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mult Hftw w
A. H. BUCKNER, Editor ad Proprietor.
G. B. PRICE, Publish.
"POWER IS KTKR STSAMXfJ 'R'i5I THE HAST TO THE FEW.
VOL.8 NUMBER 18.
BOWLING-GREEN, MO. SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 13, 1841.
WHOLE NUMBER 382.
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PIMSPECTIVB PUB-i:.MPr!! Sill.!,
DCBATKP; TIIESEVATE. C titim,-.!.
Tt-Ks-itT, J .nuary 12. 1841.
The bi 1 to establish a permanent prospec
tive pre-eni;itin system, in ftvor of settlers
on the publi-- lands. who shall inhabit and
thereon. beimMhe special order of the jaylstiwIlMt degree to diminish the patronage of
was taken up. the question being on the pro
position by Mr. Chittf-Nuks to recommit the
bill, with instructions to report a bill to dis
tribute the proceeds of the sales of the public
lands amoni; the States which Mr. Calhoun
ff. raA (s, nnimul IV .lllt it lit in CT !t llill In
,.i; i ..i:,.. ,:.ipin wl.ieW
. ,- 1 . - i:,:..
mcv i.e. iiioii rru tin ii.ii.i..ii..
A . . Mnov . i. j
,ir. v.ii.iiuu w-.i.i. ..... ....
.: r.i.- ..i.t:-i ..i.. n...i.,.i, .i..r
lion oi in e liii.uni i.ni'i.-., -..
currency, the most damjerous and dilTi:ult
of all which demand the attention of the
country and the Governmental this impor
" Tr? h x Vr enee I Unt a measrre
can a-Minlm adopted, which h.s done more
cao a.oi. . . u , , .i,!,-
tant juncture of our .-.hairs. I do not except
Incorrupt the morals ot the country, public
and private, :o disorder its i-nrrency. de
range its business, an I t- weaken and en
danger its free institutions than anv other,
except the paper stein, with uhich it iss.
..li;J ' I
ll.llllli.ir.v ,i..it-ia. . . i . . , I.
InofTerinuMhe amend nent I propose. I d..."' l"-;'"n .!.' ...! ran! I have
n..l intend t.. controve.t the iustice ..f the l"-" " """" 'he mo del.i.er:,te and
, . i .i . .i..., .i '
euiiisi.u.n WHICH II l" oei, - in. n i m i
Vlllifu.u.ii ..i...i -
. . ., . i-.l.i
on our land system, in the -oure .1 this ii,s.
cussion. un me co. ...... . ..r,..-, ...... ..
r . i . f ....,.... ,t
was ad.n.rablv ad u, ed ' nf. J1 r " JV' ; ,ed. The disease lies in ownership and ad-
when first adopted, hut i ,ui . he ,"'e ":,,,;;.,,;,, nuMn,, ,,,orl p .ni,,,,
rnind that a measure, to be perrec . must J e j the,,,, and
adaoted to circumstances, and tint "re.t i ... . . ... , .,
, 1 , " , ",' ' . fi1( i.ir. . "r fif i
chansres have taken plane, in the laps ol n - ,
ty years,s.nce tl.e auopi.-.n ... our an,,
te.n. Atthal time.the art re ton
covered by the new Stales, which have
"rown ti on the public domain, lielon
loretn iMiwers. or was occtinicu -v ninrr-
ous Indian tribes with the exception ol a few
spare s'Mtletiierits. on th- i-f. -nsiderible
tracts to which th ti.ie of the I.i'li .ns was
at that time eitin-juished. Since then, a mi.di
tv charge has taken place. Nine States have
.-. ... .... .i if livr irin.rie. U'illl :. It. IMI.1 .. t U ,,.
r . ' . . ... c-.i r ..i.i
n..i ,oc r.riin lit. v. ii.:. I. iwu- .1 n ...f- ..
States, and de. lined to surpass tl,e,n in a few
ve o in i, ruber, jioiver. and iulhi-nce.
Taa a c'l . stiif'i'V shou'.l deran"
a v !. iat.vi " an entirely deferent
C'ii,.li'..n i? t'ct, -is to render i,n,nirtant
chari'jps neces.n a I .pi i present rir-
r. isunces, is 0
h'-'i ni'ieip ii'1 1,
been :t i.ii'aeb-
. i, l,...
ml r' t
we .iuii;t ii.-t, ::,-i.-' .
til- .:"fati..r, .!.
d .t! evidittic." 'a . 1 11
tiui ace;itv dernjed.
torn' ts f..'..Ad I'V a
( -.; ... ; ..
; rjit i i,. C- i..; -,i..-
aw. . ! t-v 1' - " at ;!c. ii-
en disaster. 0 n!es : n-,;et .md etfuTi' ii
iti'dv s!toti!d be apolted. I would -s; il,..se
aI... ih. nk .li r-n-riilv. and who Mieve .be
VsteM. St. I r.oliillliieo .0 worn we,., w -1 ..
" . r
... .- 1 . . 1. ,. :.
no evil, that ses-lon alter session. I'-r llie
. . r. , 11 1
lst ten or twelve yt-ars Conuress should he
last ten or iwr,r y . r
engaged in angrv and deeply agita .ng d.s-
cussionsgrowins ou, of the public lands m
... ' . . . ... . .
winch one side snouiu oe nenouncea as me
friends, and the other as the enemies, of the
new States! Was the increasing
vear and '
..J. 1 ' . " r!
of this agitation, from year to
threatening ulti.natelv, not only the loss of
tnreatemng uiii'o.i":., 't ivsa
. .. 1 . -.
the public doma.n out me iranqu.my ana
peace of the country, no evil! Is it well
that one-third of the time of Congress is con
sumed in legislating on subjects directly or
indirectly connected with the public lands.
povernmeni suouia own nan me niui.us
. r , W9
wuhin the limits ol 1 rune members 01 this un-
ion, and over which they can exercise no
mta va v " j
iitrtArWit nr intmlf 1 if nothing that tht
domain of so many State, shouldbe under
the exclusive legislation and guardianship of
this Government, contrary to the genius or
the Constitution, which, intending to leave
to each State the regulation of its local and
peculiar concerns, delegated to the Union
those only in which all had a common in
terest. If to all these be added tbs vast a-
mount of patronage exercised by this Govern-, amendment 1 intend to ofler to the amend
ment through the medium of the Dublie lands, ment of the Senator from Kentucky, f Mr.
over the new States, and through'them, over Critteni'En as containing tl.e general out
the whole Union, and the pernicious influ-. lines of the conditions and provisions on
ence thereby brought to bear on all other which the lands may be disposed of to the
subjects of legislation, can it be denied that
n;iny and great evils result irom the sstem
asit now operates, which cull aloud for some
speedy and efficient remedy!
Hut whv ah.mhl I liwiL- l,vnl il.o ...oc.
lion before us to prove, by the confession of
idl. that therp rn ior A.,Ar :n ii.o
. . J' U 1.1 I I I V
system! There are now three measures be-
lore the Senate each proposin-' important
changes, and the one. or the other, receiving
the support of every member of the body ;
fvt-ii oi inose wno ct y out against manges.
It is too late, then, to' deny the disordered
s'.a-e of the svstem. The disease is :i.ln,it
led :iu, the only question is, wh:ii remedy
h II he implied,
I 'jrrt ImtM ! t':;e iiil!, :,d lie- amend
in lit '..;.e.l t. ti.e Senator I. on. Ken uckv
Mr. Cmtkn i:n hecause, regarded as the joint consultation and counsel. Witt, a.l'miu of .-.i.trot.-rsy- ill the States aJ. j as t .ai io wmcu uic ina.aa iit.ew now cxwu
le in'di .1 in i-iires. il.ev are both iiiMpi.ro- these remarks, it will not be necessary for I here faithlnil v to the terms of the cexri.in! gwshed.
ri .ie and inadciuate". Neither pre-e.np- mt, at this Mage, to give more tl.ar; a . iier-i (V. the cntra. y. will they i .l .te a . oni- . I't numbers can give but a very imper-tion.nor.!i-tlih.,i...nol
the revenue, receiv- a! Minmaiy ol the provisi.ms of tl.e pr.-.os. d 1 s..!. . in' v riit."r..l int....;,, ..? and liher- t;-t conception of the vast extent of the re
ed from the public lar,d, can have anv p..s amendment. ;1 ,, !:.:.,.!.. ..,. II v In-n.-fi.-ial u. boM,. and j h. h the Indian title is extinguished,
si .le eir.-ct in crreclin..' the disordered ac- Its object is V, instruct the co-n ni:tee s uhich w:.l plai-r the,,.: s to .In ir domain, on " ,f. w,,,ch Sverni..ent is the sole and
..i- .1.- i , i... i tin. i.i'l. -iv ... .i. ........ .... ii .i, . . . I. I .i :.. i !.....,...,.,.... i.i. i, ,, : exclusive proprietor, lo torm a correct
..in im 9,3ici.i. t iiui i.ic in. r i. oi:,
would one or the other contribute in tl.e
the Government, or the time consu.neJ on
: .r., .. i .
lUl'.ll lU.IU. ill
isions,or with -
nmcnt over so
he new States,
shorten the duration of the ses
draw the action of the Government
lanje a part of the domain of t!
an.l place them and their representatives
here, on the same independent l.M.ting with
the old Slates anil their repieseutatives. or
arrest the ani'rv and auit.itini' discussions
which year alter yc.ir detract our conn
, ; , . .
cilsand thre liens", much mischief to the.lhc I'mted States, C3 percent. ..I the -.'r,..s
country! Farotherwise would he the el- proceeds ..I tie, s ,!es .. tl.e l., s ti:,t the
feet. It would but increase the evil, by
brin'in into more decided conllict.the in-'
terest ol the new and old States. Ol all the
,Ils tl,:U cn,,'d tl.e former would
the dist.il.utio,. as thegrea.est. while
the litter would look ollthe preemption
system, proposed bv the bill
is little shott
of an open system of plunder, if we may
judge from the declarations which we have
he ird in the cmnse of the debate.
As. then, neither can correct the disease.
c-.reliil ex in.n.atton, and Have come to
coiiehision thai Iheie is. and can l,e, no leme-
.... i i
'dv short of ces.ii.n cession to ihe States
vou will at once take awav one-third ol the
s,1( ,;.tpn :.s ses :ns :
:-jle same "rwn w ill. a crrespondi-.g
j f lop olla large and most
r r I ' I -
fl.iPli tai ,,'l,lrr,l,,s po. ll.ill u. ll.c i.h..f.i.it ,f. mi
-u if . .1 I
- t uuvci 11 me, 11 , a, 1 ri ii.cu i.ui v ......
1 im: discussions, w hich do so much to alien-
ate the mmd feelintrs (if the dillerent portions
..I the (n...n. and disturb tl.e general curse
ol le.MxIation. and endanger ultimate! v ll.e
loss of ihc public domain. Retain them.aii.r
aptilv what pa
tatives vou may
ill-sufficient and only remedy
Thus far would seem clear. I do not see
how it is possible for any one to doubt that
i,.s-i..n woU, reach the evil, and that ,t ,s
the only remedy that would. II. then, there
should iie any objection, it can only be to
ihe terms. .r "c.oridili -ns of the cession. If
tb.-se can besoadju-ted as to 'jive assurance!
bat the lands shall lie as faidiluily managed
... . . .. I :
. v t f 7l ites as nv 1111s v.o ei uni.-.n, ..ii..
be interests involved snail he as
tetter scored than iili.lertneex.s' -
v. X t
... :.l that c.u'.d be desired would
..I. .,1 II i.itttoiis rem .veil
s t :m ii.etit ol this fieat.
d 'i.'i'i.i' s q-ies'loli
;.i ni jecti-.t.-, I h .Id 1 bat li e right of di-po.s-ii.
r.d' it.eu. as or.....se.l, especially when de-
- .. r. ..,
... n.i..l !. I... -I. c.nside rat ions I policy, and
. . - i
when t can be done without pecuniary loss
IM:" " 1 ,r"v""' 1 j.
to the Government, as I shall btrealter show,
t V T Constitution
. linlimlted riL,,lt flf
fii.y ""r1-... . ,.f ..
. jAmnin ,, f nu,rs.
posing ol the pi
wiihout any otl
' nature of that t
P" -"S -
w iiuvut any
nature of that trust and terms of cession may
imnose. neither of which forbid their cession
1 n kn ..infinpr nronosea
mUscan beso adjusted, I
cannot doubt. I have carefully examined
' the whole pround. and can perceive no dil
'fieultvtlat cannot be surmounted. I feel
I n rw I ri.H IhP SI Olll iCa tlOU
k " "u ' ortin cf tl.e public domain
J 10 s,ate That done, the in-
hi ... ....
telli.ence and JJ
.no loss to det'"'s
id wisdom ol Ihe Douy win ne at
in such manner
' "7 ' .11 a ..,.r intPrfst. and
as Will elieciuai.v nu.oy v;y ""' -
eeure its steady and laithlui managemciu. market (muclt,moie man wrmj j .. ......
1 .V mpnntime I have adopted the pro- has been picked and culled, over and over
WK,U LI ftwice reiuedon favorably by irVg, at the present price, even .luring the
ZcmSlu PuSfc Lands, asX tejgat expansion of currency, and consequent
Slate with safety and advantage to the in -
terest ot the Government and the Union,
and great benefit to those States. The de
i tails may, no doubt, be greatly improved;
for which 1 rely on the intelli.'enrp
t of the!
body, and citital examination' of the com -
nut tec. should the .-lanoirrhnen t he n.h.nto.l
and referred. At the present stride. I re -
fcd nothing but the great piinciples on
which it rests, and ils outlines. to be at issue ;
and 1 do hope, that all who may concur with
".- ' ""'' )- -... jj. e
theirsupport, whateter imperfection they
m: suppose to exist in modifications. A
tne-isiue relating to a question so vast and
complicated, can be pr-rleclcd in its details.
however sound the principles on which it
.. . i . i -
re sis, or com .i u gem rn ouuirie. mil v iv
... .. ,il( 1,1. i-h..-
lie lands, lyin-in the States of AUh .,.
J;' "'";'. Arkansas
Illinois. Anch.g.u.tl ,m. an i Indian ., w ill,
' .1... ..,......;.......;......., ...... !
v.. j... ....... j ..i 1 1 i i3 li-i . i .in..
' dock yards, aiscnals, marines, an T oth-r
public building; th r cessi.,:, not to lak
place till alter tint 30tli June. IS!2. and tl.-u
only on the Stales i-rpecri-.-.-iv aier-iui t
tl.e con,ti...,s p:vs
tided i. iii!!
Mi tt is, to p .s acts ;: ;evoi-a-.:i'
to adhere to
, . .
those lit i n. It..
.. I t.a . ..i-..l. f it,
. winch is to p.v ai.n.t.ilv a'dav livel. to
'and law s. as they ihv; .-t .:..!
ed to be u, 1 l-v t!,- amen b.ie..t. s!:a!l
remain iiii!i.n-e.l. cx'-ej.t .i:i, the cm.s. :it
f Con.Mes. tiut the c,-,..,: be ,:, f,!l
the 5 p.-rcnt. :.,:;d .S.er.Ur l- :. - - ... -
to those Mil.-; they .-ii.ll be . ,-.,i-ive-
'y li.thh lor the c.t .! vcys, sales, i Mine-
Hon ol Indian ti! es. and iii iiML'c nent gener
ally; that the Stales may, within c.-r'.ain
preset ih. .1 limits, gradually ie.i;:cc the pi.ee
id the lauds that may remain unsold alter hav
ing been i.;:"en-.I !.rsilct. .i ca.s or up
wards; may grant, a ii.,.i;r,l p.-riod, tile
rijht of pii-riiip'i.-ii .r i.im-ty days to the
actual settler.s.at eaeli step la the ic.Iucti'.n
I p'i:;an,l I".ua!!y. tii.t if l!:e conditions of;
...;..,. I... ,,..!....... I,v .. St.r..i :.,.v
lar. al' t,tles..r .,..ns to iand t!., ,e.,:t r s,!.l
by th-State l he imil and o; I - il a giv -
ing the measure the force and solemnity of a
.j..- , ,. ,
compact, and placin- the w hole under the
protection of the courts, which would pro-
nounce the titles to ! void, if made afu-r an
infraction ..f the conditions . the cession.
! II n II.1L III, ...M-..l.'.l .. .l.l.i .11. ... v.-
.r ..' .1
; 111 ,,1 .11 uiim: , - o i"u . uiimunin 1 uinj
time. On a question ol relen nce. wheie the
iirincinle only is at issue, it is 11.1t necessary,
It is sufficient to say tuat the leadm- object
,4 to make as little ciiange 111 the laud syst
as it now exist-, as is consistent with the..!,
. . , . . .
1 will enforce the I iiiiittil p. rlormance ol tne
terms of cession 0:1 the pai I l the States,
; w ith the lea-t co.npensaiion for their expense
. and trouble, and loss to the Covernment. in
; a pecuniary point of v.-w, cnsi-.cnt w it!,
the arrangement. It it can In? mad.- to .-
pear that there are reasonable grounds to
i believe that the States will faithfully comi.lv
with these conditions and that there i!l be
no pecuniary loss lo the t internment, com
. i..:.i "i. :. 1..
. . areu win. ne vinn us 11 nnxr m.iiiu. .
r.,nse ,uence ot the proposed d.sposttton. it
j vtonl.te Iilliniit to conceive w nat mi.h
. sta lit tal obiecti.ilt thei C can be to the meas
-mi 'bus broii'Mit to the great. I might sn,
tl e in. v ouestion admltttn a dotiM as to tlie
etnedieiicv ol the measure. ill rite States
.ii..,.. ... r ..r ,, . .. it
.ii.i.ir.i ... .... .. ." ' - - j
did'erentlv. would their be danger that lite
.vernment would lose the land, in . onsc -
,,,,enceof the States refusing ,0 comply w ith
the cond lions of the cession!
will the pecunia.y loss ,.. tl.e Internment be
such as to make it mrTpedient.evet. .1 there
bi full assurance that the terms ol c.staoii
will not be violated!
TJ..r., . . .. .t;. ..sv-;..i ..f these
JCIIIIC A I III! I '.. ..
impo.-tant points, it will be proper to make
a few remarks .11 the extent "I the interest
.1.0, .......1.1 1 I i. the essi,;n.
T'tvM" Ivinsin the
new Slates, and embraced in the amendment,
. .. ... .... . .. ,1...
,o.ri .,.,' ir-nonooriOof acres. It has
been rehired sb.ee by sale-, the exact qnan-,to pies.nt a biiel sketch of my views in n
tity not known; but "it will not mate, i.dl y I le: ence to both.
vary the amount.
1 in- 1......... ...... - -
. I...I..... ni e 11:1s iieen
extin-uished to nearly the whole, and about
three-fourths has been surveyed and platted,
r .. ,i.:i. t ,..nrt hn been onuin thelnarativelv short time in wliicli it lias ueei. 111
,""" - ' b - I'" '
rise in price, and specluation in public lands,
in 1335,'3G, and '37. If compared in quan
tity to ti e remainder of the public domain, it
will be fund to be not equal to one-sixth
part of the whole. In this repect, it is a far
! more limited measure than that proposed by
the Senator from Kentucky, to which mine
is an amendment. That embraces not only
i the proceeds of the whole put !ic domain, ex-
reeding 1 .000,0 W.OOU, acres, out rnc;.iue3,
in addition, the large sums drawn from the
i duties on imposts, which are annually cx-
I I . -
j pended on its s...es and managptnent, ''
: which he proposes permanently to distrih-
ute- It is also P,..re Parted in us application
than the original bi!!. which err.brarrs all the
lands t which the Imlit? trie is extinguished.
1 as ve! Terr tori-1,.; ..' .'e-', which grc
exceeds the quantity lying in me laiier.
flavin.' now shown the objec t and nV
character with the scope . f this measure, I
shall next proceed to the .jrcat. and I lnst
! ' . , -i .
i S". v. in mv opinion, the oniv iniestion mat
i mr rut- . " " " - ........ ....
I ,.t!,..r S-a.es ,:..! !
wo:.!. ak. alt!..- . t,..e, l, rhe-e tn.v:' " ron.pa.eu t H..uono, i,.r v.nn,
' tl.in. iu -ir !.,.;.-v t t.:v s-i ,.f
. .- . . i f i ii . ..... ....... ;..
, :. v ... i . -i i. I 1 1 .i . i . . .i.i, ...
i I.,.,' of vi..iati- tr..e.-. If.. V.-iut
(!I;t a sia -'e mst-m e? !,.te,.l i.f goin
I ..,..,...,1 fexcif. its,.i.-ion. I n j- ice t.. say
, their l.is..rv a:I"ds msnv and t: i!:t, exam
i i. ,-s ot e id and laill-.h.l i pllalice witl
j their i n c"v.,ei,ts. Tliey all have stand, i:
..ill. 1 1... I .....rt.tnnl.1 .nlie.l in.
I ,' , .,' t!;-!,-a.his-iot. into the Tnion, whidr
i.li;.,.s.. ........r.ant limitations ..n what other -
is.. wo .M I- tJ.eir ....questi.-. ri-I.t .,s
;.. ' , rs ..lie I i.ion: all.
,:,,. n' others, t! e iiiii-oitant . 'ie. pot t:ly
! ,,! r,..t t:.h' tl.e v -t j-..; umi 1" their .1.
1 ,1.1 by the Tnicl States . it!,... .heir
. I,.iis. In. a".... .,r the ,.,..! .1 hve y.-.,s
: .;;,.r sa'c i;.- p-r ;:..n I. .! '. or !:
it ;..!. this I ill the h'liL' i
liod wi ii iihas c! i; .- I f. . m !!. :..i:i.i-si i i f
ti,e oldest of liiere Sf:tes. ti.eie ;,- s i..t bee:i
a sinuh- ins' i.ee ,.f a i..l.i i-.a ..n their part
.I' ti.. i;- i.'i.-l ted i;h. W i.'-
ii : z- ii!. wir!i
objected tl.it the
I !:!'. ted fait!. to:i
t:t il'. ' '.s t" them.
Stat -s will i
rati i. i
! :!e th.
contract ev. rv
as well as the res the I'lii'ti?
.... I . .1 .. - .1 ..! .t.? I he ones
,i.. i,., what p,opri.-.y . .... e..hjec. ..
. t),,. want ! t .ii .he i-.rt of the State-
,..,!,. ,; et,.-:.- ent! What is ...;r Cnsti
. , . i vf.,,d
, .,....:, l.,.t a cottq.-.c!
and bow .1. h-'d
be'ween 'be States
::ts here but in virtue
,.f that compct? Andis'.tfor its to turn
! ronn.l and question the l:,i:h..n which our
. u. ,.. ,hr..,.-i, which we have
1 ...lit...,! ...',. m.,...- :in. I this. ton. when It
- 'ui " t
1 1 notorious that the Mate 1 .. ernmt nts ua e (
i adhered w i'h I ,r more liilelil v li.an mis to
j the constitutional coaq.a, I ? Many and great
t ...i.,ti..us are 1 no--, ...... - ;
jus. wl,ia lew, very lew, can Dejns.iy a.tr.uu -
l r..ir. :;.i....n.i.g it.e.e .mum. - w .
osm r the an. s. siont.l tuey ne u.s ose,i .i
as pr..po;:e.l, fr.oi the want ol good l iith on
.he part .1 the Suvs .1 dd.y assert that
.he dang, r o their U-my lost . fir tcr,
llllit"l-ll"st"lll I III PII"iUI lllll". .'HFif r
. . 1 . 1 ,1 ... n,t..r eircim -
be ci, united, an.l that, too, on.ter cin.uin -
t stances vastly mo'
disastn ns to the peace
an.l s.te.v. f t! I,,. ... What I have as-
e.ted comes fr..m deep and solemn convic-
,i... es,,l i, :.,,, a I .,,., and caretul exam-
, tnation ol .im ...... o.,
jec . : 1 ......
llii.se Wlionaxe 1,0, i-n.-.. y
. . ......... . . 1 . . . ........... I .... 1. n.
Un to it. :.t,d the p,..,es
..I ... an. svs-
, " t ... i ..1 the dm -
mii 110 tost c- ncei'tsoil ol toe 11 in-
. . . 1 . .
tern, ran 1
get to w mv i 11. e i hh u. ....... .... , ..... ..., I.
Hie dange. is two-foid: thai ,.;ey ... .,
lost i.v tl e i.a re i.ro.ri
1 cut. w :th -
f th v .st
out payment. 111 cnseqcefce
, .p,.i,.,ty l-.y-ial -h. ot tt,e oiin.ry .
. 1 .
1 to which ,h;- l.,l. -, .. .s ';
11 mat saoin.i no, . .... .
; In n. the rr.. ... ! ... .- ., , .
and t.ew N a.es. , 0 .1. . 0 1. . r , ,.1
ll.e lane', ana li e 1 111.1. - 1 -
;" " !l "' ';""j'' vi-w .1
' ie....er "o be a.lol.led Hi re'eiei .
to tin 11',.
. . .
l?.-th c.tt.s.s are operating w id, ,-w., 1,1 .
f.ci;ai .l d ib. ydo not spee.hly ultra, I t..c at
! tentioti of the C.vei n-netit :-nd cimtry. -l ev
'of the public domain. Nothing but a lul
j understanding of the causes ol danger, and
'the implication of prompt and efficient re-
I 1 . . . 1 ....:.
1 tnedv,'can prevent it; and what I pioiM.se is
imiioriaiii as 11 is. :i-. n..,i- .ur
attention it deserves to th- :,l miraculous
extension of our and system. n the
I .,.;. ' ,l. l,li:m till., has bee,, exlir.
.... , " , ,nnnr n ' ,
gtushed in round .,.., U-rs .0 3 JO -000.000..,
000. andgran.e.l awav . Ir var,o,.s pur.tos.
,2.0000, th. i,se,o ot the
Government, on the 1st of January, 1 840,
22G,0O0,00O, a larger portion of which is
surveyed, platted, and in the market, show
ing that the progress of extinguishing the ti
tles of the Indians has far outrun the de
mands of the country for government lands,,
as great as it has been. In fact, the reality
far exceeds the statement, as strong as that
is; for, of the eighty-one millions of acres
sold, upwards ot thirty-eight millions were
sold in the years 1335, '6 and '7, during tha
great expansion of the currency and rage for
speculation in lands, of which but a small
portion, perhaps not a third, was for settle
ment; and of the residue, a greater part say
twenty millions, is still for sale in the hands
of hre purchasers. Making proper allow
ance for the speculative operations of those
years, the actual sale o. ihe public lands for
s"ttir.nrni, tiur.ng tne per.oa oi nuy years.
-i i - r r.
"" " V rom 'ne neginning o in
ver ;n.enr. wou.u not prooao excecu s.i-
iv mi: nma nf acres. nltont one tonrth as much
- ,., , , ,. r, .
. . , . ,
I ",'a ol "' eat magnitude, it will be neces-
'"' 7" '" ""-"
: cnaMe me t iio that, a mend nas tumisnea
i;h ast.itj.r,,ent. tron, which it appear.
- 'hat it all the bind niiw unsold, and to which
, 'J,,, ,n t,ngms bed, was grouped
to-'ehei. i would be equal in 'Tfcnt to all
.New r.njl 'n.l. Xew York, New Jersey,
1 Vi. ny I v a i, ia. I V! a wa re. Miry land, Virginia
and a tbitd i f oi th Carolina." But this falls
vast extent of the region
, I'T""'!' -ni which n .,es ai.prrsea a re .un
- f.pia! inr all the o.d A.!..nt.n S a e,, taking
'''. mtr .-i.rj.... ............
a .at..' ra-e . .
Ussissq p1. an.l I. an .i i i tinessee. mw
tl is .as! and tinoccor ie.l doiinin. our people,
nrhn .rlti:;dp of toteigne's. are pouring
ye. i!e in .ne ir.eess.iiit t'.le, bv thousands
. n i!n.u :".i!s. s- kin.' new l.oii.rsson with
be iiieai-s ,.f' t,r. ha it. '.o select the liest
hinds; .. the, s with iiM;fFc!tnt inrans, who
se!ct tl eir place. :mI settle, with the hope
I' pure1 as'm in a st ort time; and a large
cla-s -.M ho!:! mean--, who settle -n SKts,
wi hott' an fi'-.l in'en'ion but to remain so
bn as ibev Me nndis'ui led, generally on
' tracts ..f inferior qualitt h n ins the advan
tage f a spring, with a small portion of
more fertile land, sufficient for their limited
-ultivati..n, but not sufficient to induce a
4 '.l.. Ilil-fl . l.lRf- IL .11 ....- n .....i:.. t yi iv.
'I I. is t hissef settles had greatly increased, it
I am correctly informed, within the last ten
or fifteen years, and are rapidly and still in
creasing, especially in the West and South
western States, where the proportion of good
to inferior land is comparatively small, and
must continue to inctease with accelerated
rapidity, so long at the present land system
remains as it is.
fhose who have had an opportunity of
, se,tcr9. w not be at a loss
.. , rnn,P1Illl.nrM .vhich mnat
. ,m,.s, arrested. Occupation Ion"
:in . limlist,,rbed. accompanied bv improve-
hliw... , m;,Pt. cannot lail to be as-
, - -. T " .. . .. . c i .t .
,u r .' fa(.t " wl.icli constitutes the
- . This wi be feU ;
; ntJ .imi,ar,y situa.
... -. 1
' ted w ill be sure to create an tspnt de corpt,
. ... . , -1. J.u
" .ccompameo i v mmu. cr , ,,
rm-s .,. ..u,u u . .-.. ,
; dangerous lor any one to disturb the right.
-f n.!.er. T I.H lerl.ng : wdl 1 no, be ong in
; hp w(n,d ,,e consil.ert.d, coming in
with the view of purchase. He would find
. ..... , -.1 .... , ,,1,,.
11 .'. n ''oe ......... u..u w.. i
1 SP" !,', ,,v a m(r "cenpant, or stpiatter,
1 . , . 1 .- 1
1 .1 .....i ,. I .,t him ot hi nossession.
' ' . " , ,,... ;. ..! ,kn tUmfZ.
' "". !".en. ml. "in'iif. ",
j lint-'. "hi-li began with the poorer class, will
I a T 1 1 .1,1 r; 1 1 III 1 1 V Ill.W.IIlt HF llii: IIIUIU I,4lll.ilai
- - ... . . . .-.
j , (M.;h.,v an, improvement, and all.
1 , - . ,,,. -:l become souatters. will.
, () m,inlairi an ,,efen,,
. -- .
atnl cease in e any mice, a wince 01 irvr-
'"i. U"'iiii:i: la- done to stop it. For the
trii'l; ol the p.ctti'P 1 appeal to t!:e Senators
!rn:o the new Svites. especially from tl.O-e,
p.iticu! . 1 1 v the Western and Southwestern.
We have thus presented the illtlicult ques-
j I. h perlcc.ly u .tural that the fust ,
j ...- should be. to keep on mtruders
I . r .... 1 1 .
The lands belong to the peo-
pie of th- rniot. as 01111,1011 property, and it
wi.tiM seem coi.tr r to reason art", justice,
that any one should iniicd to enter 01.
and appropria'e the use of tint to l.iaise!.
without pax it:;' b.v i, which i'e'uiH'S to :d! ;
at.'.l we iiccor.b.i'.'iv fui.I not a mji.i!I portion
..f ti e Senate, who insist keeping out and
expi llingall intruders as the proper remedy.
I'm in tliis case, like many other, we must
look beyond mere t.hstract right. What
seems so plausible wa-uM, when tried, prove
impracticable. We need no other proof (bn