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TIIE MACON BEACON.
Co -Operative Farm Products Marketing How It Is Done in Europe and May Be Done in America to the Profit of Both Farmer and Consumer Br MATTHEW luopyngm, uut. western newspaper union. A VISIT TO PADDY GALLAGHER h 'Bpn Where the Co-Operatlve Concern Now Buy and 8ells. Dunglow, County Donegal, Ireland. This Is a story of the grand uphill flght for self-respecting, economic In dependence which Is being made by bunch of cheery Irishmen in County Donegal. At the head of this fighting Croup is Paddy Gallagher, an organ- ' and a promoter If there ever was But Is a promoter, nut of his fortunes, but the promoter of community welfare. This Is also the tor? of what a godsend a co-operative organization can be to a community -arnica has been, In an economic sense, feard stricken by nature. Nature vsems to have exhausted herself in toe agricultural gifts she showered on ntorn and southern Ireland and to kave reached Dunglow, in County Donegal, with nothing left in her gift teg except a few little patches of cold, unresponsive soil which she scattered Ikere and there among the huge out cropping rocks of the barren hillsides rising between the wide stretches of flesolate peet bogs. In fact, we are here because Sir . Horace Plunkett has said that this la the place of all others to visit, if we Americans wish to see what co operation will do toward helping an Irish community scratch a living out "" f the rocky hills on the bleak north western coast of Ireland. ' Who Paddy Is. Paddy Gallagher was born forty .rears ago In one of the poor one-room cottages on a barren three-acre ten ant holding a cottage that had the rolf always at the door. When Paddy ras nine he was put out to work at throe pounds for six months' work, fela father did not do this sort of thing because he wanted the little fcalf-atarved shaver to work beyond ads strength, but because it was either irork for Paddy or starvation for still younger and weaker children. After that there was nothing for Paddy bnt laid work, and low wages until he aa grown and had started a family at his own. -- But his work had taken him Into Car places, into Scotland and Eng d, and he came back with the real - at&Uon that life In Dungalow was not jrhat It ought to be. . Uneducated, Work-worn, without any outlook of promise tor himself or his family, something brought Paddy Gallagher the realization that he and his neigh bors together might do what each sep arately could not do. So, with the assistance of the Irish Agricultural Organization society, co-operation was brought to Dungalow. How It Started. Gallagher, who had been studying anils and manures, learned that ac cording to government analysis the oil of his section needed certain defi nite chemical elements. He asked lo--cal traders if they could give him any guaranty of analysis of the manures old by them. He was Informed that they never got such a thing, knew nothing about it and could give no guaranty. He wrote to the agricul tural department about it They re ferred him to the Irish Agricultural 'Wholesale society. From them he learned that this society at that time dealt only with local co-operative concerns. Bo this farm boy, with surprising persistence, gathered together the small farmers and pointed out to them the advantages to be gained as to , ejuality and price by purchasing guar anteed manures direct from the co operative wholesale society. The re mlt was that the farmers ordered a 30-ton lot of fertilizer through a little co-operative society In an adjoining .Tillage. They found that they saved $200 on the manures and besides se cured, super-phosphate of 30 per cent. Instead of 22 per cent strength, and Kasolved bone Instead of worthless compounds. The battle for co-operation was already half won, for there was no further question as to the ad wantages to be gained through co operation. " The "Gombeen Man, "The old methods of buying and sell ing were the cause of much poverty in " this,, district," said Mr Gallagher. "The traders have generally kept the public (-houses. They , vers gombeen men money 'under. , rVxr farmm 8. DUDGEON .no filial here could not pay cash for what they bought They had to get goods on credit Once a farmer got into debt to these retail dealers he seldom got free from the big man's clutches. While he was In this state he was no better, than a slave. He was charged tremendous prices and had to pay big interest. I myself have been charged intent on what I bought on credit at U.j rate of 144 per cent per annum. My father had this sort of interest to pay while he was bringing np his fam ily. That Is where the three pounds went that it took me six months to earn when I started to work. What Co-Operation Is Doing. "But notwitstandlng the smallness of the holdings, and the poor soil, con ditions in Dunglow are improving. I never knew an organization to do so much for a community as the Temple- crone Co-operative Agricultural soci ety is doing for Dunglow. The so ciety started in a little one-room cot tage on a farm where I lived. We be gan by buying manures and later a few groceries. We had fierce opposi tion at first from the gombeen man and traders, as fierce as any communi ty ever had. Some of the members were In debt to the gombeen men and bad to come into the co-operative quar ters at night and over the back walks in order to conceal from the gombeen man that they were members. If the gombeen men found out that any one trading with them was trading with us they refused him credit and issued a writ if he owed them." A Little Democracy. "We wish no one any 111. We do not do business that way. We have simply demanded the right to attend to our own little affairs. We meet in our little parliament here to discuss our business. We have given some entertainments which have brought the people nearer together and given them a good time. This year we or ganized an industrial show In which we exhibited everything which we pro duced here, including lace and knit goods, as well as some of our farm products. We did this to encourage others to make these things. Now we are looking around to get some little local Industry started. We need something of the kind badly so that more money can come into the com munity. Lace making, knitting and work of that kind is Important too, for every little helps here. We are' willing to work when we can. On the Up-Grade. "The boys are learning to farm bet ter than their fathers farmed. We are raising better cows, and pigs and chickens, and producing better eggs, poultry and meat than we ever did before. Through our little co-operative society we have a steady market at good prices for all we can raise. We are not rich, tor this is not a rich country, and never can be. There are too many stones and bogs in Don egal for that But we are doing our best, and we are going to reach a point soon where every man can go up and down Dunglow and say that he owes no man anything. Co-operation has brought us together, and we are all good friends. We are not fighting with each other any more. We are helping each other. We are still doing business on a very small scale, of course. We are poor people, and we must always be that There is no chance for wealth In a five or six-acre farm. We raise a little patch of oats for oatmeal for our family. Most of us get enough potatoes off our little places to last us through the year. We couldn't live without pota toes. You know the great famine of 1848, when so many died In Ireland, was caused wholly by potato blight. The children around here are almost brought up on potatoes. They get maenad potatoes, with a little milk in it, before they are weaned. They grow up on it and sometimes have little else. Co-operation has helped us to oell what we have, and we are doing first rate.' - , -;.. Cost of Living.' : "By purchasing goods direct from original sources, this society has made it possible for the poorest farmer to fertilize bis potato patch and ln- nresfn the crop which he raises.. The seeds which come through it are test- Did and guaranteed as they never woro before. It has lowered the price and improved the quality of tea, Indian meal and sugar. In one case, for ex ample, where a rival trader ras charg ing $3.07 for seven stone of flour we were offering the same flour at (2.25 for the seven stone. "You may be Interested In knowing about what an average family here has for an Income, where he gets it and what he has to eat. I have made oat a little statement so yon could figure that out To begin with, every farmer has his own potatoes and oats. Besides this, his Income is something like this: "Eggs and poultry, per week, about five shillings (165 per year). "Butter for about 18 or 20 weeks in summer, one to two shillings ($7 per year). "Sale of cattle possibly 12 pounds each year ($60 per year). "Sale of sheep, one pound ($5 per year). ' "A total of $137 per year. Besides thin. th woman tm a little something by knitting sweaters and making lace, etc. Marketing Eggs. "Ton will notice that eggs are our staple product The average poor farm family around here gets each year from 12 to 15 pounds out of their eggs, which is generally about half of their entire money Income. Before we took hold, however, egg raising was not at all profitable. There was no steady market, the farmers did not understand poultry, and no one had any ambition to learn anything about It They didn't take care of their eggs well and few were sold. "Previously the local price was two or three pence 'less than the price quoted in the nearest market in Straw bane and Deny. Now the prices paid are from one to two pence above the prices quoted In these markets. In other words, we have Increased the value of a dozen eggs from three to four pence (six to eight cents). For the entire district, this amounts to quite a sum. Ton must remember also that while we purchased only one-tenth of the eggs sold In this par ish, the fact that we t Dunglow are paying the prices which we pay has made it necessary for every other buyer in the entire parish to pay the same price. Irish Lace and Knitted Goods. 'Our co-operative company looks af ter a good many things besides sell ing eggs and butter. We are helping the girls market their lace and knitted work. Two years ago we asked the government department to send us an instructor to teach the girls to make hand-knit sport coats (sweaters). They sent a man to look It up. He talked with some of the men here who were not friendly to this co-operative movement Nothing was done. Our girls were getting one shilling six pence (36 cents) for' knitting a dozen pairs of socks, using up from three and a half to four pounds of wool. These socks were purchased of the women by an agent of a whole sale trader. "The co-operative society decided they could do better by the girls than these buyers. Since they started buy ing, the girls get seven shillings six pence ($1.87) from the society for knitting a sweater coat, using only two pounds of wool and taking only one half as long as a dozen pair of socks. Putting it another way, for the same amount of wool and the same time spent in knitting, the girls get 15 shillings ($3.76) instead of one shil ling six pence (36 cents). That is, our society is paying them ten times what they used to get from the other buy ers for their knitting. Formerly the girls who knit lace were bound by a bargain under which If they sold to any one privately they were boycot ted. The buyer told them unless they sold him all he would buy nothing. Now we are getting fairly good prices for the lace, better than they got be fore and we, of course, permit them to sell wherever they can. They fre quently have oportunity to Sell to tourists and others who come through here. While we get fairly good prices for the lace, there Is no steady market for it, as there is for the knitted goods. Connected Vlth Central Society. "Our little local society could not stand alone and do what we are try ing to do. We are helped all the time by Sir Horace Plunkett's organization society and by the Co-Operative While- sale) society at Dublin. Each week the wholesale society sends us a fore cast giving the figures that should be obtained for eggs, butter and chick ens, and stating whether or not there is to be a demand for these products. Each day we write to the wholesale society, telling them what we have on hand and what we will likely have. Sometimes we telegraph. Then they may either write or telegraph back what they want us to send and when and where to send It We send It, not to Dublin, but directly to the places selected by the wholesale society;. In this way we save freight, we save commission, we save time, and we save the eggs themselves. You must not get the idea," Mr. Gallagher continued, "that this con cern is a large mercantile establish ment We know enough to know that we can only do business in a modest way. We think we aro doing it well, and we hope It will continue to grow as it has in the past I am mora and more convinced," he adds, "by what see every day, that If w. want to have a happy .and contented people here co-operation Is tho best means for bringing it about" And so they are making a fight that would put the ordinary . American community to shame a fight that is gradually mat lng this desolate region habitable and this hjfd-working people happy. - fBESDEOT- WOULD DAK CONCERNS BEING INTERESTED L'l BUSHESS OF COMPETITORS Washington. President Wilson In his message on the trust question; ad dressed personally to a Joint session of congress, said: , Gentlemen of the Congress: In my report "On the State of the Union," which I had the privilege of reading to you on the 2d of December last I ventured to reserve for discussion at a later date the subject of additional legislation regarding the very graph ical and intricate matter of trusts and monopolies. The time now seems op portune to turn to that great ques tion; not only because the currency legislation which absorbed your atten tion and due attention of the country In December Is now disposed of, but also because opinion seems to be clearing about us with singular rapid ity in this other great field of action. In the matter of the currency it cleared suddenly and very .happily after the much-debated act . was passed; in respect to the monopolies which have multiplied about us, and in regard to the various means', by which they have been organized and maintained, it seems to be coming to a dear and all but universal agree ment in anticipation of our action, as if by way of preparation, making the way ' easier to see and easier to set out upon with confidence and without confusion of counsel, ...... Masters of Business Yield. The great business' men who "or ganised and financed monopoly, and those who administered It in actual everyday transactions have year aft er year, until now, either denied its existence or justified It as necessary for the effective maintenance and de velopment of the vast business processes of the country In the mod ern circumstances of trade and manu facture and fiuance; but all the while opinion has - made headway against them. The average business man is convinced that the ways of liberty are also the ways of peace and the ways of success as well; and at last the masters of business on the great scale have begun to yield their preference and purpose, perhaps their judgment also, In honorable surrender. We are all agreed that "private mo nopoly Is Indefensible and intolera ble," and our program Is founded upon that conviction. It will be a comprehensive but not a radical or unacceptable program, and these are its Items, the changes wnlch opinion deliberately sanctions und for which business waits: . Favors Fair Competition.' It waits with acquiescence, in the first place, for laws which will effec tually prohibit and prevent such inter- lockings of the personnel of the di rectorates of great corporations banks, railroads, industrial, commer cial and public-service bodies as in effect result in making those who bor row and those who lend practically one and the same, those who sell and those who buy but the same persons trading with one another under differ ent names and in different combina tions, and those who affect to com pete in fact partners and masters of some whole field of business. Suffi cient time should be allowed, of course, in which to effect these changes of organization without in convenience or confusion. To Regulate Financing of Railroads. In the second place, business men as well as those who direct public af fairs now recognize, and recognize with painful clearness, the great harm and Injustice which has been done to many, If not all, of the great railroad systems of the country by the way in which they have been financed and their own distinctive interests subor dinated to the interests of the men who financed them and of other busi ness enterprises which those men wished to promote. The country is ready, therefore, to accept, and ac cept with relief as well as approval, a law which will confer upon the Inter state commerce commission the power to superintend and regulate the financial operations by which the rail roads are henceforth to be supplied with the money they need for their proper development to meet the rap idly growing requirements of the country for increased, and improved facilities of transportation. We cannot postpone action in this matter without leaving the railroads exposed to many serious handicaps and hazards; and the prosperity of the railroads and the prosperity of the country are inseparably connected. Upon this question those who are chiefly responsible for the actual man agement and operation of the rail roads have spoken very plainly and very earnestly, with a purpose we ought to be quick to accept. It will be one step, and a very Important one, toward the necessary separation of the business of production from the business of transportation; . More Expliolt Laws Required. The business of the country awaits Dally Thought. Part of our good consists In the en deavor to do sorrow away, .and in the power to sustain them when the endeavor fails; to bear them nobly, and thus help others to bear their sor rows as well. Leigh Hunt '''"' Longing for" the Old Days. ! "Do- you think the country 4 is pros perous?". "Yes," replied . Senator Sorghum. "But what's, the good of having a whole lot of wealth when nobody dares spend any of It - tor votes or Influwies;?" ' - ' '.. also, has long awaited and has suf fered because it could not obtain fur ther and more explicit legislative defi nition of the policy and meaning of the existing anti-trust law. Nothing hampers business like uncertainty. Nothing daunts or discourages it like the necessity to take chances, to run the risk of falling under the con demnation of the law before it can make sure Just what the law is. Sure ly we are sufficiently familiar with the actual processes and methods of monopoly and of the many hurtful re straints of trade to make definition possible, at any rate up to the limits of what experience has disclosed. These practices, being now abundant ly disclosed, can be explicitly and Item by Item forbidden by statute In such terms as will practically elimi nate uncertainty, the law itself and the penalty being made equally plain. Would Punish Individuals. - - Inasmuch as our object and the spirit of our action in these matters is to meet business half way In its process of self-correotlon and dis turb its legitimate course as little as possible, ws ought to see to it and the Judgment of practical and saga cious men of affairs everywhere would applaud us if we did see to it, that penalties - and punishments should fall, not upon business Itself, to its confusion and Interruption, but upon the Individuals who use the In strumentalities of business to do things which public policy and sound business practice condemn. Every act of business is done at the com mand or upon the intlatlve of some ascertainable person or group of per sons. These should not be held Indi vidually , responsible and the punish ment should fall upon, not upon the business organization of which they make illegal use. , It should be one of the main objects of our legislation to divest- such persons of their cor porate cloak and deal with them as with those who do not represent their corporations, but merely by deliber ate intention break the law. Business men the country through would, I am sure, applaud us if we were to take effectual steps to see (hat the officers and directors of great business bodies were prevented from bringing them and the business of the country into disrepute and danger. To Prohibit Holding Companies. Other questions remain which will need very thoughtful and practical treatment Enterprises, in these mod ern days .of great individual fortunes, are oftentimes interlocked, not by be ing under the control of the same di rectors, but by the fact that the great er part of their corporate stock is owned by a single person or group of persons who are in some way in timately related in interest We are agreed, I take it that holding com panies should be prohibited, but what of the controlling private ownership of individuals or actually co-operative groups of individuals. Shall the pri vate owners of capital stock be suf fered to be themselves In effect hold ing companies? We do not wish, I suppose, to forbid the purchase of stocks by any person who pleases to Duy them in such quantities as he can afford, or in any way arbitrarily to limit the sale of stocks -to bona fide purchasers. Shall we require the own ers of stock, when their voting power m several companies which ought to be independent of one another would constitute actual control, to' make election in which of them they will exercise their right to vote? This question I venture for your considera tion, r There is another matter in which imperative considerations of justice and fair play suggest thoughtful re medial action. Not only do many of the combinations effected or sought to be effected in the industrial world work an injustice upon the public in general; they also directly and seri ously injure the individuals who are put out of business in one unfair way or another by the many dislodging and exterminating forces of combina tion. I hope that we shall agree In giving private Individuals who claim to have been injured by these pro cesses the right to found their suits by the government where the govern ment has upon its own initiative sued the combined complained of and won its suit and that the statute of limi tations shall be suffered to run against such litigants only from the date of the conclusion of the govern ment's action. It 1b not fair that the1 private litigant Bhould be obliged to set up and establish again the facts which the government has proved. He cannot afford, he has not the power, to make use of such processes of in quiry as the government has com mand of.' Thus shall individual Jus tice be done, while the processes of business are rectified and squared with the general conscience. To Whiten Ivory, To whiten ivory rub it well with unsalted butter and place it in the sun shine. If it is dUcolored It may be whitened by rubbing it with a paste composed of burned pumice Btone and water and putting it In the sun under glsss. Our Own Reasons. ' "We are more easily persuaded, fn general, by the reasons we ourselves discover than by those which have been suggested to us by otbsra." GHILDHEN LOVE SfflUPJF HGS It Is cruel to force nauseating, harsh physic into a ; sick child, Look back at your childhood days. Remember the "dose" mother insisted on castor oil, calomel, cathartics. How you hated them, how you fought against taking them. With our children it's different Mothers who cling to the old form of ' physio simply don't realize what they do. The children's revolt Is well-founded. Their tender little "insldes" are injured by them. If your child's stomach, liver and bowels need cleansing, give only deli clous "California Syrup of Figs." Its action is positive, but gentle. Millions of mothers keep this harmless "fruit laxative" handy; they know children love to take it; that It never falls to clean the liver and bowels and sweet en the stomach, and that a teaspoonful given today saves a sick child tomor row. . .. . . , ,. . "' i' , - - Ask at the store for a 60-cent bottle of "California Syrup of Figs," which has full directions for babies, children of all ages and for grown-ups plainly on each bottle. Adv. Early Suffragette. Militant minded women were known In England before the suffragettes, one of whom lies In Henry VII. 's chap el Margaret, countess of Richmond, its builder's mother, with her brass effigy by Torrlgiano. She hated the Turk, and she made, as Camden re ports, a sporting offer to the chival rous of her day: "On the condition that princes of Christendom would combine themselves and march against the . common enemy, the Turk, she would most willingly attend them and be their laundress In camp." That position of laundress to the crusaders would have been an easy one, for it was the fashion to make vows 1 tor change no underclothing until the holy sepakcher was regained. GREAT CHANGE IN TWENTY YEARS Shaw Lady Looks Younger Instead of Older with Lapse of Time. Shaw, Miss. Mrs. V. N. Smith, of this city, makes an interesting state ment of her experiences, as follows: "Twenty-nine years ago, I contracted a serious form of womanly trouble. We 'called in our family physician, and he treated me for it but it seemed to do no good. It went on' Into other bad troubles, and I com menced taking all kinds of medicines to see if I could get relief, bat to no avail. I suffered with that trouble np until eleven years ago, when I read about Cardui, the woman's tonic, and bought a full treatment It relieved me at -once, and after taking the full treat ment, I ant now well and stout I sent my brother, whom I bad not seen in twenty years, one of my pho tographs, and he wrote me that I looked younger than when be last saw me. For mora than SO years, Cardui has been relieving women's sufferings, and building weak women up to health . and strength. No' other tonic gives -. the same results as Cardui. No other woman's medicine has the long record of success in treating cases of woman ly weakness and disease. Cardui will surely help you. Try It N. B- Wrik toe LadW AiMaorr lTrt.. Chart. noogm Medicine Co.. Chattanooga, Tenn., for Special fmtrudltm, and 4-page book. "Home Treat ment for Women," seat In plain wrapper. ox request. Adv. Onions Are Cheaper. Mrs. Hetty Green on her seventy- eighth birthday anniversary told a re porter that she' put more faith in on ions than in doctors. An onion was her recipe for colds, coughs, Insomnia, nerves and many other maladies. "An onion," Bhe added, "is a better friend to your pocketbook than a doc tor, too. k 'A young lady was studying to be a nurse, and she said one day to a popular surgeon: "What did you operate on Mr. Socis forr - ' 'For 13,000,' the surgeon answered. 'The young nurse smiled. "No,' she said; I mean what did he have?' ' 'Three thousand dollars,' was the surgeon's reply." . Important to Mothers Examine carefully every bottle of CA8TORIA, a safe and sure remedy for iniants ana cnuaren, ana see that it Bears thA Signature of ULstttZA . s r t? s si in ubo or uver no Years. Children Cry for Fletcher's Caatoria Enough for One Man to Do. "I've written a song." "Then be eatisfledovith that Don't Insist on Hinging it also." ' . RUB-MY-TISM Will cure yovlr Rheumatism and alf kinds of aches and pains Neuralgia,, Cramps, Colic, Sprains, Bruises, Cuts, Old Sores, Burns etc. - Antiseptlo Anodyne. Price 25c Adv. " Some men have greatness - thrust upon them, but it generally goes W 7