, tar, and rosin,
being produced at the South. The seamen are enlis
ted at the North. We may, therefore, put down about
four-fifths of the naval expenditures to that section.
The Indian appropriations amount t $2,355,021,
which, as the North has now nearly all the new terri
tories, may be charged to her.
Here are three items the war, navy and Indian ap
propriations, amounting to more, than twenty millions
abotU, ihirly-onc miIions-f wbfi aWt tweaity-four 4
mlVln , .W,M a. vi. 3
The expenditures are made chiefly on the frontiers,
and one of the consequences of giving up the new
territories to the North, is the relinquishment to her
of the expenditures. The appropriations at the last
session of Congress for California alone amount to
more than seven hundred thousand dollars.
The expenditure now is about fifty millions annually.
Of this the South will get about ten millions one
fifth. Her white population is about one third of all
the Union her property about one half. Her propor
tion of the expenditure ought to be, on the basis of
population and property, about twenty-one millions.
A permanent expenditure of fifty millions is equiva
lent to the appropriation of a thousand millions of
private property to the use of the Federal Govern
ment, since fifty millions is equal, and more ttan equal,
to the annual income of that much property. Of this
property about two-fifths is taken from the South, and
she receives only one fifth of the expenditure. Thus
ten millions are taken annually, equal to a principal
of two hundred millions from the South to encourage
the industry, enterprize, and capital of the North, and
by taking from one and giving to the other, creating a
difference of four hundred millions in favor of the fa
vored section. Such is the premium offered to popu
lation, enterprise, capital and ambition to desert one
section for the other.
v The evils of taxation threatened by British power
".before the revolution, and which made the revolution,
'-era trivial in comparison with this." And what is the
Ljneny j lvepreseniation i vvnera "one section is
papnicai, social, and political dil
tr, what is represention worth for
otection, unless it be equal m
nist ! v hat is the power of a1
montyJ the power of talking
the expenditure here at the seat
in the couth, and ouirht to be
nt. But this is no longer central
as originally. This city is practi-
brth as the South. The popula
f this expenditure, has no vote to
i of the South. The commodities
more manufacturing and commer-
f)ul, and came therefore, more from
I aith. - The office-holders are equally
l wen as the fceuth, and destined in
tiore from the North than the South,
t tbe residue, if any, ot, their salaries to
' our diplomatic corps abroad will be,
3jnore from the North than South.
. lafailthis is'invidious is sectional.
jve thtK votes, to appropriate lands
section. - It is factious and section-
i fact and show the consequences,
jthat the imposition of a permanent
le appropriation of as much private
' rnment as that tax is the incomeof.
5 Ions annually is therefore equivalent
Ion of a hundred millions of private
Norm nencr-rth controls the uov-
. IJovernme'nt unrestrained in the tax
-power With the power thus of appropriating
property by a vote, does any man of sense believe that
it will not be exercised at the expense of a minority
odious for it&institutions? Will not fanaticism take
unto itself ambition, avarice, idleness, agrananism,
socialism, voluptuousness and vanity seven other
devils and will not the last state of this Govern
ment be worse than the first 1
We hear men assert the utility of party divisions as
conservative of free government, and yet denounce
sectional divisions. Whit is the difference ? So far
as one is salutary, so is the other. It has been the
safety, the glory of our system, that it was divided in
to States and sections. It has been its peculiar good
that it was divided into North and South and about
equally divided. We owe to that very division, as the
history of the county shows, almost all that now re
mains of the Constitution. The moment that Con-
rreas, at the late session, prostrated the power of one
-section.it inflictad a calamity greater, infinitely great
er, than the extinction of one of the great national
uarties : leaving the other without criticism and with
out restraint. ' For a predominant section is more in
tolerant, prescriptive, aggressive, and destructive, than
i kparty because. the rulers and the ruled are more
1 distinctly divided in position, or interest, and in senti-
nent,nd afford greater facility for the operation of
' The afe acta ot uongress were me worn ot one
sectional party to destroy the other, and the very con
ception, the announcement of such a scheme as the
"adjustment," ought to have admonished every states
inan and patriot of the terrible fact, that sectionalism
was already overarrown, and of the tlisastrous conse
quences of giving it overwhelming and irresistible
Dower, bv erivincr it such a "settlement" as mat.
Instead of that, party, political party, was immedi
ately sacrificed to sectional aggression, under pretence
Theevilis done. It will have to be undone, or it
will undo us. Southern Press.
... V . From tlie Mississippian.
The necessity of diversifying the labors of the slave
States is apparent from a consideration wholly distinct
from those that have been urged. The area of the
whole slave States is 727,234 square miles. Assume
the present slave population to be 3,5000,000, and that
its future increase will be the same rate that has atten
ded it from 1790, when the first census was taken, until
this time, and in less than one hundred years, we shall
have 56,000,000 of slaves, that is, a slave population
of 77 to each superficial square mile. But when we
reflect that this calculation embraces the whole area
of the slave States, and that a large portionof the
surface is irreclaimable swamp, barren sand hills not
fit for cultivation, in the w hole amounting to probably
one fourth, we may reasonably assert, that the child is
now born, who wilfsee a slave population equal at least
to 85 to the square mile, on an average, for all that
portion of the slave States, suited to agriculture. The
slave population however will not be equally diffused
over the slave States. It is rapidly concentrating on
the rice, sugar, and cotton States. By the census of
1840 the States of North Carolina, Mississippi, Ten
nessee, Florida, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama,
Louisiana and Arkansas, contained of slaves 1.27,
575. Their entire surface is but 433,802 square miles.
The entire slaves of the United States double in a
fraction over 22 years. Now let it be supposed that by
bringing slaves into the sugar and cotton region, they
double in those States in twenty years, we will have
in those States at this time 2V I,3(i2. Let it then be
supposed that importation into the sugar and cotton
States now cease entirely, and also that the period of
duplication will be increased to twenty-live years,
neither of which suppositions can be realized, and in
one hundred years, those States will have a slave popu
lation of 30,061,782, or 84 to each square .mile. Yet
much of this country is swamp, or sand, or hills. The
slaves then will be equafat least to one hundred, for
each s-jtiare mile of land suited to cultivation. The
population of Massachusetts, with all her manufactur
ing towns and villages, her cities and small farm.-,
does not equal this. Where then, in one hundred
years, shall we find space for our increase of white
popiua ion anu empi
population anu employment lor our slaves i an tney
''e '''"Pyea in the cultivation of cotton as now
wniiicv uccmnioycaiu atrricuiture ; must uiev not
be employed in every pursuit, to which their labor can
be directed, and must we not commence this division
of labor now ! Many will say, a hundred years ahead,
is too far to lock. We will take care of ourselves, and
let those who come after us take care of themselves.
Well, be it so. Let us take care of ourselves. If we
real!' do so, we shall do all in our power for posterity.
How then can we take care of ourselves J (inly'hy
dirjrtiny Iti'or from the cultivation of cotton. In ls3o,
we produced 1,350,825 bales" of cotton, the price was
19 cents per pound, and brought us $103,415,100.
Tii3 price being high, we from year to year increased
its production. In 183!), the crop was 2,177,83 bales,
the price gradually fell from the former rate, viz: i:
cents, to J O cents, nearly one half, and the produce of
the whole was 87,113,600. - Thus by increasing our
crop 817,000 bales, we lessened our income to the ex
tent 16,301,700. We blindly continued to incrca.-e
our productions, until we increased the crop to, sSy
winch will give (,0,000,000 of !
give 00,000,000 of dollars, hy incr-jasiair
our product 1,140,000 bales beyond thi crop of. 183j.
we reduced our income, or lost 43, 100,000 dollars in one
year. The cotton statistics show, that from 1835,
down to the present day, the larger the crop, the smal
ler the sum does it produce. It we allow that hvj bales
to the hand, is a full average, it will take 270,000 hands
to produce this 1,400,000 bales, and if tho hands will
average in value $500, it required, and there was an
investment of 13,500,000 in hands alone, exclusive
of mules, horses, fanning tools, &c, which additional
investment, by an increase of production, results in an
annual loss of $43,400,000 dollars to the cotton plan
ters. Had they thrown this $13,000,000 into the Mis
sissippi instead of investing it in additional labor for
cotton holds and thereby kept down the excess of pro
duction, they would have secured to themselves $13.-
400,000 per annum, by tne higher price of the roduved
This makes it manifest beyond doubt that the plant
ing of cotton "should not be increased but it should be
greatly reduced. If one third of the labor now direct
ed to cotton raising, should be diverted to other agricul
tural employments to the raising of stock, corn, pota
toes, turnips, oats, rye, &.c, and the making such arti
cles as each planter consumes, and could fabricate for
himself, the income from cotton would not be dimin
ished but would greatly increase, whilst the money
paid out by the planters would be less by millions of
dollars annually. But if we proceed a step beyond
this, and purchase from our own merchants all "such
articles as they can supply, and vest a portion of our
capital in mancufacturing coarse cotton and woollen
goods, leather shoes, and the many other things for
which we have all the needful material and means,
the benefits arising, will be speedily felt, to an incalcu
All the foregoing is true, if slaves and slave labor
were not on the increase. But slaves increase .inde
pendent of importations, at a greater rate than one
hundred per cent, in each five and twenty years. This
being the case, if we do not divert theirjabor from cot
ton, and immediately engage extensively and actively
in other pursuits, the increase of cotton will proceed
at the same rate with the increase of slaves. We have
seen that by the increase since 1835, we have reduced
the sum nearly forty three and one half millions of dol
lars per annum. Thirteen years more, will eive an in
crease of about fifty per cent, on the present produce,
and it is easy to see that ruin and speedy ruin awaits
the cotton producer, if he docs not appropriate a large
part of his capital to other pursuits, and contribute by
all the means in his power, to the introduction and pro
secution of every branch of industry, to which our
soil, our climate, our water power, and our forests in
vite the enterprising. ,
Success and eminent success is certain, if we only
will it, and proceed to the execution of our purpose
with half the zeal and perseverance with which we
have prosecuted the cotton planting. Have we not
waste land in abundance, suited to the raising of sheep
and they supply mutton for our tables and for the mar
ket, and wool for our domestic use for the manufac
ture of junes, linseys and flannels for our use. Have
we no t land and labor Bnd all the means needful for
the raising of corn and oats and also for bermuda and
other grasses! These will raise our mules, horses,
cattle, hogs and poultry supplying us abundantly,
with beef and hides, bacon, butter, &c. Have we not
forest of oak, and streams of water without limit!
These, with the hides of our beeves now almost wholly
lost, will furnish our tanneries with all that is needed
for the prosecution of that business, and will not our
slaves make tanners ! and can they not, when supplied
with the material, make peg, and other shoes ! cannot
our slaves make ploughs and harrows, &c. The New
England States cannot make and send us brick and
framed houses, and therefore we have learned that our
slaves can make and lay bricks, and perform the work
of house joiners and carpenters. In fact we. know
that in mechanical pursuits and manufacturing cotton
and woollen goods, they are fine laborers.
What is there to encourage us to engage in the man
ufacturing of coarse cotton and linseys ! For the for
mer, and for the choice of the latter, we raise the raw
material, and wool we can raise to any extent. We
have water power without limit to drive machinery,
which may be commanded almost for nothing, when in
New England it constitutes one of the heaviest items
in starting a manufactory. Where we have not the
water power, we have wood in abundance with which
to create steam, and also clay and timber with which
to erect the buildings. We have the labor needed for
their erection, which by being withdrawn from cotton
making, benefits the planter, and when all is ready w e
have slaves with w hom if we choose we may carry on
the whole business. All then really needed is money
with which to purchase the machinery, and I have
seen a calculation which may be relied on, from which
it appears that the profits of the cotton planters last
year, arising from the partial failure of the crops, and
the consequent increase of prices, would purchase
more machinery than is now in operation in the Uni
These are but a few of the advantages we have.
Yet with them all business has no energy, it languishes,
it is almost dead. Our State has been aptly compared
to a young man in the fl jwer of his youth, with all his
limbs and members in full development, his bones and
sinews aud muscles in full maturity and well knit, but
still feeble, languishing, and slowly dying, because the
blood of life was not circulating in his veins to stimu
late, invigorate and quicken into action his line organi
zation. Add blood ta his system, ho is all life, and
vigorous health, happiness and prosperity result from
order, harmony, and due proportion of everything
needed to make the perfect man. But withdraw or fail
to supply it, in due proportion to the wants of his body
and no perfection of organization in other respects,
avails anything ; he is an inert, helpless, suffering and
wretched being. What the circulation of blood is to
the human body, to give to its faculties and capacities
health and vigor, the circulation of money in a commu
nity, is, to give life and health to its business. With
draw money or a "circulating medium from a St ite and
you as certainly paralize its business, and end its pros
perity, as by withdrawing blood from the human body
you will paralize that hotly, and produce its death.--From
the operation of the causes before dwelt upon,
and another hereafter to be noticed, the veins and arte
ries of business, in our St.ite, are collapsed. Money,
the life blocd of business is withdrawn, an almost abso
lute paralisis has followed, and unless we create and
supply this vital principle we have nothing to hope.
The stomach may digest, the whole alamentary canal
may perform with vigor its functions, the lungs and
heart may perform theirs, the veins and arteries may be
in perfect order ; yet if myriad of leeches draw off the
blood, as soon as it is made the body will not be nour
ished. I have called attention to the leading process
by which the vital fluid of our commerce and business,
has been drawn off, and we have been reduced to our
present feeble and languishing condition. I have also
indicated in some degree the measure by which these
breeches may be removed, the vital fluid of business
(money) retained and its volume increased. But in
our present feeble and exhausted condition some stim
uli must bo resorted to, to give activity and efficiency to
the vital organs of society. To this subject I will at
tend in the next number. A. 15.
0OWe extract from the Norfolk, Va., S'ju'Jivn Ar
gil?, the following article. The facts set forth are well
worthy of serious reflection : ...
Pl sic Faitii. There is a certain casy-of-faith class"
of politicians in our country, who, on all occasions,
without rhyme or reason, are prating of "Peace" and
"Union," and who put themselves to infinite pains to
convince the public mind that tho miserable com pro
mise of "shreds and p itches" will lie observed in good
faith by the people in the free States. A temporary
truce at present prevails in Congress, and from mo
tives of policy, Seward and Co. desist from the agita
tion of abolitition. This i.i held up, with great jubi
lation, as a sign that a Treaty of Peace is to be per
petuated, and that, hereafter, everything is to be sini-
saiiio and good fellowship. All the extra patriotic
professions of Webster and others, are paraded in the
newspapers for the ' purpose of showing the boautios
rind practical operation of the Horious adjustment.
i ney attempt to tieiuiie the poop
e by presenting them
wu;i out one sine ot the picture, and studiously keep
them in ignorence of the number of instances where
l-ie jNort'i i'jsregarus its obligations, and the on 'v por-
xu.n oi ine-' compreiiMse -tine vr-n. i v Hive-TiSt
was to opcrato for the benefit of the South, condemned
and trr.inpled under toot.
We find in the columns of the Nashville papers, a
letter from a gentleman in East Tennessee, giving an
account of his unsuccessful attempt to recover fugi
tive slaves under the new law. It shows how faithful
ly the officers under the United States Government
discharge their duties, and how utterly hopeless it is
to expect that the people in the non-slaveholding
States will suffer this law to be executed. What
course will Mr. Fillmore now pursue towards the offi
cials of 3Iicbigan! Will he refer their case, like the
one from Boston, to Attorney General Crittenden, and
be content with a lnaniby-puinby opinion from him in
justification of their conduct ! We give the letter be
low : .
Nashville, Dec. 14th., 1S50.
Editors: Several years ago it was the bad
luck of my father, John P. Chester, to boose some ne-!
groes by their flight to the free States; by the merest1
accident he ascertained thou that they were in Wash
ington, near Rasin Post-office. S-"e years ago, he,
in connection with myself and another man, attempt
ed an arrest by force, but being overpowered and out
done, the slaves were recaptured and again set at lib
erty. A short time afterwards, I received a letter from
one Mrs. Howland, n arrant abolitionist of the Abby
Folsoin school, which contained tho following ex
tract: "R.asix, Dec. 21st., 1846.
Dear Sir: Yours of the 3rd. inst. I received yes
terday, in company with one from Ross Wilkins, Uni
ted States Judge, who resides in Detroit, both tin the
same subject, but of entirely different import."
So you see that this pink of kindness, this gem of
humanity, and this theoretical and practical abolition
ist and amalgamator, was in the habit of receiving
letters of the creed and tenor from Ross Wilkins,
United States Judge.
A few days after the passage of the Fugitive Slave
Bill, I started in pursuit of the same slaves; by great
exertion and expense I found them in Washtenaw
county, Michigan, ten miles from Ypsilante and 40
miles west of Detroit. I saw them, a friend who was
with me saw them, and fifty other circumstances cor
roborated the fact that they were there. I hastened to
Detroit to get my warrant applied to one Mr. Wat
ison, a commissioner he declined issuing the writ on
acccfunt of private engagements in an adjoining coun
ty cr town, stating to me that if he issued it that he
would lose thereby, pecuniarily, and in character, or
in other words, that he lived in a free State that pub
lic sentiment was against the law that it wouNJ in
jure him. He is a lawyer. He with a gentleman by
the name of George C. Bates, United States District
Attorney, advised me to apply to the United States
Judge; and in fact they urged it in such a way that I
saw no other course. I finally resolved to do so.
I went to a lawer by the name of Douglass, to em
ploy him to assist, me in making out the case. That
gentl eman had, as he informed me, political aspira
tions, and any connection with it would injure him.
I asked others, and all were afraid of public senti
mentnd declined. I then had to rely upon my own
capacity, and execute an affidavit myself I did sc
presented it, as I was urged, to the United States
Judge.. After considerable parley he issued my writ
in the presence of the clerk and deputy Marshall. I
handed it instantly to that worthy, who peremptorily
declined serving it. His honor told me to hunt up the
principal Marshall. I did so demanded immediate
service. He declined it said night exposure would
kill him bad no posse dangerous without one that
the free negroes and fugitive slaves would kill us ad
vised me to go to Ypsilante by the morning train, and
he and his posse would come by the evening one. I
did as I was advised got to my destination' by nine
o'clock, a. m. At two p. m., a telegraph dispatch
came to abolitionists and negroes that I was at Ypsi
lante after a number of negroes. They being well
organized, sent runnars in every direction; run the
slaves to Canada, by the. wav of Gibraltar, before the
Marshall could get there by the cars, or any other con
veyance he having to leave Detroit at 7 o'clook, p, m.
Thus you will seethe fallibility of th miiy
compromise ; the humbuggery of the Fugitive Slave
Bill; thoduphcity of the North; the rascahty of the
officials whose-duty it hf to execute, in good faith, this
The man, or rather the villain, from whom I et my :"e .rnmjr or evening proceed torny buisness
warrant, was Ross Wilkins, United States JutW, wl4aat 1 have first retired at least for a fi wmonunts
correspond with this practical amalgamationisl, 'sirs. fe- private pkee and implored God for his Hsstst
Howlaml, she beinjr tho .instrument who perrertetl u' anee-nd blessing. - ,
in 1846 from capturing them, and who harbored them
for years before that time, and within a short time of
this. No man knew where they were Hive Ross Wil
kins and the Marshall, nor did any one know my name
except them, for I was known by an.aa.mm'Ml one.
As a Southern man, I know my duty. I know the
feelings of the people N rth. I know that they will
not execute this law if it be possible to avoid it. No
reliance should be put in their protestations; no f-ith
must be had in their declarations. They would poison
rather than assist you; assassinate you rather than see
you succeed. Of the thousands of negroes who are
fugitives only four have been arrested. Hundreds are
there in search of their property, and one cut of the
whole number may succeed.
In conclusion, I would advise those who havj prop
erty there to capture it by force, rather than expose
themselves to the treachery of their officers or people.
31 jst respectfully,
TIIOS. R. CHESTER.
Jonesboro', East Tennessee.
Caurentioi cf the St.ite ;f 3Uiriiri.
An Act to provide for a Conwntion of the People of thz
Slate of Mississippi.
Whereas, The Legislature of the Congress of the
United States, controlled, as it was, at its last session,
by a dominant majority, regardless of the constitutional
rights of the slavehohling States and reflecting the
will of a section whose population are hostile in feel
ings and opposed in principle to a Jong established and
cher.shed institution ot the States of the South, af
fords alarminir evidence of a settled purpose on the
part of suid majority to destroy said institution and
subvert the sovereign power of this and other slave
holding States: and whereas it is becoming and prop
er that a sovereign State should promptly resort to the
most efficient means for the maintaiuance of it ssov
ereignty ami the preservation of its constitutional
rights, as a member of the confederacy w hen assailed,
by the exercise of the highest power recognised under
our Republican form of Government ; the expressed
will of tho sovert ignwople : Threfore.
Section 1. Jin it&mdcti by thi legislature of the
Siak of Mississi pi, "that an election for Delegates to
a Convention ot the People of the State of Missis
sippi, shall be held in the several counties thereof, on
the 1st Monday and day following in the month of
September, hi the year eighteen hundred and fifty-one,
that said election shall be held at all the precincts es
tablished by law, and shall be managed and conducted
by the sheriffs or other proper officers of the counties
respectively, in the same manner and according to the
same rules and regulations as are prescribed by law
for the election of members of the Legislature : And
it is hereby declared to be the duty of the Governor to
issue his proclamation to the several sheriffs of the
State, fctjfjgast ninety days before the time appointed
lor Jiofdyig said election requiring them to hold and
conduct the same according to law, and the said sher
iffs shall advertise the time and place of holding said
election for at least twenty days, by publishing the
same in the several newspapers of their respective
counties, and by posting notices at, at least four public
places in their counties.
Sec. 2. Ih- it further (nactrd, Tiiat each county
shall be represented in said convention by the same
number of delegates as such county has ol Represen
tatives in the House of "Representatives, including the
representation of any city or town in any county.
Sec. 3. lie it furth-r ntneted, That no person not
a citizen of the State of Mississippi, who shall not at
the time of said election have resided for twelve months
previous thereto in the county, ami shall not have at
tained the age of twenty-five years shall be eligible to
a seat in the Convention.
Sec. 4. Be it furtlw.r enacted, That it shall he the
t'uty of the sheriff or proper returning officer of each
and every county, within twenty days alter said elec
tion, to make complete returns to the Sec'ry of State
ot the votes cast lor delegates in h s countv, end the
tTTtfficate oF el
proper county or of the Secretary of State in favor of
any delegate, shall be evidence ot his right to a seat
in said Convention, subject, if contested, to decision
by s.id Convention in such manner as they may
Sec. 0. Be it further enacted, That the delegates
elected under the provisions of this act shall assemble
t the Capital of the State, on the 2d Monday of No
vember, A. D. eighteen hundred and fifty-one, and or
ganize themselves into a Convention by the election
of a President and such other officers as they may
deem nece.-sary, and . the appointment of a suitable
number of assistants, and shall proceed to consider the
then existing relations between the Government of
the United States and the Government and people of
the Mate ot Mississippi, to devise and carry into effect
the means of redress for the past and obtain certain
security tor the future, and to adopt such measures for
vindicating the sovreignty of the State, and the pro
tection of its institutions as shall appear to them to
be demanded. Said Convention shall adopt such rules
and regulations for its government and for the proper
transaction of business as they shall think proper.
The officers, members and assistants of said Conven
tion shall receive the same compensation as is now
allowed by law to the officers, members and assistants
of the Legislature, and the Auditor of Public Ac
counts shall issue his warrant on the Treasury therefor,
upon the certificate of the President, of the amount
due. ' .
Sec. 6. Be it further enacted, That in case cf any
vacancy occurring in said Convention by the death,
resignation or removal of any member, it shall be the
duty of the Governor to cause such vacancy to be fil
led by issuing his writ of election to the sheriff of the
proper country, requiring him, on ten days notice, to
hold an election according to law, to fill the same.
Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the acts of
the Convention proposed to be held by this act, be
fore they become binding on this State, shall be sub
mitted to the people at the ballot-box for their ap
proval, at such time, and such manner, as the Conven
tion may determine.
JOHN J. McRAE,
1 Sjva'er of the House of Representatives.
JOHN I. GUION,
President of the Senate.
: Adproved November 30th, 1S50.
JOHN A. QUITMAN.
'Cheap Postage. The bill for the reduction of the
rates of Postage is now under discussion in the House
of Representatives. Its provisions are as follows :
1. Postage on half ounce letters pre-paid three
cents; not pre-paid five cents.
2. Postage on each newspaper of no greater size
than nineteen hundred square inches, transmitted
through the mails from the office of publication to any
place out of the State where published, one cent ;
and for any newspaper delivered within the State
where published, one half cent ; and for every news
paper of larger dimensions than above specified, an
additional rate for each additional nineteen hundred
square inches, or fractions thereof. Pamphlets, period
icals, magazines, etc., two cents for each copy sent of
no greater weight than one ounce, and one cent in ad
dition for each additional ounce, or fraction of an
ounce, etc. .
3. The directors of the mints to be authorized and
required to coin pieces of the value of three cents, to
be composed of three parts silver and one part alloy,
which shall be a legal tender for all tlebts due to the
Government of the United States, and to individuals,
persons and corporations.
4. Provides that the Postmaster General shall pro
vide three cent stamps to the deputy postmasters.
5. Ons million five hundred thousand dollars appro
priated to supply any deficiency that may arise in the
Jenny Lind. It is said that the Swedish nightin
gale stumped her toe against a loose brick on one of
the pavements m rtnladeiphia not long since, and that
an editor who. was in her train, immediately picked up
the consecrated artick, and has been carrying it in
his hat ever since! He has been offered $750 for it,
but will not think of taking less than $1000.
Lavter used to ssy," "I will never, either in
Constitution of the Central Sjuthni ii-ht.s
Association cf 3Lss:isipi i. .
I. The object of the Association is to unite the
several County Associations, and to give concert end
effect to their action, in promoting the great purpose of
protecting .Southern Rights.
If. The Central Association shall consists of the
present members of the"Centrul Hinds County Associ
ation, and such other citizens of the State us shall,
upon application, .be elected members thereof: Pro
vided, that the Pres'thnt and Vice Presidents, and
Secretaries of the several county societies, shall lie
ex-rjjicio members of the Central Ass.ci ition ; and
when absent, m jy act therein by proxies, appointed in
III. The officers of the Central Association null
be a President, three Vice President-', two Recording
Secretaries, three Corresponding Secretaries, an Exec
utive Committee of six members, a Finance Com
mittee of three members, and a Treasurer, who shall
be ax officio, a member of the Finance Committee; nil
of whom, after the first election, shall be chosen for
six months, by a plurality of the votes of member
present, at the first regular meetings in J .nuary and
July, but vacancies may be filled, at any time, by the
IV. The several officers shall perform the duties
usually incident to their respective officers, and such
other duties as they may bt- charged with, by resolu
tions of the Association.
V. It shall be the duty of the Finance Committee
"ito solicit and collect voluntary contributions tor the
printing and circulation of documents, tc, and to pay
them over to the Treasurer.
VI. All accounts shall be audited by the Euecutiv.'
Committee, a warrant drawn upon the Treasurer lor
the amount ascertained to be due, which warrant shall
be signed by the President of the Association.
VII. The Executive Committee, undor the direc
tion of the Associat'on, shall select suitable documents
for publication and circulation, giving due considera
tion, in such selection, to the wishes of County Asso
ciations. VIII. All documents published by the Associations,
according to the number of their iiinnhers.
IX. The lists of members of the County Associa
tions, shall be recorded by the Recording Secretaries,
in a bock to be kept for that purpose.
X. Two regular meetings of this Association shall
be held in each month, at such time as may be deter
mined on by resolution ; and the presiding officer shall
have power to call a meeting of the Association, at his
pleasure, and shall be required to make such call, on
the request of a majority of the Executive Committee.
AI. An address shall be delivered at each regular
meeting, by such person as may be appo'iitod hy the
presiding officer, or have been selected by tho Associa
tion. XII. Every member shall sign these articles.
Presuhnt. John A. Quitman;
Vice Presidents. Jno. I. Guioh, W. J. Austin, Chas.
Recording Svn ' tarns. -II. II. Smyth. E. P. Russell.
Corresponding Sxrdaries. E. Baiksdale, A. Hutch
inson, C. S. Tarpley, T. J. Wharton.
Treasurer. Richerd Griffith.
Vinavcv Committee. D. N. Barrows, C. R. Dickson,
Kxtrutive Committee. G. R. Fall, J. C. Napier, C.
R. Clifton, Samuel Lemly, G. W. L Smith, J. E. Fitz
patrkk. As Automaton Seamstress. The New York Sun
says that Mr. Allen B. Wilson, of Pittsficld, Miss.,
has obtained a patent for 3 machine, by which sewing
of all descriptions is executed in a very rapid maiin'-r,
and in fineness and strength superior to hand work.
The simplicity of the mechanism, its diiiiinutivcness,
and the amount of work which it accomplishes, are
tie space that it cr.n be put inside of .a man's hat, and
by the turning ot a small crank, the instrument will
sew ten times faster than any seamstress!
The invention can be used for any kind of sewing,
fine or coarse, and for embroider'. Every part of a
man's dress coat, vest and pantaloons button holes
excepted can be made by this machine, also ladies
dresses, shirt bosoms, caps, collars, &c. In fact, there
is scarce a single branch of needle work to which this
instrument cannot be applied) sewing ten times faster,
finer and stronger than by hand.
This is a new invention, and not any of the old
plans ft,r mechanical sewing.
"Sir," said a member from Assumption district
in the Louisana legislature "I am lu re, the proud
reprcsentive of my constituents; I am here from the
parish of Assnmption, s;nd while I sthiid upon tLis
floor, I and Assumption are of a piece."
"Yes," said & member opposite, "and you a Ti
the d desk piece of Assumption that was vi r
"lie that is born to be a man," Fays Wit-land,
in his 'Pi regrinus Protus,' nt illu r should nor can
be anything nobler, greater, or better than a man.
The fact is, that in efforts to soar above our nature
we invariably fall below it. Your reformist demi
gods are merely devils turned inside out. Poc.
United States Statistics. Value of woolens,
cotton, hemp and hempen goods, iron and manufac
tures, sugar, salt and coal, imported durinj 1850,
$il,S35,321 ; duties $16.9S0,6i. In 1S40, the value
of such imports was 43,200,7oO ; duties S13,1('2,751.
Value of imports Tor 1850, 108,13(5,318; exports
151,898,720. Domestic produce exported, exclusive
of specie, 134,000,232. Foreign merchandise expor
ted, exclusive of specie, 3,475,483. .
Average annual expenditure of the government
from 1828 to 1841, exclusive of the collection of the
revenue, payments on account of the public debt, and
trust funds, 25,4(15,570 73. From 1: 12 to 1S45,
Madeira win-j imported in 1350, 203,125 gallons ;
in 1849, 193,971 gallons. In no previom year since
1843 did the quan;ity exceed 117,000 gallons, and in
1844 it was only lb',00 gallons. In 1843 the average
cost was 2 29 per gallon; in 1850 it was less than
0 cents. Sherry wine imported in 1850, 212,092
gallons; in 1848, 215,935; and in no previous year
since ,1843 did it exceed 77,000 gallons. The cost in
1813 was 1 33 per gallon ; in 1350 it was 5(i cents.
LINES ON THE DEATH OF AN INFANT,
intent and jmre, a pernio dew-drop foil.
With gnthoriny; moisture i:i a tragmnt dell ;
Tho Howvr, mo t g.aie id lor th-j lli s iiiir given,
Vnds o I'rouf iiu;v:ise towtir.l lhe spnnglcJ brawn,
liut morning cimi -s the mhiV brialit rays dt-gcend,
And hues -ma'ic with the dew drop bhmd ;
In b t mty ilower, globe, sunlight, ah combine
To pi i at Ik-holders to a power tiiviu?.
1'ut exhal.-itijn rise; the chrystal hooti
Has ui.cleil earth, and di appeared e:- noon.
Thus a sweet babe, ia health nd beauty tlrc?scd,
iTtine n rich fcn.uri! tu atlNc'ijn's breast;
parents, grateful far the i iuiio; tal boon,
Sent prayers and prni s tu " Our Farther's ' throne ;
A winero ot ianucriici? the Mrsi:ii crowned,
. Ana hope's bright halo 'i!ds the circle round. .
But while fri tide watch the trea-ure and rejoi'.
An angt-1 wlii pers, in a ptiq Rimll voi x
'-Come bith-r, child, ia 1 ve thou first wast givin,
Uuchanging love now calls thte home to he rvon.''
Now hoed my words, my prei i us girl !
Affection i the lichest poarl,
iNor li'jhtiy should bo thrown away
On them who cannot love repay :
Beware to whom th' u-ha!t i npart
That priceless jewel of the heart !
Care not alene fr lorm or facs
Or warning words, or witching gnics:
But ehooso the u one who e h liored na:no
Thou canst be proud to share and claiai ;
Let it be one of cultured niirad.
Of g -ncrous thoughts and toeing kind,
Who ncv,.T Pi ught, nor e'er would vk
To wrrna th haljiless or tho weak,
lait t-ver w )u'd enu Joy Li best . -1
Tffchu!d the fri -nd less mid opprrt;
Who proud y treads temptatijn down
Ifr f 1 ika nt fortune' darkest frown
Vho?e eoual foul and it ind Fodfttc,
Can stand unmoved each chingo " file ;
. Whose faith is firm, whose htm r blight,
Whse love is an immortal iht ! . ;
Such were th- love, and nw-h a'one, i
Tin l r:oi In" w- rtliv f ihv ia :.
(T It wi'd be perceived that Washisgtc Hrxr,'
the Governor of New York, claimed by. the nubnii-
iMon party as tieciueuiy inenuiy 10 uie ssoiuu bbuuu
Fugitive Slave law, relic upon "tin; sjiu tjt pr
priety" of the Southern people fr a. modification of
that law. In other worJs, 31.'. Ih'ir.t relic upon the
right of the negro slave to a trial by jury in the Stte-,
where ho is arrested. Of courts the jtubinissioni 1
will defend M. Hunt and h"n ines aje, an extract froia
which we ;ve below:
" It cannot be denied, that the rcc'jt att of Con
gress for giving fuller effect to the provision requiring
til j return of fugitive si ives, hisexcird di.atifm -tL;i
in inai:y port! .-ns of the country, carrying tin 111
aim 1st to the extreme of threatening res'st.iiu e 1 1 the
I iw. Hut all g')d citiz ns will rccidlert th it li iteri-r
may be thi ir individual feelings or opinions in regard
I I th ? p lit y or propriety of any legislative enact
ment, it is th.-ir pmin duty, s i huig u it rein tin in
fort e, to su-t iin th-; authorities legitinvit ly charged
with its execution. Apprt hensi ins hav- ! en enter
tained that, uii ler the hastily considered provisions nf
the ai t, passed !u'iiig a period of unusual agitation,
pers his of col r claniing to be free, ami really fre-,
a.e not allowed those reasonable opportunities, and
th ise customary legal safeguards, ncessnry to ouabb;
them U iabii.-h by adequate proof th" fact of th-ir
freedom. A recent case has sh iwn this belief Ut bo
n t mere' pci ulative, and that the danger th it a
freeman, under the summary mode in which that law
cair be executed, may be hurried into captivity, is n t
wholly imaginary. We cannoj. and we do not believe
that the South, any more than the X rth, a!in at, or
desires such a result or will insist 0:1 retiming nr -
. . ... . 1 ... XV .
o - o . .
shall rely 11 t t.tily 011 th ir sense of propriety and re
ciprocal justice, but th ircahn conviction that the v
itself, ti be permanent must be reasonable, for th'-ir
uniting, after due reflection, with their brethren of the
XortlCin a kind and dispassionate spirit, in reviewing
.11 h clauses a may be found defective or objectionable,
a"d in .msenting to such judicious modifications a.1
may command g n -ral approval. In ths meantime,
our people must be left free to examine its provisions
and practical operation. Their vital and fundamental
right to discuss the merits of this or any other law
passed by their representatives, constitutes the very
basis of our republican system, and can never be sur
rendered. Any attempt to restrain it would prove far
more dangerous than its freest cxercis?. But ia all
such discussions we should divest ourselves of sec
tional or partizan prejudice, ami exercise a spirit of
comprehensive patriotism, respecting alike the right
oft-very portion of our common country."
03"" The following paragraph containing some inter
esting statistical in.'onnation in regard to Mobile, wo
ti::d go-ngthe rounds of thd pap.-rs:
' At Mobile, Ala. there are very extensive facilities
visions a( hit n siu 1 pxpiiiiiit roiisetmem-es.
f ,r sp ring and pressing cotton. There are forty-two
fire proof brick ware-houses, with a s .orage capacity of
210,000 hal.sof cotton, whMi is nearly half the esti
mated cm unt to be received a that point from the
pr; sent crop. They cover more than forty acres of
ground. There ore a'so at the same place twt-lv? cot
ton presses capable of compress'nir daily 7000 bales
averaging the season at six month' and they would
compress over a million of bales in a season. The
wharves in front of the city are in number forty-vigb,
s nie capable of receiving as mnny'as 4.000 bales ; and
it is estimated that 42.000 could be landed at once on
the forty-eight wharves. "
The correspondent of the Philadelphia ledger siv
that the Washington Union h is but a few week to live.
How it discovered tle fjet is not st-ited. That same
correspondent is not the wisest maker of letters in th i
f ItrwouTiTbe welftof tTie country if Tie said corres-"
pondent proves correct in his prophecies.
(("J" The Arkansas State Senate has parsed a joint
resolution, by a vote of 21 to 1, approving' the course
of the delegation in Congress from that State in oppos
ing th? compromise measures. ,
A Goon CrsToiunR. England, during the last fiv
years purchased of the Southern States two hundred
and one millions, eignt hundred and three thousand,
five hundred and ninety-two dollars worth of cotton !
Of the Northern States, England purchased only
19,041 worth of manufactured cotton. In five year
France purchased of the Southern States 3G,00,000
worth of cottjn, and of the Northern States a frac
tion over 3,000 worth of the cotton fabric.
Many arc of opinion, Fays the Baltimore Argus, h-.t
the most certain way to eradicate this disease of Nor
thern fanaticism, and to destroy the beast calhd alx
litionism, is for Congress to repeal that law whic't
mt-k'.s the slave trade with Africa piracy. When tho
Xortheners can again enjoy the privilege of stealing
negroes from Africa, and selling them in the Southern
States, it is thought that they will then become the
strongest advocates both of slavery and the fugitive
slave law! They are such devot-'d philanthropists
that they think it highly wrong to permit the poor ne
groes to lie born, to live, and to die, in their native
land, without any knowledge of their Creator and hi".
Holy laws, and therefore, desire to steal them away
and sell them in civilized lands, where they inav enjoy
the benefits of civilization and Christianity. There is
no doubt that the restoration ti them of this privilc,
will effectually relieve them of their abolition notions,
and induce thoin to enforce the previsions of the fugi
t:v : slave law.
Confidence rm y not be rt ciprocfl, but kir.ili m-
Merit is mostly discovered by r.ccidt nt, rnd re
warded by destii y. "
There is but one n-hool for piefrv the Uni
verse; only one schoolmtstrvss Xsiure. Ilrd
words have never taught wisdom, i;or dot s truth
require them. . U
Wlu n-ood will goes padding, he must not tie'
surprised if ill will somtinus nues him on his way.
Whi n a man is unhappy. people hre ready to find
him faulty, h-st they j-hould be forced -o pl:y him
The world is only rigid for pet'y and common
ir.im.-., n Hill- nu'lcivi: il?um.-I,l II ; n S!ll UU1.1
misfortune ilisxims i It is pn.pt r to have the eon- -seiousmss
of having done well, it is the height of,
vanity to wish to be informed of it. '" "
There are two classes of people that cj-n fff old
to be modest; those who possess h vast nr.ount of
knowledge, End thoe who have but little.
The eomprion of love to fire, holds tcood in one
respect, 'tht the fiercer tt burns the sooner it is i x
unguishid. In life's doings thi ir are circuitous paths;and i.ine '
times out of ti n. w ht n a man su ms to be doiie-ouo
thing, he is doing r no' hi r. ...
T lie vain abhor the vain; but the gentle and unns-
with the hitter, the want of it wi:h the foin'er.
. T1I11 Ml M Ik rl w YYl IlIOv tl I'lJnt.liU'.tiMMii . ,1
iv V x Mil (1 j i 1V1VF Hjl , I'll fU"
m.retlie tx-F.u y you sum y; rnd, whilst ndmiiiny;,
the author's hand movis.'md fresh Ih-ku'iYs iim.
,'Advice," says Coleridge, "is .like sr.ow he.
sofu r it falls the long r it "dwells ujk n, t.nl tlV
deipir it sinks into" the mind."
If you would be pung nt, be . brit f fur hi
wi h words as with sunbi-Rms, the more th y -rc
condensed the diepir thiy burn.
Burden's dap, at T"ov. New Vo k, has broke awav,
carnpef off the covered bridge, and causing the fami
lies in the n Mghborhood -to fly for their live, A boy
faking refuge in A uirnlca -jm drowned.
The amcunt of Treasury notes outstanding
1st. September was $-3.1,379. 1
fulh ov rt-omt s I Jm i ihhI, p.tu
live befure oerft cV frankness.
' ' i
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