. 9 '
Rini r vitit utmost
0 Y. ... .
'ITIB M'f -fl.
.. i m
(tn ltan-i kni:.l tj mvVa bf poatofl.- -aiT
tn. ., s -,..., i. Ky m 'M
It W r rV-Vif to Mrh r
Tr f Ura, . .
- t V ". n ., ......
A mmrU mm Atr-n(uHmi JS, f , .
irp M .-.'fci. .. . ., . ,
Hff t Hit ,
Hn 1 . MffL. w &
.( Y-hi. Uf.U,
It 1 "Ml
1 . A
, : Mi.
, i'i fci
I 7 1 i w 1
1 a -i; vt
1 t W ' ' I l
f m .r, !, unit ..J ( n f
If M'1 ' ).!!' -
rr t I h 11 I ,
, ,..l .1 It..- r.t nr..
., :..i .
i. n, ...l r-inii. f.r
,.,-r,..i i. . .,.,
ui. ' -i'i '" ' "
..1 ll.-T "ill l
( nil pH-m
(H( of jroiiii
n l It w.t rilt'n
t,; -'ii, i !lt i !'ic
of liit nr.
frittw ili1 luilv Mi iiiiii mil.
bt-.4t4 ( Vr 4. ('. f , V Ji. tm, W.i..
T Ji ll lA'TT.
I'm tliitiVln, "lurliii'f, f tli tiinr
ll Ihrw fi( Tr:ir ui
U't imrlifil with Nitrti HHvy tifiirt ;
Kil kritr'a nt full nf uf.
&lv roiintry r ilU-il m' tu til fiul'l,
O i r tilin ti4 to Krt ;
1 I'Mttltl nut hro-ilf wi:li Hoilllirrn li!
TU'' lyrmit, or hi r!i;in.
Th ?lit" tlmt iiivi- 11 U'iMiiliin,
Tlia Hlirlyr I'l .ir' k H, II... -
tAiiJ in. wliT.- .I unit' , inl Lfe.
firii. it:. ir ilu-l ir 1 r-w
' Tu rrnt V'rj;iiiiii, hrr toil,
Tiitir vilniliil f.-. t it r It i I.
. ' W wi'nt In mv Hnt ti. win"
Ur ' trj iMitit)i ln r unit.
How runny ul our r 'il.It hir
Tftt on hrt ii-rnl soil,
llu iiixnv Imrnl tln ir n'. mt l.ri n li
Ta iml Ilni4i wrctrhpi
l hn in In many r vrirt.it h
llv funny 11 mrirkiMi will ;
Ami liuh an I I . 1 1 1 1 , v eh ri-iii
llr ll" l wil l iii.iiiy 11 life.
Tii,li',i nni lir i
Kur Iw.i loiiif,
ll w rt-it, Ivii'j;
V)m I ,,r I n
) HIT lllil
vi rv :! r -
iJ.i i.v ...I.-.
p n nln) frMt 4.
lli 11 il l tliiit n'K 111 IV 4 .1 1 n i!il
U'uul I ;il.ii fur l.ii r -l itrn inif
Willi lliriil'lnnif lifow nii-1 lifitin, lirjtl
A rtU mKvhIi. Willi Millllff 0(irrifll.
I tiiUi Willi, Inn, if Vul , my lime,
Ami huw you'll in li jor nn ,
1 tolil liim m mir iirtiiii( llu'r,
Un-th mir trymintc tri :
Tm itrmiui. hi Miiiil, lli it ul li 4 linil,
Hui'lt f lui lik liii own
H-'l niten t-iiiiii'lil tli it hf huiI K'f,
MVr in thr w m i t nlw.
So pmni.l, lo xniry w. jry yrm,
Ami ij'I'-m in tlmt tl'iii,
WVil -ii our liriiir-it mi l unr bl,
I'iim tipwiird tu thiil I'lioi
Wlirri pun mil murtfrl nil will tin fl.
'th bravij, lh kiio.I, tu Jut -A
ml riMnl.T to tli l.iu I of lloiii,
I li kou 9 h Kr tit trixt.
Our hiifa liih, thil nun i
'I'hoir fi.rul! 'Il:tt Wr ll liri I,
Thiil '"'n thi l.l.iinlv fi .'hl o il I
And tn-nrr wottlj be rrtonil
Hut all omu iiii(lit hi tn'riiii'il -i,i
III fi'lt n 1 Ktrilll'i, hi :liil,
ll kiiiw thui l.y ii.illiir ninht,
Jlf'J lll Hlllollit till lliMil.
Wlno HiorniiiK imiiin, ln'M kIiiiIviii
Tin ficliuni uf ihr ninht.
An. I with nlml mill rh-rrtni; ih nit,
lli Wi'iil into III,. in hi ;
W ilnirB tli f. mi l, y ,v .'i,
VY (iiltnl both lii.t 11ml lu I'.
Ami jiifjt whi-n vii'trrr rmij( nut
My Rulilt I'liinritilt fi'll.
t horn liim iiititly oA' llu Hi I.I,
AM'I (tvtf him wiinli of rhiuir,
With Imn I up .n lui li nrt, lie il l,
'I't my fu'loiiHli hirr
flul rri) I xo, 11 proiulie itiik?,
Tlmt vmi will err my lu-iilv
Ami trl'l how gull uitly I f.ui-lil
An I for my rountiy n il.
Ami It'll lnr I will w.iti-li mnl wit
Ami loii tu li r riic,
To Join in, in tlmt pnri-r inir
TliHt homn hroml thi nki.
A ml whfii thr lriiy mi ni .r cum i
Ami bII in tr. l.n. Inn',
To kIvv nnr luiMiini; thouitht to me,
Anil fwr iu ili-op a triir.''
Ilia tiilf nf lifu " i'l I'i til.' f Ki
ll fithty prtin'l my Imml -
An l loon hia apirit took ittfiiht
l'p tu Ui it bitlr Uinl.
II al-pa hnnalh Viriuiti loil,
ihi lilliil lit' iliril tn aavi- ;
Anil frrnnn yit will tuiirk tin! ain't.
Ami ihnw "riii! Tinu'i tirntr "
But. ilnrlini. it i tliri- loun ymrj
Bluet Nat w bid mliru,
And atill It mnv bn many in re
Bi fora I ko In you;
For vandal fiM an on our anil
And fruadotn'a to In won
Til, fr rd.im uf t'i l.unl tlmt li
Tli fi u( Wliiii.ton.
Kuf.iiila, Alnbania, ISiil.
Kuan and Dixon'i Linr.
Mfinphia A vntmu'lic
Tin- Icriu Maui un.l Pixon' line!
ipbr-J tu tin' narnllrl uf Intittnle 3'.
Ji((ra, i.i niinut.'-i 2ri .8 m-ciitnln north
which ai'imniti'! IVtin haitia from
Marj liunl, ilrawti by 1'havloa .Mii-hhi Had
Jrrfiaiah IMxon, two iltingtii-lu'd I.n
Kjliih uiatlu'iiiHtii itttM ami n-itrunoniora
A theuorthortt li mit.i (with the except
luaiif atuall tiiirtiotia of IVlaware anJ
N'trnttiia) of the original aluvt Stutcn, it
wm protiiineiitlv iui'IiuoiiihI in the con
trovirie concern in", alnverv. ltruj-ina
at the nurthi'ait corner of .fnryl:uul and
ruoiduo west. The yearn from 1781 to
libs were mark fit by constant ui-Mcnaion
oil coaflict bftween the rival pronrie
tariM of lVnnivlvnnia ami Maryland
and their partiaun.a on the titihiect of
their common Imundary, and the vi
ciuitr of thi line was the tin-in rt- of riut
iavaaion and 1'IikmU1i.1. Mn..n and
Dixon arrtveil in i'hiladi'liiliia in Noveiu
br, 1763, ami commenced their work in
LWcember. It m contiiiuej to a point,
lH milca Irotn tne iN iaware river, and
within 3i mile of the whole distance of
tha run, where they w rre roinelled to
top operation in conwquxnee of the
ppoaitiooof the Indiana. They return
d to Philadelphia, and were di-K-hargeil
1 We rubor ;ii, 1 7i"H. At the etui of
very fifth nnle vl thta line a done wa
planted, rraveu with the arm of the
Won family on on ide and of I-ord
Baltiiuor on the other. The i titer nnvl-
iaU mile were niarkej wiuh (mailer
ton baTinr i. on one aide ami M. on
tli other. In 1732 Colonel Alexander
McClean aud Jooeph Neville. of irgtnta,
raa th former aitrveva were reviaed and
found correct iu all important point.
A. Lary Family.
Tne Madrid Kstafette state that a
Ppaniah gentleman, .-Vnor I. ma Ne
queiraa Saei, who emigrated from hi
aatira land to America seventy years
agt, recentlr returned to fpain in a
steamer of his own, and brought with
bins the whole of hi family, which con
sist of no fewer than l'.7 souls, sons-in-
law and daughterw-in-law not included.
Hemir Nu'S h l"'n three time mar-
nwl. in nrst wue naa eleven cnnu
ren at seveu births, his second had nine
teen children at thirteen births, and hi
thirl bad seven children at six births.
Tha yonngest of thi family of thirty
hiio ii agr-d nineteen; t ha rldeat, who
is seventy, has seven icon children, of
whom tb firat-bora M forty-seven, th
Henor Ses' twentv-three " sons, all of
whom ars living, tiiirteen are married,
six ar unuirrnl, and four are widow
rs;anduf hi anrvivinr daughters nine
ar married. The granddaughters num
ber thirty-four, and of these twenty
lo ar married, nine are unmarried nd
tbrea r widows; and of the forty five
fraadsons twenty-three are married,
aeyntvn are unmarried and four are
widowers. There ar also forty five
grnrsn..u(hters, and thirty-nine
grwat g ra o.J mmt, at whom three are
arrt4, tvuor Kie ha never tasted
in r any alcobli li.jtior, aud live.
l.ly a .uHi diet, with but
bit m i. fa ,,! 0f J,;, ninety-three
' h. U tnl UmU and hoartr, and
a bol'it if w.lliriir t.ri.klv
a .jiiit. i.i walking b
M Ut tore lu.'4i try (isjr.
- hjdgk jere black's
Aniwer to Mr. Jtffenoa DivU-BtT-eral
Leavti fromtlu Hiitorycf
the Early Da yi of Stcmioa.
A TTi -w ,f .v. T- m. Trr Tu
i virw laU Warkiaji of
of Iu Xeaben.
iwi iowmy U what porportj to I
ift f-piy of Jod Clack iu gatbrrd Sa
n ir.trtiew bid bj Col. Burr jut prr-
.twuMotlie oeati of tU former
;; MIMMIJIIY rti III III EL ! 7 1'lNS
; wiiii ji rx.r. RLaia.
, "No, it i not the thing to jerk out in
t the form i,f an interview roy aitswer to
I Mr. I tail". He haa ci. mc at lue over bir
own signature, I sill so reply. I will
prepare for vou what I have to ay
t.ut In" rritu inn xHiietime within a
wiek. I ntil tli'u let us J-aru wil.ru
TUessf wrte the doting words of acon-rr.r-ation
in hirh Judge Illat k, after
re.rig ihe recent stuck mnde upon
him by Mr. Jeffi ron Davis, outlined Ui
me ins own ition and the inner his
tory or a periiHl in winch he plaved the
wiaerand irreater r.urf Jn.il. ..' i
r J "icul
I own urivale.f powers of feme in
i the precise argiinienu of a careful and
I'r,l,,r' Wr Vn the Une rai-d
,"lM,n nimielf, tlii last but one of the
ovai m-mlter of President Buchanan',
t aliinct living, and the chief of the rS
ession ca!l, he deemed this deaultorv
converaatifii. allit sustained through
two graphic boiira. nttworthyof himwlf
and the hiatotienl etigenrv of the ajtna
But death di-rtiiiii-n all things. The
pasain converMliou of an August fore-j
u h.ii has became the last record of ai
lieriiKl i-i our hl-lnrv. of whose inn-i' inrl
emHvU iTptnta wittiiti rrfitdent l.uch
aintu's abinet imotlier record cau exist.
t'sLinets, by their nature, keep uo min
utes, f jiHtom, courtesy and habit of
otlicial life leave the vindication of their
policy and their action to some survivor,
who defends before another -.eucrat on
events up, ii which his lips were sealed
at tln ir occurrence.
Much of the hiftory of the i.eiiod
i 1...1 ... t.i i . .. .
-.. .1 ouoe i.iat -a was influencing, in
Buchanan's Cabinet, the iucs of eacc
lid war, it Inn already lieen the goiKl
fortune of the writer to lay ln-fore' the
public It is, perhaps, not't'io much to
:iy that these diac.o.urt's have revers"iJ
public oiiiiiion of Juc!r'e Black's counsel
and profoundly iutljcnc. d public es'.i
tuate of I'rt.i.lent Buchanan's course.
U beth.-r this be so, it is unnecessary here
and now to discuss. The- decision is one
wjiich can bo-t lie left to others; but it
wiil probably be admitted by all that
tlie wide inc. ptancu by the press of tin
l itid of tin: facts sit forth in the series
of papers which led to Mr. Davis's let
ter liave plin-id in a nh.
' t public di.-ici.-winu of th
li.f.,r.. tlio u-..-
My nrw a
1 hese interviews resulted ill illtilll.'it
and cordial rel itions between Judge
lii.u k and iii;. Ii, whost natural conse
ijueiice was tin fr.o mid unrestricted
outpouring of iiia oj.ii.ii.ns and counsel
In itn past, nf nhlefi niv last inteiview
with In in wr.s full. Since his death
sealed all other sources ol information,
I have consented to reproduce the ab
si.rbitig features of this conversation.
H nv succe-uful this has beon done
record her. lunde inu-t tell,
nly practiced journalists can ap
preciate. Ju.lgo.Bliick spoke but as a
preface and jirf.logue to the paper he
meditated. 1 his tmu.r is lost t. ki.t,.rr
lost also to himself and bis defense
if defense were needed by a man about
whom the controversies of a lifetime
had beaten but to leave his memory
greener and his fame fresher. I, at
least, shall not presume to surest that
this conversation can supply the place
of the lost ellort of his great powers. It
can only reflect its puriaise and purport.
oone but Judge Black could fulfill
the task Ju.ljfc Black could set himself.
No other iiian ran presume to lift his
magic wand of power. The bow of
I lysses can be bent only bv the hero
who had iliutik delight of battle with
his foes through thri. tn vears of war
' fin nntiniili d u imli
rnliiiis!n:d in ii t re
. of Ahiil lin'i piil-
r ii k
y n.RTiEW ik. Jt.rr tiArin's lei--
Two ilava ln-fore Jmljre lilack wt
atricken with the iliaeaw that carried
him to hi-i j-rnvo, I drove tip through
the Krove hv the Kritvcloil road tliat
Jitltdi to Ilrockie. It waa not 9 o'clock
in tin-in. irniiiK when I drew rain before
the broad porch, upon which at Mrs.
Illack and another nu-uihcr of the fam
ily. Aa 1 alighted the judjje walked
around from the Lack porch, greeted mc
cordially, and anid:
" iVhut'a up now f
"Mr. Pavis Inii jnilili-1,,.,1 a letfer to
day which, I think, will intereat vou."
'Tict'a ie it."
I hundod him the paper cmitainitij; it,
aril he led the way to the front porch,
where we could lie ulone. Jle took a
teat in a larjre cay chair, and I unother
near him. He Itegan readinjr as soon a
he aut down, and read the entire letter
without aprakins a word.
lnrinjr tlio perusal of it his coun
tenance betrayed not the slightest idea
of the impression the diK-timent was
making upon him. As he finished rend
ing it, he folded the paper and laid it
down by his side. IK took off h a spec
tacles, took out the silver tobacco box
which he had worn smooth in conver
sation of years, and bc-ran timiinjr it
nniilly in hia lame hand. He looked
olf npou the beautiful fields that stretch
away from Ilrockie as fur as the eye can
reach, mid simke not a word. For half
a mi mi to or more he gazed intently upon
the beautiful country side scenes "lieore
there was an expression either in his
face or his lips, lie finally gave a half
audible laugh, shrnpged liis shoulders,
as was his want when amused, and said,
in that deliberate, forcible way so char
acteristic of him :
''Mr. lavU has lost his opportunity,
and he can now veneer the truth with
twenty years reflection. He ha liwt
his temper and likewise hi case. He
haj uttered epithets and written obso
lete ideas without even giving them
new clothes. He must have written in
the shadow cf a failing recollection, or
his judgment must have been impaired
by brooding over the failure of his
life. His ruipi r is weak, and were it
not for his historical ponition and char
acter, it would require no answer from
Hut Mr. Iavis is a foeman worthv
ol any man a
iiient as this
and such a docu
him compels an
JrtMlK BLACK READS MR. PAVtx's LET
TKR A SECOND TIME.
The judire picked up Mr. Davis's let
ter and read a second time the first few
paragraphs, and then turned to me and
When the paper was written that
called out this article I said to vou- T
do not believe Mr. Iavis would make a
willful misstatement for any earthW
considerxtion.' I believe no now, for i
always found him a fair opponent. Yet,
in this letter he betrays a woeful igno
ranct? of the fact he undertake to han
dle. Time and disappointments must
have done their work with his once su
perior mind. I have not seen him for
more than twenty Years, and speak of
him a he appeared to- me before he
struck hands with the greatest conspir
acy of modern limes. I do not retract
a (.ingle word of what I said in the
article that provoked Mr. Davis's latest
. . i .i .
uuerwm-rs. iv me way ne squirms
that blow must have hurt. In quoting
the paragraph fmni mr utterances two
Tears ago, he doe not give all I said."
The following is the full paragraph to
which Jndjre lilack referred, a art of
which Mr. lavis qnoted and made the
ba.is nf his answer:
When he Uld you that Mr. Buchanan
wa timid because he did not giva up
the forts in Charleston harbor, h said
what was not only inaccurate but ab
surd. The AbotitionUu abnse Buch
anan because he did not reinforce Sum
ter. They, of course, do bins injustice.
Bat Mr. IHms now ch&iges him with
timidity Ix-cau-e be did not tnmatt the
fort and lot secession have everything
its own way. That is ridiculous. Mr.
iMvis also inake a sinner of his judg
ment when he expresses the opinion
that if Sumter had beeugiTenqp no other
Statu than Smth Carolina would have
gone out. In truth and in fact, Mr.
IJuvis and all other Secesnionist de
sired that evacuation for the sole pur
pose of making their predetermined
departure easy aud safe. Such a ccn
picuou act of eoncesaioa would have
been an acknowledgment of their right
ti secede, and they would have tum
bled out as fast as the could formulate
tue ir ordinances. If Mr. lvie will tax.
d hU memory
litile, he w ill be able to
recollect easily enough that bin object
in trvin to influence Mr. Buchanan in
I that direction wa. to remove an obude
irom a pain on wnicn he and tiia con-
stitueuts had ma.le up their minds t
travel, nomn vamuna tru-'l t bully
t,. I m 1.1..... ... t. .. : i .. .1 : ii.
n-: .n..,Tuk, ift.ucii, inviuiitii jir.
i-ans, triesi to coax linn. Jt u no evi
'imitiii iimniiy mat n rc-u-icu tn.m 1
' I find nothing iu Lis rcpiy,'" con
tinoed Judge Black, "to justify me in
retracting a word of what I said two
years ago when reviewing with you his
book. If I did 1 would take it back
now. Time ha only strengthened nit
iu the conviction tliat I was not too
hard on Mr. Davis in what I then said."
rVrt.TIIKR!ERS t'STRl T. TO PARTY XL
I.EUIAXTE ASD CSKAIIHFUL TO
"Mr. Davis and those who acted with
him were engaged in the worst conspir
acy ever organized for the destruction
of a govern men t. Their methods and
acts cannot lie too severely criticised. I
will 'lui't and say that time has proven
...r. A-a.is was a in neaa lor sucn at tM-en a more hostile demonstration than
revolution as the tSecessionists tiegan j this? The order resulting in this chains
while Mr. Buchanan waa in the l'resi- j of the states is one of the claims Judge
dential chair. I found no excuse for their Black makes for service rendered to the
conduct then, and I iiiul lem now. They i I'nion. So it mav deserve to be fol
c:crted us in a lime of great peril. j lowed to its cousootic nccs aud viewed
I he Southern tiolitical leaders were i in connectinn itl.
...., .... ,t
untrue to their iilitical friends of the
...nii. i.t siauuiug irue iiiey couiu
have defeat.! the schemes of the Abo
, . , '. .
because they could not have everything
.ii...iiiij ami oreventeu iiiiMMistied : imt
.. . . ,,,, , i
lucir own way mey ueserieu tlie North
ern Itcmocracy at a time when the party
ci.-miiig into power hated a Northern
Democrat worse than a Southern Seces
aiunist. If in the end they were true to
each other, I have been at'a loss to dis
cover the web of their fidelity. Men
who willfully break the law usually tjuar
rcl with each other in the cud.
"I would not do Mr. Davis an injus
tice. He has had enough of that from
his own people. But what I said in the
original article, I say now that he and
the other Scei-ssioiiists were always ply
ing Mr. Buchanan with their arguments,
entreaties, or threats, as the case might
he. That he was able to resist them all
and stand true to his constitutional
ooligatiou in the most trying ordeal
ever forced upon a man. "is n lusiimr
tribute to his honor and manhood."
"Isn't there a fair chance for argu
ment as to whether he did or not."
"No, sir. Mr. Buchanan has been
more grievously misreoresenteil mnl
.;. I. . . , , ' t
w ith greater success than any other man 1
J. . , l V -i V , , 1 aVls
is a. much responsible for tins as any
kinir ir. ;7. .i b- Jieji,.oil oe.ongeu to the I nited States,
king bee in the Secession movement. In i was bought and paid for bv them thev
a the intrigue with which they hedged j had a f M and undisput.-d" proprietary
the 1 resident about while they wcrc.l right to it, which was not impaired in
p anning the reU-llion he was chief. the slightert degree bv Sonth fflina'.
He enjoyed the I'resident's friendship, i act of secession " Carolina s
Willi L'l.l ,...;,l....,l.l.. I., it t -.r ., .
.i,-. '"ciice w in
"--ci iicsiinwu 10 use mis
r'-cr io warp tne i resiaent s acts and j
... v. e-io sun. uie senrmes ot those :
with whom and for whom he acted. He
signally failed, but he is entitled to no
credit for Mr. Buchanan's fiJoJity. The
plotting with which the Southern lead
ers surrounded the executive gave at
once the pretext for and the power to
his enemies to successfully assail him.
THE IMPfPENT BoUTU CAROl.tXIAyS.
seems to nut irreut stress i
upon the peaceful intentions of South
urarthat'lir"80"' v"itzi v--ie
"Yes; Mr. Davis and South Carolina
were both willing to keep the peace if
they could have it npou their own terms.
The fact is Mr. Davis and the other Se
cessionists would have peace onlv with
dismemberment. Those opixtsed to them
would have peace only with uniou. The
different elements then playing at each
oiner were as lar apart as tli
were au snouting tor iicacc, buti
uciiing 10 get into cacn other a hair. It
arrogauceof the Southern leaders. He
can recall, if he pleases, the threatening
attitude of South Carolina and her in
sulting proposals to the President, at the
very time when he speak of her having
these 'peaceful intentions. ' The 'cou-
spicuous acts of concession' which were
dcircHl of the President, of which Mr.
Davis has spoken so much, wou d not
have preveiiu-d war but ou.d have
-- . -J ur, VOll IV
lie influenced. All of Mr. Davis's soph-1
words will not change the judgment of j
men upon his acts at that time. No
ante-umrtfM epitaph he can now pen will
supply the virtue which even his fol
lowers could never find. I do not say,
nor do I believe, that Mr. Davis did "a
dishonorable thing or took an unfair ad
vantage then, as he apprehended it; hut
I do insist that his counsels and his con
duct were steadily against the Union.
His present article furnishes evidence
enough to justify every expression con
tained in my interview with you two
years ago, to which he takes exception."
MR. PITTS' ABNCRD POSITION IS P.F.I.A
Judge Black, at this point, again
picked up Mr. Davis's letter and read
that portion of it referring to the right
of eminent domain and asserting the
right of South Carolina to the forts in
Charleston lftrbor. He read it carefully
a broad smile broke over his counte
nance, and he said pleaxantly :
"Mr. Davis again makes a sinner of
his judgment in thi part of his article.
His position as to these forts is absurd.
He claims that because the government
held and guarded its own property in
the harbor of Charleston it was a
menace to the people of South Carolina.
I confess they should have been a
menace to those people who were defying
the law and trampling upon the authori
ty of the government, if reinforcements
could have made them so; but these
forts, though they had been garrisoned
to their fullest complement, were in no
sense a menace to the people of South
Carolina. As well might he claim that
because the Federal government held
the capitol at Washington and its other
public buildings nd had the means for
their defense, that this was an insult to
the whole South. This proposition does
little credit to Mr. Davis, s large ex
perience and superior gifts. If he had
learned wisdom from his experience of
the laat twenty years, he would not now
advance such an argument to justify the
ridiculous proposition he and other lead
ers made to the President about the
Southern defenses a proposition, I am
glad to aay, the President never enter
tained or mentioned to me as a thing to
be seriously considered. As anxious as
Mr. Buchanan always was to prevent an
open rupture during his term of office
he never for a moment thought of yield
ing to the demands, entreaties or threats
of tha Secessionists. I admit that he
was far more lenient with them than I
would have been, or advised him to be.
He hesitated about reinforcing the forts
when he should have acted promptly.
MR. BL-CUAKAX'S CoSSCTEXTIOCS lOJT
DCCT. "But yon must understand that he
was peculiarly surrounded. The South
had helped make him President. He
had lifelong friendships there, and it was
ne easy matter to act harshly toward
people at whose hands he had received
so much. He often thought I wa un
iasonable, even severe, toward bth the
SewsiooisUand Abolitionists. I presume
I was, for I meant to be." Mr. Buchanan
and I were trying to reach the same end
by difterent methods. Widely as we oc
casionally differed, 1 can say that to
charge him with unfaithfulness to the
Union is the foulest slander that was
ever nttered. To intimate that he ever
acted without the sanction of his con
science, from any feeling akia to fear
...... uaiu i
tor bis personal safety, is
a cross (Hit
rage upon the truth.
. upon the truth. He ha,3f less care
threat against hi. life than any man
ver knew, and if he could at a"
time have saved his country from war
he would have yielded up hi, life as
wiIIingdy -Aahe would har rone to hM
bed.. I have often heard him say that
la CM. luip Tor m r I luvi. tn k-nId . ...... ...h
the n,cnfl intent; f Vkl . Iu",v "'"'"g tue federal
'"Y " maae it a pretext for the
Ists of that ttnii. IIa Uhvu Kniia. tl... i. ..t . r
.. . i.iuu vou. iii tne nuglitv events
any man livinif of the lmnudenee and : .....i. ..i..6 - l,T,llH
nona 01 tne letters tnreatening insure, ! -
of which he received a great many, ever i THE t")STRAT bet'a-ee. juik;e black
made him lose a moment's rest." " I Ajrr -.0Avi3 is jfATTEB-sor dctt.
-How well doe. Sir. Curtis make thme -"The most amusing line. I can read
fact, manifest m hi biography, of Mr. i Mr. Davis's lteCre jthose which re
Boihaaaar' f et to mtafuUw . -
"I have not vet read Mr.Onrrts-alm.V
and I am not piing to sar a word about
it ont.l I lo
manuscript, and I have no doubt that !
. oea oi ii in
Mr. Curv has done hi work
have read some of tb .riri.-i.tn.
,! that work, to w hich I am roine tfl reply
. .. r . t ., . . . . . c '
: i.-r i rea'i liie bif.K. ISut 1 I
- , going to di-jwc of Mr. la
jTIE felPutME IMrLUESCB OP TUE
J - J 1 . I . .. .
" luuiw a rain lUCKCd UI llie tanrt
icau a ! via ttie lo owinr tur
It w ill In remeniltcred that the gov
ernment of fSouth Carolina, resting
under the asntiraiu-e that both the Fed
eral and rotate government would not
t attempt to make a change so a-, to dis
turb the existing condition of affairs,
allowed the unoccupied forts to remain
as they were and forebore to seize Fort
cumter wtiea it was without a gamsou.
:he remonstrated when the mirrison of
Fort Moultrie, after having dismantled
it, spiked the cruris mid hurncd tha r r.
i riages, was removed under cover of
J night to Fort Sumter. Could there have
- s-"i ij.i. inn .uieous
It occurred when South Carolina,
nopetul of a peaceful solution of all
t :p - - - "i . is.li iuiicui iita
niosr (listunriitst.uH .u :
0'--..v ni,o Bn OUIUIl.SlUl'
j era to visit and confer w ith the Preri
(lent. !ier proof cannot be needful
that South Carolina had no design to
attack Fort Moultrie or take other ag
gressive action. Mr. Buchanan, with
the keen perception of a patriot desiiv
!ng to avoid civil war, saw the danger
which this movement portended, and,
with the sensibility of a man of honor,
shrank from the imputation of bad
faith. Therefore he wrote to the com
missioners of South Carolina on the 3o'th
of December, lHtjO; "When I learned
that Maj. Anderson had left Fort Moul
trie and proceeded to Fort Sumter, my
first prompting were to command him
to return to his former position and
there to jtwait contingencies presented
in his instructions." The President
men proceeded to notice the rapidly
occurring events which followed this
I act. for which it iu or...- l.nn...n l.A .
i ' " - - .....-.. i ijt: nn
not responsible; To enforce the pro
jprietyof retaining a fort built to pro-
t -i wir iiar.Hir ami citv or Chanei-iton
vi iu ri-KiirutMa mere
as a means of defense, hut was eonsid-
utter it hihl reM-Knl to
i j . t
i""1 a me"ao,' "n(I maintaiHed to
destroy. Jude Clack asserts that the
" in tins .Mr. Davis touches
matter about which I
propose to have
considerable to sav.
If there was any
thiiiL' .it tlmt
time thal'illllstrstnfl thn
supreme lmpuuence of the Secessionists,
it was their demand that Maj. Ander
son should not be permitted to leave
fort Moultrie. He acquit the Presi
dent of the responsibility of granting
permission to Maj. Anderson to occupy
Sumter in case his judgment so dictated,
and lays the charge at my door. I father
the resiionsibilitv if n..;i.;i;i. :..
noo.,,.. ,.i... ... ' v.- . "
'th h..; r "?."'"
. .. ...v. muutc 1.0 Hirengtnen tlie
hands of that little band of Federal
s Idlers in Charleston harbor, I cannot
sec it so. Whether the President in
tend, il that the orders to Maj. Ander
son should lie so framed us tn .ri,ro i,;,n
I the right to move into Sumter,! cannot
; say. Put when I wrote the order, sush
, was my intention, and 1 have no ex
cuses ui oner lor that act.. If it ..r.
yoked war, as Mr. DavU declares it Hid
it was because those who w tl. ,iti
crime of rc-
played no part which lias the more cor
dial approval of mv conscience to-day
than iu framing that order that carried
Maj. Ander.sou from Fort Moultrie to
mi uuiiiuir. itnac Mr. Uavis savs
atotit thn ..x,.,...l . .: c -.
w.. . 11". . v.
Carolina t.mceer lin. Tww. . i f
lnus The l'ri,Ut kTI I. .
witlft, 'Sples thecmm
1 hey were simply three resnor.
gentlemen whom the President
treated civillv. mid thn ,i
importance ne"ver justified by the facts."
THE BACKIXU ASD FILLIXG OF ANTE
Here the great jurist sat back in his
chair, and, for a minute, turned his tobacco-box
rapidly, without Skying a
word. He then leaned forward again,
and, with great emphasis, said:
"How much trash is often accepted as
history. I see that Davis' proves that
Douglas was in favor of surrendering
the forts of the South to the Secession
ists. The speech from which he quotes
was delivered in the Senate by Douglas
after the Lincoln administration came
in. I never saw it before, but I read it
now as a part of the record of that time,
when many of our best men were afraid
to m ike war, and did not know how to
maka peace. I do not view these things
with pleasure, but the truth should be
written. Davis also quotes Gen. Scott
as bjing in favor of giving up the forts
in Charleston harbor. I have no doubt
but that Scott occasionally so expressed
himself, for he got on all sides of almost
every question then arising.
"The authorities Mr. Davis quotes do
not convince me that I was wrong in
urging the President to promptly rein
force the Southern defences. They sim
ply show how much backing and filling
there was by public men in those trou
HOW THE FSFOECEMEST OF FEDERAL
LAWS WAS PREVENTED.
He quotes Maj. Anderson to sustain
his case, and then contrasts his peaceful
attitude and my beligerent course, as he
terms it. In this part of his assault I
find a significant sentence, the purport
of which is that I should have anticipa
ted that the advice I gave would result
in a conflict of arms, and he savs mv
advice to the President about the em
ployment of an army and navy to en
force the authority of" the United States
was given under the poor pretext that it
was to aid the officers of the United
States in the execution of the laws,
knowing that no cases existed or could
arise under existing circumstances, there
being no United States officers in South
Carolina by whom civil process could
be issued. This sentence betrays the
policy of the Sontheru leaders. They
did not intend that there should bo any
Federal officers in South Carolina to sus
tain the execution of the laws. They
had taken good care that they, by pre
concerted arrangement, should resign
on the 1st of December, and that no
others should be commissioned. True,
there was no one authorized to issne or
execute civil processes. The President
had already declared his richt to enforce
the laws through the Federal agents, by
the use of the military arm if nm-jw
it was a
part of their plan to prevent
the government from havings represen
tative there to tu.-tain in the enforce
ment ot the laws, lo meet this emer-i
gency the President appointed a resolute 1
man as Collector of Customs at Charles- i
ton, intending to send him to South i
Carolina to collect the revenue, and to
the last extremity sustain him in doing I
- H was nominated to the Senate, i
and the Abolitionists united with the'
Secessionists and rejected him. This!
act was notice to theexecutira that both
parues were agreed in the determina
tion to keep bouth Carolina free from
Federal ogicers wo could he sustain..!
m maintaining th. ri;.,.,, r .1
. r f " megov-
and with w hom A he
?hus 7n . T' k ,Cted ere
VJt 5 tl?
! were doinw itf nllV Vh iT7 iu-T
j J ?f oLdat
is for advantage in the irtme of tW
lution. e-e 01 revo-
" . .... .' ,m.,,-m '
1 - 'TV.. . , ..
i did he otH-ad araiast the lett
ot the I nitcd fcutea Coot4t
a l had
j sworn ta support."
! . ''Time at List sets all thiuxn
"It has takeu Mr. I)avU r
twenty years to bring me tt t:e block,
liis effort is as amusiag ss. were the
antics and sayings of 'Kip Van Winkle'
to the plain country pouple among
whmn h avulip nf kia IvmiI srMm
slumber. He brings news to the Amer
ican people in the charge uymt which be
arraigns me. If, as he says, I violated
my oath of office because I denied the
right of secession, ared the l'reaident
to protect government property in the
bouth and pnuub all offenam against
the laws of the land, I aai flad of It.
I should do the same thing agaia, if
called upon to act in a like eawrgency.
But what does Mr. Davis say of hia
actsT Jt they can now meet the approval
I f nl conscience be most have au elastic
! one- He was a Senator ef the I" sited
cans wuiie ue was in mc conspiracy to
uesiroy tne government, ate was plead
ing tor pece wnne ne was planning
war. it is too iaie now xor ii tin to ex
hibit hw ingenious argmuenta in the
Senate fur a peaceful solution of the
difficulties while he was plviug the Pres-
tueni witu pernicious advice and en
deavoring to influence him Us disregard
bis constitutional ubllaatioiu. U is indv-
anewt jaluTiB tT-Kirelr let go it Ltii
ou uis passions wnen ne penned tlat
cha'ge, or he may have been trying to
l f. ....... If - i .
ntni vioiaxioB oi uiy
oath, or even a straining of the proprie
ties of my position, that I fought by
night aud by day the scheme of the
Secessionists, Mr. Ihtvis has done me a
f eat service by proclaiming it. I wUh
could bring soma charge against him,
touching his conduct ia that crisis, that
would be as much to his credit. If his
conclusions in this, his last paper, were
as sounu a nia aitacK upon me is
vicious, I might say that he is a great
and good man. He haa struck so wild
ly, however, that
"His passions and Lis virtue, lie eonfnt
And inix'd t cethrr in o wild a tumslt
mm mr note nina ia qu I aisbgureti ia
JtTno ni.Ai-K's i-oxF&Hfiiox or a keri-
The Judge here chanired the subject
! and talked for a few minutes upon per
sonal matters in nowise connected with
the subject he had been treating. He
then relapsed into a thoughful mood
again, and for a little time looked stead
ily away beyond the fertile fields that
front the home of his manhood, as if
trying to reach the far-off mountains
that rise about the home of his child
hood. At laat he straightened himself
up and then settled himself' back con
tentedly into the great splint-bottom
chair in which he sat, and said:
"Surely I o-ught to be satisfied. The
more this kettle ia stirred the more
savory the smell to me. Every new
development of the inside history of
that time convinces me that I was true
to myself and my countiy, and I can
Whatever record leaps to light,
I nevet will be shamed.
I can. after all those years, look back
upon my conduct ia that crisis and feel
that I neTer swerved a hair's breadth
from my duty, as I discovered it at the
outset of those troubles. Mind. I do
not mean to say I made no mistakes, for
I did. I was guilty of at least one seri
ous blunder. Yet I do not see how,
without more than human foresight, I
could have cleared that breaker. This,
however, does not excuse the mistake
which I made by giving too hasty an
opinion upon a most important sub
ject." "What was it f
"It was just after the election of i860
- cveu before any Southern State had
taken a decided step toward secession.
Oue of the Senators from South Caro
lina left the Capitol iu a huff declaring ;
that the election of Mr. Lincoln meant
civil war, and that he would no longer
serve in the Senate. This was the first
significant act pointing to secession, and
it made an impression on Mr. Buchanan's
mind. Very. soon after it occurred he
took occasion to say to me:
"Judge, have these people any right
to secede? Do you find any warrant in
the constitution for a State's withdraw
ing from the Federal Union T'
"None on earth," I replied. "This
Union can never be destroyed except by
fire and sword." .
"I am glad that your opinion is in ex
act accord with mine upon that subject,"
said he. "I have been giving this mat
ter a great deal of thought, and now
that you agree with me I am convinced
that my conclusions are sound. The
tnion is indissoluble."
"This Union," said I "ia perpetual.
Of course, it may be brokeu up bv revo
lution, but not by peaceful mcthoils. If
there is anything settled by argument it
is that the compact between the State
is in no sense like a business partner
ship that may be dissolved by the action
r or y aPPal Court
of Equity." . - r
THE STATURE OF JUDGE bACK'8 MIS
TAKE. ' - - "Sis:
"We discussed the subject hi this vein
for a few minutes, and Mr. Buchanan ex
pressed himself with great frankness, all
the time assuming that the peaceble
secession of a State was not possible.
Finally he turned to me and said:
"Ought not the executive to state his
conclusions upon this subject, so that
the people may know the exact attitude
of my administration?" -s
Most assuredly," I replied. -vou
should do so clearly and forcibly. The
country should understand that you oc
cupy no equivocal, position, but are
severly opposed to secession."
' How shall it be done by proclama
tion or in the message to Congress r said
"In the message," was my response. I
spokeperhaps, without proper reflection ;
but Congress was soon to convene and
the message was being prepared. A
great question was to be dealt with and
a grave crisis to be met. Therefore, my
first impression was that it would be
more dignified to deal with it ia the mes
sage, and so I answered. , If I had said
'By proclamation.' he would have un
doubtedly have said, 'Write itf or, if he
had written it himself the result would
have been the same. A ringing docu
ment from the first line to the last would
have been prepared, as was done in the
L tah case. It need not have been a half
column. Such -a paper conld and would
have stated conclusions so powerful as
to have stayed the madness of secess on
when in its infancy. I do not say that
it would have altered the course of the
leaders, but it would hare bad a striking
effect upon their constiuency. The pe
pie then would not have pushed nor
even followed them. I did not dis
cover the breadth of my mistake until
it was too late. When I said 'In the
mesfage,' I had not weighed the power
ful influence that waa to surround Mr
Buchanan for the balance of his term.
1 do not mean to say that that fa,l-u.
ever lived. : But-the wwearioBista were
ever able and alert. They lost no op
portunity tonlv th. !,; r
seditious artsand when he eameto
J w mat icature of the mceeage which
dealt with the Sonthem .L
. , - . , . WITT
should argue qcftrtioos that had beea set-
1.1111 v 111 tne idi
uw "ie iouuoation of the rovera
ment, instead tif stating conctasitme that
the humblest mii-lit lun r- I and un
derstood. Sounj thtugo his arguments
were, they were liai's to BHseoiistrue
lioa, and the-force of his view was lost,
as finally prese&led in W message.
"They became a two-edged sword that
cut deepest ia the wrong direction. It
was a serious mi?p!ay ef j augment, both
on his part and mine, . I was aat re
sponsible for his finai action, for I did
my best to induce him to pronounce
sentence upon the h - -f -esion,
rather than fill hia S r Pro
found a rjrn meats
would not read or a
fault, however, for
by the boras by a..'
uon. rsuca a dix
reached the peop'
that time favored
sai-e reached on!
gress, and those w
Diined upon rebV
bt judgment, ra:L
I di J mt plead thar in stay f execta-j
tion. The a'imtrus&ntuoH iluMui luvei
f reached the American iwl bv sio
: e Ltast oo the thrrho!d of d
to t Ur
; liiai wooiu aave a-vui-eiiCJ I -no, la tuf
I penis of the hour, and streugtuencd the
I - . ... . I-
btui vi liic povcrnuH-ni in its ptnniiigi
struggle with both the Abolitionists and
the iSeecastoiusta. But then,
"The ccaJes are rarely tufa adjusted
When self ths wavering LaUnoc shakes.
THE Mur MPl-DEXT PttOPvfcsITlOJt IS
"Perhaim most men wmild lmw
done just what was done iu this I
instance, for the SecessiouisU had I
not then shown their bands and be- i
gaa hedging the President about with
toeir insidious Plottinrs. When thev
began, what they could not do by direc-
1 ;n i. . ..
.in. iuef were wining to uo dv indirec
tion, and sir. Davis was a leading actor
in mis game. He even assumed to
speak for South Carolina iu her attempt
to negotiate with the President about
her forts in Charleston harbor. By
his own admission he tried to induce
the President to hand over the govern
ment property in the South to the men
who had then stolen the best part of it,
and were coupiring to destroy tho gov
erniueut and even then were openly and
shaaielt-wly defying its authority. This
patriot pledged his life as a ransom for
the care and preservation of tli nort.-i-!
bio j'.ropt-ny lu'theTorts Of XliarksloU
harbor provided the President would
yield to the demand of the SecesMtanista
and turn over this proDertv to them.
It was the most impudent nronosition
ever made by mortal man, to ask the
executive of a nation to w ield up a post
capable of defense to the enemies of
the government he represented. Once
in Cabinet meeting I said that there had
never been a period in the history
of the Enclish nation w hen anv minister
could propose to give to an enemy of
ius government a military post w hich
was capable of bcin? defendi.! without
being brought to the block. This was
exactly what Mr. DavU solicited the
l resident to do while he was a Snntor
of the United States. Yet he now, as
then, pleads his cunuinr words in stsv
of judgment and to prove his 'peaceful
intentions.' They will not stand to his
credit when contrasted with his acts.
"Aft:r I found that the President was
convinced that it was his dutv to arzue
these questions in the message I tried to
recover lost ground. So, when he called
upon me for my leeal opinion upon this
subject, I tried to prepare such a paper
as should have been issued at the pro
clamation. v nen tne rresident saw it
he found that the terms were entirely
too strong for him. He did not dissent
from mv conclusion-., but lie said if he
followed them it would increase the bit
terness between the factions. I recall
an expression he made while discussing
v, ii iiio.siiuii.-s uis position exacuv.
'I desire,' said he 'to itand lietween
tlie factions like a davsmnn. with mv
hand on the head of each, counselinir
peace. We had our first real difference
over this paper. He took it and insisted
upon a formal legal opinion npon the
right of secession. Thus I failed to im
press upon his State paper of that year,
the strong views I knew he entertained
on the subject of secession, but hesi
tated to express for fear of further
arousing the temper of both factions,
who sat irrowlinz and ready to snrino at.
each other's throats." .
THE ABOLITIONISTS AND SECESSIONISTS
JUDGE BLACK OX SLAVERY.
"You speak of the Abolitionists and
Secessionists in one breath?"
"Yes, they were both alike. Neither
had any respect for the "constitution
when it stood in the way of their
schemes. One proclaimed it a league
with death aud a covenant with hell,
and the other as grossly insulted the
fundamental law of the "laud by asserting-
the right, of secession. I revcr-v
and always did, the constitution, and a
profound respect for the law possesses
my whole being. I have no patience
with any man. Xorth or South, who
proclaims his disregard of the law. 1
always abhorred slavery, but the law
sanctioned it, and it was my duty to sus
tain tne legal right.
'I would not have a slave to till mrvrnnnd-
To carry me, to fan me while aslei
A J . I ,
auu M-eiiii-it wnen I waKe. tor all the
That sinews boui-ht and' so d have over
No. dear a freedom is. an.l in mv hpurt'.
Justes imste prized ubove all nrice.
I had much rath-r be myself tne slave.
"These lines ever represented my feel
ings upon this institution. The consti
tution recognized it, and I recognized
its legal right. None of my family or
relatives had auy interest in" slaves," ex
cept McDonald, of New Orleans, aud
he owned them only to preach to them."
"You surprise me, because I had al
ways understood that you were pro
slavery." "Never. I only tolerated the idea
because the law recognized it. It should
have been gotton rid of without vio
lence and bloodshed, as was done in
Pennsylvania and other Northern
States. I was always ia favor cf its
abolition, but couli' never bring myself
to look upon the Abolitionists in any
other light than as enemies of the gov
ernment, because I knew and saw in
their acts and utterances pending revo
lution. - Time and the mad occurrences
of the past twenty years have confirmed
Judire Black discussed at some lencrth
fthis question, and reverted to the John
lirowa raid, to relate to me an interest
ing conversation he had with Gen. Lee
wheu that officer was returning to Wash
ington affr the military operations at
Harper's Ferry in 1859." It is so Ipng
that I shall leave it, and some time write
of it ia another article.
After he had finished speaking upon
these points, Judge Blaci' continued :
"It will not do at this day for Mr"
Davis to write about the 'peaceful in
tentions' of himself and his fellow-Se-cet-siouists.
Their assault upon the gov
ernment, was deliberate and pre-deter-mined,
and their cries of peace, while
they were for war, unless they could
have their own w ay, were only the vapor
with which they hoped to envelop their
real purposes. Mr. Davis began early
after Mr.- Lincoln's election to u.-sre his
riews upon tne President, and he wa
recognized among the Secessionists as
their m-it important agent. Uobb wa
one ot tne worst becessionists I ever
knew, and oneof the ablc3t men. Thomp
son, a Southerner, was also in the Cab
inet, a man of integrity and superior
mwBn .fU..! I l' 1 r". . 1 - r
r"iv - auu iuup mnuence.
Mr. Davis was called to 't;n
from Mississippi by hi Southern friends
m the Cabinet, that they might have
their most potent advocate near the ex
ecutive while the message was being
vvvaria wail Uf n J : J a, 1 a -a .
K..p..cu. iW uiu me won ot bis clan
most faithfully, and beraua h AA
succeed he assaulted the President after
the message was read, and never until
now, that I ever heard of, appear as hi
sucuuii. xom mt. .Buchanan was
trofig enough to resist the appeals of
Davis and his fellows, brave enough to
defy their arrogance, and clear-headed
enough to escape the traps with which
surrounded him is to hi? lasting credit.
They did him great injnutice then, and
they have never repented that I know
of. They enveloped him in an atmos
phere an d irmve a coloring to some of hia
acta 1 :ia.t the facta did not justify. They
furnished the ammunition by which he
has been successfully slandered from
that day to this. Mr. Davis calls him
self an old friend of Mr. Buchanan.
This, indeed, is the acme of sarcasm."
BLACK'S EyORD CLEAB.
Judge Hack spoke deliberately, but
witn great emphasis, while relating these
important incidents of his service in
Mr. Buchanan s Cabinet upon the eve of
the rebellion. I wrote them down with
much care after leaving him, because
in many conversations with him on the
same subject within the past few rears,
be had never before spoken of this first
ri-atof the States to secede fi-Vnn the
never aUuded to it before, when he said
- I would rather have slept forever un-
ec uowor grossest Biwapprehcn
w tiaa havt appeared in the auimd f
a critic upon tlieacUof mychif while his.
inemorT was bein' bemtiirrhed -without
- i iuntice nr txath. Mr. Hm-liinin'i hirv.
raf hcr has doubtless made hi'rewrd
j perfectly clear. A presentation of the
i neriectiy clear. A Tnr-fin
i fact U ail that m oecssaxy. Every day
i-l -.,. . . - .. t . '
tue iaiiuiut record ot toosc times is le-
coming clearer and clearer. The testi
mony 11 post which acts must be judged
U coming gradually. I am wiliioe to
stana ey tne record. After twenty
years of reflection upon mr conduct 1
can say that it meets the cordial appro-
ai 01 my conscience.
THE MOST PAISFUL ISCttEST 0 JUDGE
! lhc conversation then drifted into
some minor details ot Ius early aenocia-
tion w-tth Mr. Stanton, and how he got
ootn ctauton and Holt into the Cabinet
to aid him in hia conflict with theSecea
siouiste, who were enveloping Buchanan,
"as w ith a cloud." He spoke pointedly
and characteristically of the events of
those days, but did not dwell with par
ticular emphasis upon any of them un
til he introduced the story of the Cabi
net crisis that took place on December
2, 18J0, when Mr. Buchanan had pre
pared his answer to the so-called South
Carolina Commissioners. When the
Judge began upon this important part of
u.s punuy career ne again spose witB
peat deliberation rjnd caruestuesK, say
"The most pahtful incident of my lone
atsciatiation with Mr. Buchanan took
place the day after he had read his
answer to the i?outh Carolina Commis
sioners in Cabinet meeting, on the 21Hh
of December, I860. I recall with great
uistinciness tue scene in the Cabinet
when that paper was read. It fell upon
me like the kick of a mule. The South
ern members were almost as much dis
turbed. None of ua said a great deal
about it, because all of lis knew bv er-
perience that when Mr. Buchanan "made
up his mind he was immovable. No
man ever filled the Presidential office
who knew better than he did how to en
force the respect due to his position,
and I know of no one more tenacious of
his opinion w hen his judgment was fix
ed. He was absolute master in his own
house. Therefore, when that Cabinet
meeting adjourned. I did uot believe it
possible that our official relations could
continue. I .spent the most miserable and
restive night of my life. My mind was
in wild tumult, and I arose the next
morning determined to resign before
night. I called on Stanton, Holt and
Toucey, and expressed to them mv ex
ceeding disappointment at the Presi
dent's letter, and announced to them
t hat I should that day leave the Cabinet.
Stanton said he also should go, and Holt
would have gone, although he did not
say so. What Toucey would have done
I do not know. When he entered the
Cabinet, and through his entire service,
he seemed determined to have no opin
ion crosswise from the President's. He
might have stayed. As soon as I parted
with Toucey he went to the White
House, and informed the President of
my intentions, and of what had taken
place between Stanton, Hoit and myself.
INTERVIEW BETWEES BUCHAXAN AKD
BLACK OX THR SOUTH CAROLINA
"Mr. Buchanan at once requested mv
presence; but I hesitated to go, for "I
knew the temper and strength of the
apenl he would make to me. I felt
that he would place his demand that I
remain by his side upon such grounds
of personal friendship that it would
make it almost impossible.for me to
leave him without laying myself open
to the charge of having deserted a friend
who had greatly honored and trusted
me, at a time when he was under the
shadow of the greatest trouble of his
life. He sent a second tim. .,.,1 r
I found him greatly distressed, and his
first words were:
" 'Is it true you arc going to desert
" 'It is trae-thas-j
was my reply.
lam overwhelmed to know, said
he, that you, of all other men, are go
ing to leave me in this crisis. You are
from my own State, my closest political
and persona! friend. I have leaned
upon you in these troubles as upon none
other, and I insist that you shall stand
by me to the end.'
"Uc reviewed our association,
and made such personal appeal to me as
I knew he would when I responded to
his summons. After he was through. I
replied: 6 ' -
" 'Mr. President, from th fi-t r i.j
. , wm. . uou
determined to stand by you aud with you
to ueaui ana destruction, if need be. 1
promised myself that as long as there
was a button on your coat I would elino-
to it. But your action has t it-.t.
button off and driven me away from
bat do vou refer to? said he.
XourreDlv to th K...,ti. . r t-
Commissioners. That document k.
powder that has blown your Cabinet to
the four winds. The Southern members
will leave because you do not concede
what they ask, and your conclusions
make it impossible for them to stay.
The paper is even harder upon the
Northern members of your political
households It forces the Southern men
out, and you cannot ask that we stay.
I would not leave you for any earthly
consideration, so long as I could stay bv
you with self-respect, but I cannot do if
the paper you have prepared is sent to
the gentlemen from South Carolina.'
"The President seemed surprised that
I took this document so much to heart,
and I confess it took all the determina
tion I had to announce to him my de
cision with relation to it, for his manner
toward me was kind, and his appeal to
tne earnestness itself. To mv surprise,
he did not even argue the points of my
objection, as I expected he would. lie
heard me without a word, and when I
had finished, said :
"Judge, you speak the words of my
heart. I recognize the force and justice
of what you say. The letter to the
oouiu v-aroiina commissioners my tongue
dictated not my reason. But I feel that
we must not have an open rupture. We
are not prepared for war, and if war is
provoked Congress cannot be relied upon
to strengthen my arm, and the Union
must utterly perish."
"But, Mr. President
by your position, and bo'ldly, with your
judgment." He did not hesitate a
moment;, Dut turned to me, and said
.1. 0Lur agnation is the one thing
that shall not be. I will not, I, cannot
part with you. If you go, Holt and
fetanton will leave and I will be in a
sorry attitude before the country. This
is the greatest trouble I have vet had to
bear. Here, take this paper and modify
it to suit yourself; but do it before the
snn goes down. Before I sleep to-night
- " uow uon 1 11 is matter is arranged
to your satisfaction."
"I left Mr. Buchanan and went direct
ly to my othce. I confess that even
after what the President said T h al not
much hope that he would adopt my radi
al news; out i sat aown and wrote a
memorandom, giving my objection to
the paper, and Stanton copied it for me.
I sent the original to the President, and
retained the copy."
TEXT OF MR. BLACK'S OBJECTIONS TO
BUCH A S A S'S AKS WEE TO THESOCTH
C AEOLUS A COMMISSIONERS.
This important paper is now "of pecu
bar historical article that has called out
Mr. Davis's response. It is endorsed on
the back in Mr Stanton's own handwrit
ing: "Observation nn mrnsin.M,l.n. T.:
dent, South CoroJina commissioners by
J. 8. B." - '
As the words of Jndmi BWV atv.w
quoted were called out in this, onr laat
interview by recent criticism on Mr.
Curtis Life of Buchanan, it is neces
sary to a complete understanding of the
subject that this memorandum should
appear with this record, the more so be
cause Mr. Curtis fails to give it in his
nere is tne lull text :
Memorandum for the President on the
subject of the paper drawn up bv him
in reply to the Commissioners of South
First The first and the concluding
paragraph both seem to acknowledge
the right of South Carolina to be repre
ented near this government bv diplo
matic officers. That implies that she is
an independent nation, with no other
relations to the government of the
I mon than any ot iier foreim power.
IV aonk ls..-t ll. t .l -I
- " it, tuaa tut bas m-
quired all the rights, powers and rwryin
aibilities of a separate rovernm.st k-
the mere ordinances of seressiota which
passed her convention a few diys ago.
But the President has always, and par
ticularly in his late message to Congreaa
denied the right of secession and as
serted that no State could throw orl her
Federal obligations in that way. More
over, the President has also very dis
tinct; y declared that even if a State
could secede and go out of the Union
at pleasure, whether by it volution r in
the exercise of a constitwtioBal right,
he could not recognise her indepen
dence without being puiltv of Q urpa
tioo. I think, therefore, that every
word and waitencsj which imply that
South Carolina is in an attitude which
cb.. the I resident t- lru.it or ne
gotiate with her or to receive her com
missioner's in tne character ot diplomat
ic ministers or agents, ought to be
stricken out. and an explicit declara
tioa suhstitued which would reassert
the principles of the messarv. It L
sarely not enough that the words of the
message be transcribed it the doctrine
there announced be practically abaa-
uooeu or carrying on a negotiation.
Second I would strike ont all ex
pres&ious of regret that the commission
ers are unwilling to proceed with the
negotiations, since it is very clear that
there can be no negotiation" with them,
whether they are willing or not.
Third Above all thincs, it is objec
tionable to intimate a willingness to ce-
. . j . - : . I. ii. S . . .
Kunaio auu iuo cistic ur fuuiQ Caro
lina about the possession of a military
post which belongs to the United Stau-s.
or to propose any adjustment of the
subject or any arrangement abont it
The forts in Charleston harbor belong
to this government are itn own and
cacnot be given up. It is true they
might be surrendered to a supcrior
force, whether that force be in the ser
vice of a seceding State or a foreign
nation. But Fort Sumter is ii.r-e-va-,
ble and cannot lie tsfci - ' i t ,
it should be. It is s !.,.; '
importance that it ' '
If all the powef-cf ... - i . . . ,
it; for the command of the harbor and
the Presidents ability to execute the
revenue laws may depend on it.
fouriu 1 ne worn -coereme a state
by force of amis to Tcni.uii iu the
Condfederacy, a power which I do not
believe the Constitution has conferred
on Congress," ought certainly not
to be retained. Thev are too vacue.
and might have the effect (which I am
sure the President does not intend) to
mislead the commissioners concerning
his sentiments. The power to defend
the public property, to rest an assailing
force with unlawful attempts to drive
out the troi.ps of the United Sutes from
one of the fortifications, and to use mili
tary and naval forces for the United
Sutes iu the execution of the laws, this.
as far as it goes, is coercion, and may
very well be called the "coercing a State
by force of arms to remain in the
Inion." The President haa always as
serted his right of coercion to that ex
tent. Jle merely denies the wcht of
congress to make oticnsive war upon a
State of the Union, as such minht lie
made upon a foreign government.
Fifth The implied assent of the Pres
ident to the accusation which the com
missioners make of a comnact with
South Carolina, by which he was bound
nit to take whatever measures he saw
fit for the defense of the forts, ought to
be stricken out, and a flat denial of anv
such bargain, pledge, or aereement in
serted. The paper sijined bv the late
memliers of Congress from South Caro
lina does not bear such construction,
and this, as I understand, is the only.
transaction between South Carolina and
him which bears upon the subject either
directly or indirectly. I think it deeply
concerns the President's reputation tnat
he should contradict this statement.
since, if it be undenied, it puts him in
the attitude of an executive officer who
voluntarily disarms himself of the
power to perform his duty, and ties his
hands so that be cannot, without break
ing his word, "preserve, protect and de
fend the Constitution, and see the laws
faithfully executed." The fact that he
pledged himself in any such way cannot
lie true. The commissioners, no doubt,
have been so informed. But there
must be some mistake about it. It arose,
doubtless, out ef the President's anxious
and laudable desire to avoid civil war.
and his often-expressed determination
not even to furnish an excuse for an
outbreak at Charleston by reinforcing
Maj. Anderson unless it was absolutely
s!:i tl. . ... : ,
j n 7 K jCAPicaii.uii.QL &!
uuuui, uuuui iuuj. jiuuerson s periect
propriety of behavior should be care
fully avoided. He is not merely a gal
lant and meritorious officer who is en
titled to a fair hearing before he is con
demned; he has saved the country, I
solemnly believe, when its day was dark
est and its perils most extreme. He has
done everything that mortal man could
do to repair the fatal error which the
administration has committed in not
sending down troops enough to hold the
forts. He has kept the strongest one.
He still commands the harbor. We may
still execute the laws if we try. Be
sides, there is nothing in the orders
which were sent to him by the War De
partment which is in the slightest degree'
contravened by his act of throwing his
command into Fort Sumter. Even if
these orders, sent without your knowl
edge, did forbid him to leave a place
where his men might have perished and
shelter them under a stronger. position,
we ought all of us to rejoice that he
broke such orders.
Seventh The idea that a wrong was
committed against South Carolina bv
moving from Fort Moultrie to Fort!
Sumter, ought to be repelled as firmly j
as may be consistent with a proper re-!
spect for the high character of the gen-!
tlemen who compose the South Carolina
commission. It is a strange assumption
of right on the part of that State to say
that our United States troops must re
main in the weakest position they can
find in the harbor. It is not a menace
of South Carolina or of Charleston, or a
menace at all. It is simply self-defense.
If South Carolina does not attack Maj.
Anderson no human being will be in
jured. For there certainly w ill be no
reason to believe that he will commence
hostilities. The apparent objection to
his being in Fort Sumter is that be will
be less likely to fall an easy prev to his
These are the points on which I would
advise that the paper lie amended. I
am aware that they are too radical to
permit much hope of their adoption. If
mey are adopted the whole pajer will
need to be recast. But there is one
thing not to be overlooked in this terri
ble crisis. I entreat the President to
order the Brooklyn and the Macedonian
to Charleston without the least delay,
and in the meantime to send a trusty
messenger to Mai. Anderson tn let him
know tnat his government will not de
sert him. I he reinforcement of troops
front New York or Old Point Comfort
should follow immediately. If this be
done at once all may yet be not well.
out comparatively sale, if not, 1 can
see nothing before us bnt disaster and
ruin to the country
BUCH AS AS SEVER ADMITTED SECES
"li it true that this letter to which
you objected recognized the right cf
"No! no! a thousand times no f said
Judge Black, with great emphasis. "It
19 a gross libel upon the truth to assume
that Mr. Buchanan's letter acknowl
edged the right of secession. Thi was
a question upon which his judgment
was fixed, at the beginning of the
troubles and never modified. The
paper was so unsatisfactory to the South
ern members that they were bound to
go. This certainly would not have
been their conclusion if the President j
had acknowledged the kernel of the
principle they were contending for. My
objections to'the paper were that it dal
lied with the enemies oi the government,
implied certain diplomatic rights of
South Carolina that could not exist, and
yielded points that, were unfair to the
President's position. Thev were in the
same sense sack an - offere against mv
views and the principles I wa contend
ing should be maintained, that I could
not with self-respect have remained in
tne cabinet, bad they been sent out as
the judgment of the administration.
But my objection can be fully read in
my memorandum to the President upon
this subject, and nowhere in it will von
find an intimation that justifies the as
sumption that Mr. Buchanan ever re
cognized the right of a State to t
"The President accepted this paper
and framed his answer to the so-called
Siuth Carolina commissioners to an i 1
the points I had wised against it. Thus
the crisis, the greatest in all my public
service, waa aafdy passed. The reply
that Mr. Buchanan made to the o-called
commissi nor was such a rebuke to their
pretensions that they returned as an
swer so inr. iiltirg ia term that the Cb
mn UBanimocpf y sustained the Prei lent
ta But rtceivieg it.
i ' n
Co Tier .
---. BETWEEN -Star,
AND JCDOK BLACK.
"Tr7 ft'' tYu the Soutle-n
member, went out. We got Gen. DU
Su vely, kdcom
ively plain sai hng from that time
Dix mnA T . .
d b. rn4 wroteme afteVu
- in atnaewom irtf.d r..n
Ate letter. Z7.. ,KY ? pn-
Balek V'"" ni y Judge
to and Iv Judre
-nri-. tv :
i,r6 ' 1 Ofimoa ot the Cab-
as tt waaat thedoseof
sdnuetration. . As a mot in"!
upon Judir, Black's referenced thV.d.
f013- ker, the
nal, with an indorsement in Tod,
handwriting on the hack.
3 WEST TWEXTT-l iaST STiEFT
Ta the Bon. J. S. Black:
Mr DeaeSir I did not intend that
our recent association should terminate
without taking leave of you. But 1 1 ft
Washington J suddenly, " and immedi
ately after surrendering the Treasury to
Mr. Chase. I shall look back to our
brief but gratifying connection with the
late admistration w ith sincere pleasure,
and cannot bnt think things might have'
been left on a better fooling if th Cab
inet, with which it closed,' could have
had six months instead ot six week to
shape its policv. But I Wtr vou to un
derstand that a am speakiug' in In-half
of mv associates rather than mv own.
I shall be very much chacrined and
offended if you come to this citv without
letting me know it. Hoping to see you
I am, dear tar sincerely vours.
. - John A. Div.
Gtri.john-Jl,. Xj Mi ,'.-
1 lis I .'
Here a. sj n a c 1 v i ;,. , ,.,, to
this Ic-.ter tt un. lnx. At Bncther
time I propose to produre other Interest
ing document that 1m baa proilt;e,-! me
to take from his musty book vi
private letters, written iu the past which
the march of great events has made dis
tant. To the Uon. John A. Dil.
My Dear Sir Your kicd note gave
me great great pleasure. I should cer
tainly forget myself if I went to New
York without seeing you, proviidng vou
The friendship created by association
in such a service as that from w hich we
have just retired ought to be as endur
ing as life. It pain me therefore, to see
the difficulty between Holt and Tompaon.
Of course vou know Mr. Holt wlt
enough to make von sure that he is not
only an incorruptible, buta very able man
lompsonis, in my estimation, asnprigbt
true and honest a man as ever lived ;
one of the most efficient executive
officers this government ever had, oud
alwavs true to hia duty, as he apprehen
ded it. They are quarreling on a point
where thev are both right and Is.th
wrong. The order in question was given
and Holt heard It and Tompaon did not.
What is there in this to make an issue .
about? I think also the construction
upon Tonipson's dispatch, that it wa? a
violation of official confidence, ia a very
harsh one. On the whole this bitsines".
ought to be dropped just about where it
now is, and if you meet Mr. Holt, I
think you ought tosay so.' I have no
influence with either of" the parties.
Things are in a bad condition with
the new admistration. Thev ate afraid
to make war, and ashamed tn uir.te
peace. Tho border States must not be
driven out of the Union, nor New Fo
gland expelled from the party.
I am most trulv vours etc.,"
J. S. Black.
TnE CLOSE WORK CUT OUT TnAT WAS
The conversation between Judg
Black and myself, just upon tho eve of
of his fatal illness, washing and carnc.-t
iirin saw mm iu raeiier temper, oe iter
health, his mind clearer, or his wit or elo
quence more forcible. When it came
time for me to go he said:
"If you do not hear from me within a
week, come again, for IJimJliealthier and
lazier now than I have been for twenty
years. I get up in the morning deter
mined to work, but walk out and look
Iruit arid crops, come in and sit
" ' Vela tawhila, and g oui vmtti
look at them again. Night conies, and
i nave done nothing hut enjoy myself."
I suggested that I would return and
act as his amannensis in preparing what
he wanted to say, if he did not fell like
" No said he I've just got a big boun
ty in a great railroad case in Kansas,
and I must give that attention fffst. The
corporations have absolutely stolen the
bulk of that magnificent agricultural
commonwealth, and besides the prom
ises of a big fee, I have got my heart in
punishing them for it,"
The judge then stopped, thought a
moment and then said :
"I tell you what to do. Seud me
your scrap-book containing all you have
written'on this subject within the past
two years, I want all that Davis, Iloit,
Tompson, Thomas, and Jerry Black have
had to sav. Send it so I can get it to
morow and I will agree to telegraph you
within a week, unless I conclude to
come to the city and in that event vou
win meet me.
The sun marked hiirh noon : the tmwera
of the old man full of vears ana vigor,
seemed to stand at their full meridian
while he snoke these words with which
he closed his review of the political his
torical questions under discussion his
last utterance-, whose faint outline I
here traced. Affairs of the moment,
converse of the day, of his own life and
of his home followed, and on each fell
the light of a mind as powerful as it
was brilliant, for it was not so much to
adorn as to illuminate every subject he
touched. We shook hands, I left, not
again to meet his equal. The next day
i sent mm the records lie asked, and a
week later waa summoned to write the
last record of his Ue Faask A. Bcer.
The Iditoritl "We."
There is something so distinctively
terrifically horrible, or horrifically ter
rific in a cold analysis of the editorial
"we," that we almost pause awe-stricken
ana aumiounded on the gloomy thres
hold of discussion.
How did it get in? That i, who first
flung it into the broad arena of journal
ism, and then slunk behind its embattled
walls like the cowardly cur that he was?
Where is the wretch who forced it upon
us? Reflect for a moment on the incon
gruity of an editor writing about "our
wife' cr "our sweatheart, or "our boil
on the back of our neck," cr "our tooth
brush," or anything else that implies
Yet by the baleful use of the editorial
hack writer is compelled to use jjte!ich.
insipidities and linguistic atroclriss.
How doe it sound to say "the man
whipped ua," or to vary the illustration,
"we whipped the mac f' In the first, we
become pusillanimous; in the latter,
cowardly. Either or them Is an incor
rect representation of the fact. "We
mounted onr horse," signifies tliat the
animal was a good one, and could carry
We have a strobe suspicion that the
term originated with a wild-eved editor
who first wrote, "we took a drink." In
this case, no matter if it be soltaira
twelve-and-a-half -cent drink, there I a
chance to divide the blame somehow,
and throw half the responsibility on
some other fellow. But this is the onlv
redeeming feature about the "we." It
is a double-headed hvdra which shonld
be squelched and fired into the dim
Uuena ista of the past, relegated to
obsolcteism, and drummed out of the
At least, that u the wav - think
Paper Eulroid Track.
New York Hearald
Steel manufactories are anxiously
awaiting the result of a trial of psper
rails to be made cn a prominent N ra
te ra road. Car wheels of this materia!
have long been in use, and are reported
to gie satisfaction. The rails are said
to he made wholly of paper pulp, sub
iected to a presare'which render its.4-
idas metal. It is- clairied thst the
the paper rails are wot ef cored by at
mosplieric change, that tl-ey are nivrv
durable thaa steel, and that they can be
manufactured at one-third ! ct thsa
those of steel.
MTrrtF.iit. Tb length of time re
quired for tb formation f tha wye
dem, caVed th irefr X ""-
wwks. This r"iat waNMt ;ed trAit t.-a
receipt for making th tt r-"4 a
laat SSiBi&j' iwue.Ju.ivt Cti-sV-'S.
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