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THE MACON BEACON, MACON, MISS.
Making Tbmorrow's World By WALTER WILLIAMS, LL.D. J)m4tluStJolfJmntdtimdUn UlnUfMlMmrO TOWN AND HOUSE PLANNING Ghent, Belgium. T o w n p 1 a n ning la not a modern Inven tion. Only the purpose ot the planning has changed. Towns were planned yes terday for the glory of the great and the enjoy ment of the few, for show or for safety against In vasion. The town planners of to day are working on. other and to tally different lines. Almost within the decade has developed the town planning which takes into ac count the great majority of the people who dwell in the towns. The new town-planner is a prac tical democrat This was the cen tral and significant thought of the First International Town Planning Congress held in this quaint, historic city of Ghent, Belgium, in the Palace of Congresses of its beautiful exposi tion. Town-planning involves house planning. Plans are futile unless workable. The provision of funds and the direction and control of expendi ture were discussed. And because town-planning takes into account in Its largest vision the city's suburbs - and the country side, even far re moved, there was report of farm dwellings and farms, of the provision of houses in country as In town. The gathered experiences of a dozen na tions, through official representatives from their chief cities, were presented. Conspicuous was the object lesson presented In an exhibit by a learned St Andrew's professor, In picture, fchart and model, of the changing plans of towns, from the glorification of the Caesar, the church or the state, Berlin or Rome or Washington, to the good of the men and women and even of the boys and girls, who were the residents. Takes Parks to the People. We have built our towns not to fit fas but to fit our neighbors' eyes, pathedral and castle and capital, bou- Healthy and levard and avenue and park, contrast sharply with dwelling houses. Edin burgh has Prince's Street, most beau tiful, but has or had also North Canongate. Paris has the Champ Elysees and the Avenue de 1' Opera, and all the sparkling boulevardB, but also the sidestreets of Montmartre and Belleville. London has St. James' Park and Whitechapel. The Bame was true of every city yesterday and is true today. The town-planners hope for change tomorrow. Parks and broad avenues and plans with noble monuments may be beautiful and de - airable, but if the space which makes them possible is taken from the living rooms of the people, they become, to him who sees beneath the surface show ot the city, undesirable and hideous. Parks are a city's lungs, the breathing places for its people, but one may not live at his best if he breathes only on Sunday afternoons. Bo the new town-plan, as the people, particularly the little people, can not come to the big park far removed, 'takes the park to them.. Town-planning and building of towns and coun try houses are taking on a new and totally different aspect Landlords Subordinated. In Great Britain the Conservative party, when in power some twelve years ago, passed through Parliament the Small Dwellings Acquisitions Act The Liberals, by the Housing and Town Planning Act of 1909, added to the provisions of the earlier act the feature of town planning, for the first time in British legislation. France, -Germany, Belgium and other substan tial countries have made large prog ress, though not always on the same lines. Speaking generally, the new legislation sanctions loans by statef and municipalities for the acquisition of land for the provision of parks, the erection of dwellings and other purposes. The Interest of the land tod or the owner of real estate is f l' (pf If subordlnated to the interest of the community. The crowded housing, which the greed of real estate pro moters so frequently brings about in small as well as large towns, is not permitted under the new town-plan ning legislation. Society has rights which even the real estate agents must respect Cities, which were for merly built for the power and the glory of the overlord, and, more lat terly, for the pocket of the landlord, are to be constructed for common, ordinary folks, the class to which most of us belong. Life is to be preferred above mere property. Now all this can not be brought about In a day. The building of Rome took longer, whatever Its plan ning or lack of planning required. Progress, remarkable progress, has been made. The Ghent Congress Bhowed that much has been accom plished in less than a decade. The reconstruction- of Vienna, the working men's houses in Germany, the mak ing over of certain poorer quarters in Paris and Brussels and Ghent, Gar den City, near London, and other city suburbs in Great Britain, are examples of the new but widespread movement for better housing for town and coun try. Better Housing Progress in England. Great Britain, where conditions of life are more nearly similar to those in the United States, contributed the results of its recent experimental leg islation. This legislation, in substance, was designed to simplify and cheapen the existing procedure for acquiring land for housing purposes and to deal with Insanitary areas and unhealthful dwellings, to require landlords to keep rented houses in proper repair, and to provide for town planning. Under this act 140 British towns have adopted schemes of town planning to guide their growth and development Farm land to the amount of 160,000 acres has been purchased and upon It have been Installed 13,000 smallhold ers. Ninety per cent of this state ac quisition of land was not by compul sion but by voluntary agreement with landowners. Ninety-eight per cent of the 13,000 smallholders rent the land. Only two per cent bought It from the state, the others preferring to be ten ants of the county councils, to which Is entrusted the local administration XV Happy Children. of the scheme. Nor has this result, according to its advocates, depressed private enterprise. Landlords, im bued with a spirit of enlightened self interest, entered into healthy compe tition with the state, and leased 40,000 other acres to 3,000 tenants. The scheme has cost the state about $15, 000,000. In the towns, last year, 47,000 dilapidated houses were made lit for human habitation by the law's control of landlords, $4,000,000 was loaned for workingmen's dwellings and all on the basis of economic- prices and rents. Private enterprise was here, too, ap parently stimulated for in two years the number of new houses of low val uation and rent, constructed by land lords and real estate owners, under state-approved plans, Increased by lifU.UUU. State to Build Laborers' Cottages, The British county council Is often controlled by landlords and other own ers of real estate, who, In a spirit of shortsightedness, seek to keep rents high. Walter Runciman, the British Minister of Agriculture, plans to have the al-ate at large build cottages for farm-laborers and town worklngmen when necossary. The state, he esti mates, could build cottages of ade quate size and character, at $750 each an4 rent them, without loss, at 75 cents a week. He thinks 100,000 such cottages are Immediately needed. With each cottage would be provided land sufficient for small farming and gardening. Housing Is regarded as a central evil In the present situation alike of the form and town laborer. The lnsanlta.iT and Ill-provided cot tage which the laborer on the farm receives !n part payment for his labor from the farmer or which the town workman rents at an exorbitant price, keeps the farm laborer in economic subjection or promotes congestion in the towns. The Runciman plan com mits Great Britain to a further step toward solving this housing problem. Tie Ghent Congress hoard that Great Britain could employ, tf necessary, compulsory powers to purchase land in considerable blocks, erecting cot. tagei, four to an acre, thereon and make the scheme profitable at 75 cents a week. This estimate Included, In addition to $760 for the cost of the cottage, $250 for the land. After due allowance was ded for loan charges, repairs, Insurance, and supervision, the total annual cost to be met was set down at $160 per group of four, which works out about 75 cents a week for each. n Model Cottage for 62 Cents Weekly, The model was shown of a cottage In Surrey, England, actually built and rented to three young women earning their living. This cottage has three bedrooms, parlor, kitchen, pantry. bathroom, coal-cellar.. A framework of block weather-boarding was used for the external rails. Between this and the plaster interior is an air space which Is said to make the house warm and dry and perfectly weather-proof, It cost land Included, $600 and rents for 62 cents a week. Better housing on the farm may not, ot course, check the movement of pop ulation to the city. Perhaps it Is neither necessary nor desirable to re tain upon the soil, under today's con dition, so large a proportion of the population as yesterday. The more rural conditions are Improved, the bet ter the wages and the housing, the higher the education at the school, the less will the farm-laborer be satis fied with the country as it Is. So better farm conditions, through Hous ing Reform and In other ways, brings an increased betterment of all rural life conditions for those who remain and, with better conditions, fewer hands are needed. It was not a far cry, therefore, when the Town Plan ning Congress heard one speaker em phasize the need for a more comforta ble rural life and for a more intensive agriculture. A Slum Life Story. Over against the progress of the new attack upon the old slum, as show a by the Ghent CongresB, may be put a story told a few evenings before at a London club. MiBs B an old maid with much money and nothing to do,, became interested in slum work. She rented rooms In a London slum district, gave tea and cake the Brit ish climax of afternoon hospitality to children who came and presented material for any garments they would make. One little girl worried Hiss B. She looked so poor and 111 and mis erable. Finally the Good Samaritan decided to Invite the child to her coun-1 try borne for a week's holiday, an In vitation accepted with delight -The good woman made every provision for her comfort, a pretty bedroom, toys and playmates ' and books, food and flowers. The child pf the slums could stand it only four days. She wanted to go back to London the second day, she cried all the third day and neither food nor fruit nor flowers could tempt her on the fourth. She invented ex cuses to Induce her benefactor to take her back to her tenement dwelling she dreamt her mother was dead, she had sprained her foot, her father had written that her baby brother was ill. The truth was that her small Cockney soul fairly sickened for the sights and smells of the slums and that a ha'pen ny worth of chips eaten from a scrap of newspaper tasted to her sweeter than a well-cooked omelette served in a china plate. "They are all the same," said he who told the Btory as argument against the new crusade against the slum, town-planning for all the people, "they are all the same; you can do nothing with them dress them, feed them, pamper them, it is all the same, they will fall back into the gutter and regard you as an enemy for trying to lift them out." "It is not an effort to lift men from the slums," quietly replied the St. An drew's professor, "it Is an effort to abolish the slum, so that no one will be born therein.' For if there is no hog-wallow, even the Bwine cannot re turn to it" Heaven, if the town plans of John the Beloved are realized, is to be a Blumless city not a country-place a city in which there will be neither sor row nor crying nor pain, for the for mer things of yesterday will have passed away. And this city, near at hand on earth, the zealous, optlmlstio town-planners of Ghent all see, at least "in their mind's eye, Horatio!" (Copyright, 19H, by Joseph B. Bowles.) Cannot Fix Age of World. The age of the world Implies fixing the date of the creation, and scientists do not attempt to do that beyond say ing that it must be reckoned by mil lions of years. Many Bibles are print- led with the year 4004 B. C. In the margin of the first chapter of Genesis, indicating that as the date of the creation of the world. It is only with in comparatively recent times that science has demonstrated beyond doubt that the world existed millions of years before the period formerly assigned as the date of the creation, and that Its occupancy by man covers a period hundreds of times as long as that formerly accepted as the age of the world itself. t The prehlstorlo period means, the period antedating written history. Human records by means of hieroglyphics which, as now known, reach back far beyond the period formerly accepted as the date of the creation of the world. Horse's Wonderful Endurance. To test the staying powers of a thoroughbred horse a New Jersey man rode an animal from New York to Chicago. He covered the first seven hundred miles in less ' than twelve days of actual riding. This horse once made the distance ot seventy-eight miles In twenty-four hours, carrying a rider over the mountains between Johnstown, Pa., and Pittsburgh. . I unanimous . I RFMflVFR RAH Oil (Copyright.) CAPTAIN BERRY HELD NEGLIGENT RESPONSIBILITY FOR NORFOLK DISASTER FIXED BY SECRE TARY REDFIELD. Washington. Secretary Redfleld has directed that charges ot negli gence be preferred against Captain Osman Berry of the Merchants and Miners' steamship Nantucket, which collided with and sank the old Domin ion liner Monroe with a loss of forty one lives off the Virginia coast. Investigation of the charges will be entrusted to the local board of inspec tors at Philadelphia, with instructions that testimony be taken and a de cision reported. This action followed a conference at the Department of Commerce on a re port from R. E. Tapley, the department inspector of hulls at Norfolk, Va. The secretary announced that evi dence brought out by the inspector's preliminary inquiry, held on board the Nantucket While that vessel was mak ing her way into Norfolk with the Monroe's survivors aboard, "tended to show that there was negligence on the part of Captain Berry." He added, however, that it would be "quite im proper to pass upon that question at this time, further than to decide that there Is sufficient evidence to require that charges be preferred against Captain Berry and that the question of his innocence or guilt be made the subject of further Investigation." PINDELL REFUSES POSITION Illinois Man Declines Appointment As Ambassador to Russia Because of Controversy. Washington.-l-Henry M. Pindell, of Peoria, 111., who was nominated re cently and confirmed as ambassador to Russia, has declined the appoint ment, according to a letter to Presi dent Wilson, made publio at the White House. i Mr. Pindell wrote President Wilson January 28 that, although the senate had investigated accusations In con nection with his appointment, he felt, nevertheless, that no controversy of any kind should surround the appoint ment of any ambassador. The controversy over Mr. Pindell's nomination grew out of a publication of what purported to be a letter from Senator Lewis, of Illinois, to Mr. Pin dell, urging the latter to accept the post of ambassador to Russia for a year, and saying he would be relieved of dlplomatio responsibility for impor tant negotiations and could travel freely In Europe.. Senator Lewis charged that the letter was a forgery. A senate committee investigated the correspondence and recommended the confirmation of Mr. Pindell. SUFFRAGISTS VISIT WILSON Four Hundred Women Workers Ask President to Aid In Establish ing Committee on Suffrage. Washington. Clad in frocks, repre sentative of their trades, 400 woman workers from ten Eastern states, In tent upon enlisting support for woman suffrage, wre received by President Wilsqn at the White House. They ap pealed to the president to asBist the suffrage movement by lending his in fluence to the effort to establish a house committee on suffrage. It was the second time the president has been brought face to face with the suffrage question in an official way and his attitude toward the petition of the women already was known. He holds that he cannot urge legislation upon congress that has not been the subject of "organic party considera tion." Kill Jim Crow Law. Norfolk. Race segregation laws here seeking to separate the white and negro inhabitants In 'definite parts of the city stand adjudged unconstitu tional In a test case before the state circuit court. Georgia Bank Closes Doors. Hazlehurst The Farmers State Bank of Hazlehurst failed to open lie doois fbr business and its affairs are In tbo hacdb of the state examiner. The brnk was organized three years VO. i SAY HUERTA HAS SLAIN PLOTTERS ARRESTS MADE IN CONNECTION WITH CONSPIRACY AGAINST MEXICAN PRESIDENT. Mexico City. Several additional ar rests have been made In connection with the 'alleged plot against Huerta. The police have also seized a large quantity of arms and ammunition which is claimed to have been se- created by the conspirators for use in the uprising which was set for the anniversary of the overthrow of Ma- dero. Several of those already arrested are reported to have been executed, but the more prominent under arrest are believed to be safe from this fate. The government announces that when the rebels took the town of Conception del Oro a few days ago, Lieutenant Martinez and fifty Feder als refused to surrender to the six hundred rebels, and were all shot down. General Arreita, the rebel com mander at Durango, Is said to have issued a proclamation threatening the immediate execution of any of the inhabitants who aid or favor the Federals in any way. Currency Issued by the Bank of Sonora, the Bank of Minero and other banks established under the Diaz re gime will be treated as counterfeit money after February 10 under a de cree issued by the rebel government, The free and unlimited coinage of silver will be offered as a means ot providing ample money. PLACE DEPUTIES ON TRIAL Michigan Officers Charged With Sec ond Degree Murder for Shooting of Striking Copper Miners. Houghton, Mich. Six deputy sher iffs have been placed on trial here charged with killing Aloise Tijan and Steve Putrick, strikers, at the Seeber ville location, near Painesdale, Aug. 14 The charge is second degree mur der. It is said the men wtll plead self-defense. Tijan and Putrick were the first men killed in the copper miners' strike, which began last July. The deputies had gone to a boarding house to arrest two men, alleged to have threatened the life of a mine guard. They did not find the men they were looking for and started to leave the premises, when, the defense says, one of the deputies was struck on the back of the head with a missile. The shoot ing followed. , STORM COSTS SEVEN LIVES Heavy Snowfall In Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and Michigan Causes Sev eral Railroad Wrecks. Chicago. Northern Illinois, Indiana and Ohio are covered with-deep snow as a result of' a storm which contin ued for twenty-four hours. , In many places the snow was accompanied by a high wind and a severe drop, in temperature. Southern Michigan ex perienced the heaviest snowfall of the year and many of the states to' the west of Illinois" were buried un der snow. The effect of the storm was felt In railway trains, the breaking of tele graph lines and several railroad wrecks due to the disorganized signal service. Seven deaths were reported throughout the states. The storm was partciularly violent in Eastern Indi ana and Ohio. Twenty-two Killed in Mine. Dortmund, Germany. Twenty-two persons are known to have been killed and seventeen injured in an ex plosion of firodamp in the Achenbach colliery. f Torpedo Plant Wrecked Sisterville, W. Va The plant of the Young Torpedo Company was wrecked and $10,000 damage was done to property within a radius of ten miles when lightning exploded 500 quarts of nltro-glycerin. Four Companies Indicted. Chicago. Indictments against threo railroads and the packing firm of Swift & Co. were returned hv a rori. eral grand Jury on charges nf rhnt. ing, brought by the interstate com merce commission. ABMS TO MEXICO PRESIDENT WIL80N ISSUES PROC . LAMATION LIFTING EMBARGO ON SHIPMENTS. FACTIONS ON EQUAL FOOTING Many Believe President's Action Wilt Hasten End of the Revolution In Short Time Rebels Are Jubilant. I i ' Mexico City, Feb. 4. Many of the American residents here, on learning of President Wilson's decision to raise tie embargo on the exportation ol arms Jrom the United States to Mex ico, made preparations to leave hf capital for the coast Washington, Feb. 4. President Wty sob, by an executive order dated yes terday and made public at the White House last night, removed all restrl tions against the exportation of muni tions of war Into Mexico from the United States, placing the contending Mexican elements on a basis of equal ity with respect to the purchase ot arms and supplies In this country. The executive order emphasized that it was the desire of the United States to be in the same position of neutral ity toward the contending factions In Mexico as were the other powers. Accompanying the order, the White House issued the following statement) of explanation: "The executive order under whichl the exportation of arms and ammuni tion into Mexico is forbidden was a de parture from the accepted practice of neutrality a deliberate departure from those practices under a well con sidered joint resolution of congress determined upon in circumstances which have now ceased to exist. It was Intended to discourage Incipient revolts against tre regular constituted authorities of Mexico. Since that or der was issued circumstances of the case have undergone a radical change. There is now no constitutional govern-' ment in Mexico, and the existence o this order hinders and delays the very thing the government of the United States is now insisting, namely, that Mexico shall be left free to settle her own affairs and as soon as possible put them upon a constitutional foot ing by her own force and counsel. The order is, therefore, rescinded," . , Think War Will Soon End. Many members of congress are con fident the president's action means the termination of the revolution in a short time. Senators did not venture pre dictions as to what kind of govern ment would succeed, but they pointed: out that the constitutionalists had a semblance of organized and regulated' power, even though they had not es tablished civil government in the terri tory under their control. They do not feel that the time has come for the United States to recognize the con stitutionalist forces as belligerents in the diplomatic sense, and persons close to the administration were care ful to point out that today's, develop ments should not be construed as in volving the United States as a parti san in the Mexican situation. Action Marks a Climax. Coming at the end of neariv a vear of warfare and bloodshed, Which began with the killing of President Madero and Vice-President Suarez, the raising of the embargo will mark a climax of months of strained relations with Mex ico, during which President Wilson nas reiterated that the United States would not recognize the provisional presidency of Victoriano Huerta unilei- any circumstances, and has repeatedly. stated that the United States could! recognize only those governments which were founded on "law and or der." President Taft Issued the Declama tion which barred the exportation of arms to all sicks on March 14, 1912. He did that under the authority of a Joint congressional resolution which empowered the president of the United States to take such action. Revolutionists Are Jubilant. -Nogaies.i Ariz.. Feb. 4. The n.w that President Wilson had decided to lift the embargo on shipments of arms to Mexico spread rapidly along the border, and constitutionalist and sympathizers predicted that the decision presaged early termination of warfare in Mexico. Thousands of men in Northern ico cannot Join the constitutionalist, army because no arms have been avail-t able. The lifting of the embargo, rebel commanders said, will equip larg bodies of men to reinforce troops al ready operating against Huerta. 331,000 Idle In New York. New York. Statistics gathered by the employment bureau of the Society for Improving tho Condition of the Poor, showing that 331,000 men in New York city are out of work, furnish an interesting study for employers and social economists. 300 Haitian Rebels Killed. Port ftu Prinpn Th k.... a - - - - - u. uuuuieut men of the rival revolutionary armiesj were killed in battle at nnniivo. .- cording to advices received here. ' I