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VOL. i. •ITED BY ELIAS BOUDINOTT PRINTED WEEKLY BY ISAAC JI. HARRIS, FOR THE CHEROKEE NATION At $2 50 if paid in advance, $S in six months, or $3 50 if paid at the end of the year. To subscribers who can read only the Cherokee language this price will be $2,00 in advance, or §2,50 to be paid within the year. Every subscription will be considered as continued unless subscribers give notice to the contrary before the commencement of a new year. Any person procuring six subscribers, and becoming responsible for the payment, shall receive a seventh gratis. Advertisements will be inserted at seven ty-five cents per square for the first inser tion, and thirty-seven and a half cents for each continuance; longer ones in propor tion. 1 iCPAII letters addressed to the Editor, post paid, will receive due attention. AGENTS FOR THE CHEPiOKEE PHOENIX The following persons are authorized to receive subscriptions and payments for the Cherokee Phoenix. t. *t KN " Y ,LI -> ® s q- Treasurer of the A, B. C. F. M. Boston, Mass. George M. Tracy, Agent ofthe ... B. C. F. M. New York. Rev. A. D. Eddy, Canandaigua, N. Y. 1 homas Hastings, Utica, N. Y. Pollard & Converse, Richmond, Va. Rev. James Campbell, Beaufort, S. C. William Modlteie Reid, Charleston, y. C. Col. George Smith, Statesville, W. T. William M. Combs, NasTiville Ten. Rev. Bennet Roberts— ; \>wal Me. Mr. Thos. R. Gold, (an r inerant Gen-* tleman.) Jeremiah Austil, Mobile Ala, [continued.] WASHINGTON AND THE CHERO KEES. My Children of the Cherokee Nation.' attend!—ln a former interview soon after your arrival, esteeming you the representation of your whole nation, I received you with open arms and an hearty welcome. I then referred you to communicate freely all you had to say to General Knox the Secretary of War, and I am glad to learn that you have fully disclosed all the things which you hau in your hearts to say; and he has reported the same to me. I am highly satisfied with the confi dence you repose in ine, and in the United States as your friends and pro tectors. We shall indeed rejoice in being the instruments of the Great Master of Breath, to- impart to you and your whole Nation,-all the happiness of which your situation will admit. To teach you to cultivate the earth and j to raise your own bread as we do ours —to raise cattle—to teach your chil dren such arts as shall be useful to them, and to lead you by degrees from one information to another, in order not only to better your situation on this earth, but by enabling your minds to forma more perfect judgment of the great works of nature, to lead you to a more exalted view of the Great Fa ther of the Universe. Rest therefore upon the United States, as your great security against all injury. But in order to receive the good de signed for you, it vvilfte your duty upon all occasions to be peaceable— to be kind to the whites—and above all, not to indulge resontment upon a- j ny supposed injury, but rather apply to the United States or their Agent for redress. J\fy Children—You have mentioned CHEROKEE something about your past grievances. We too have had causes of complaint on our parls, but we are desirous of burying deep under ground all past evils. r We will now consider the treaty made at Holstein, near the mouth of rench Broad, on the second day of July last, as the bond of our union Adhere to that treaty on your part, as vvc shall do on ours. You have asked whether we have authorized Governor Blount to make I at treaty, he being a Carolinian? In answer to your question we tell you I now that Governor Blount is the Agent of the United States, and that he will always speak truly to you, and you must depend upon what he shall say Jo you on our behalf. Respect him therefore and love him for my sake, and I will answer that ho shall conduct himself as your friend. , When he shall send to you that he is ready to run the lines according to the treaty, attend to what he shall say arid repair to him immediately. It is very important to you as well as the whites that the boundary should be known so that no "bad people tres pass in future on your grounds. My Children—Attend to me now, for I shall reply directly to the objects uinch you have communicated as the cause of your journey. You ask, firstly, that you should nave a greater sum each year for your lands than was stipulated in the treaty of Holstein. Governor Blount told you truly that he could not give more than one thou sand dollars yearly for the lands you relinquished; because he was limited to that sum. I But my Children, as you have re quested five hundred dollars more, and as the United States and myself are desirous of affording you every proof oi our friendship, we comply with your request; and you shall according ly, receive suitable goods to the a rnount of one thousand five hundred dollars, yearly. You ask, secondly, that you should take with you goods to the amount of one year's allowance. This request is also granted, and you shall have the goods accordingly. Vou ask, thirdly, that the white people who have settled to the south ward of the new line which divides the waters of the Tennessee from those running into Little River, should be removed. I ansu er that the people shall be removed as soon as the line is run. You ask, fourthly, that a person shall be sent to reside in your nation who shall be your Counsellor and pro tector, in belialt of the United States. I shall also comply with your re quest in this instance, and 1 have ac cordingly appointed this Gentleman, Leonard Shaw (presenting him at the same time,) to return with you and reside in the Nation. He is a man of knowledge, and is desirous of being' serviceable to you in teaching you and your children useful arts, is he ac ceptable to you? and will you protcci and comfort him and "follow his ad vice'?; You have fifthly, that we shall make no settlements at the Mus cle Shoals on the Tennessee. Be assured my Children, we shall not make any settlements at that place, which we understand to be the hunt ing grounds of several of the southern Nations, without their consent. It is however proper that you should agree among yourselves about your own boundaries, so that there be no dispute in future on that account. It is proper also that you should un derstand that fhe United States have stipulated by treaty with the Chicka saws, to establish a post at the Occo chappo or Bear's Creek below the Muscle 'Shoals. This ground the Chickasaws stated as solely belonging to them. They asserted this at "the treaty of Hopewell, when a considera ble part of your Nation was present and it was not denied on your part. i 2VEYV ECHOTA, WEDIESDiy, SEPTEM My Children—You may be told when you get back to your Nation, if you have not heard it already, that a battle has been fought between the whitfe people, and the hostile Indians living at the Miarna Towns and on the I Wabash north west of the Ohio •and such others as they could draw to their aid; and that our people were beaten with considerable loss; and you may be told too by some of these Indians who probably may visit your nation, that this dispute has arisen from at tempts of ours to take away their lands. That a battle has been fought; that we have lost many mci 1 ! and were oblig ed to retreat at that time is true. But that the dispute is about land is false. e neither claim nor do we want to possess any land beyond the boundary which has been established between us and those Nations of Indians whose right itjwas to fix it, and who did it by ! three different treaties. All we have asked and all we require is that our frontier people may live undisturbed j in their persons and properties; and these dispositions have been commu nicated to them ia various messages And lastly it is proper that you should know, that the object of the United States, is not to make a settle ment there for the pilrpose of hunting or clearing your lands, but to prevent bad white people from doing it, and that you may obtain goods cheaply un der the protection of the United slates, it is the General Government who will be present there and not a disorderly set of people. But notwith standing that these are the objects of the United States, yet a trading post will not be established there if it be disagreeable to the red people. Con sult therefore among yourselves and with your neighbours, when you get back to your nation, and let me know your wishes on this subject. You have asked, sixthly, for two In terpreters, who shall be sworn to com municate all things faithfully which shall p ass between the United Stales j and your Nation; and you have point ed out James Carey, who is present, as a proper person for one Interpreter, and after your return you will let Governor Blount know whom your IN at ion will choose for the other. In conformity therefore to your re quest, I appoint James Carey one In terpreter and leave it to the Nation to nominate the other. I have ordered that you should be well clothed yourselves; and that you should also carry home some clothim; tor your families besides other person al presents of Medals and Rifles, which you have received. I have besides ordered personal presents of a similar nature to be pro vided and sent by Mr. Shaw to be de livered in the name of the United States to the Little Turkey, the w *fV he , . Dra Sg'ng Canoe, John atts, Katakiskee, the Hanging Maw, the Breath, the Boots, the Black Fox, the I high, the Glass, and Dipk of the look out Mountain who I learn are the J principal Chiefs of your Nation. lou will understand that all these presents are in addition to the annual allowance to your Nation, whiph al owance is the public properly, and to be distributed in the most fair manner upon your arrival at home in the pres ence of the Little Turkey and your I other great Chiefs. And I am sorry you have been detained here so lone the Grea t Spirit above having cov ered the waters with ice and the ground with snow our vessels nor wag gons could not pass, nor could your goods be transported, this you have seen and will be able to declare to your people. You havejmentioned one Bowles » 10 has caused disturbances the Creeks—my Children, believl what 1 say to you concerning that man —he is an impostor and a deceiver and means no good either to the white or red people and therefore ought not to be suffered to reside among the In- and by every means in our power, be fore we marched any forces against them, and even after they had at dif ferent times between the close of the I war with Great Britain and the march ot the troops under General Harmen killed wounded and carried into cap tivity, one thousand live hundred of our people and more than two thou sand of our Horses. 4 This my Children is the truth, you nave it from my own mouth; and I will not deceive you. But hearken fur ther to my words—though we were unsuccessful in the last battle from causes which are not necessary to mention, yet if these unfriendly Indi ans do not now come forward and make peace with this country on the terms 1 have mentioned and which are the terms of equity and justice, the force that will be sent against them in future will he able to cut them oH I trom the face of the earth. Losing an hundred a thousand or even ten thousand men would not be missed in this country. But such a Joss would destroy the whole of these Indian Nations which are at war with US, Look through the streets of Phila delphia and behold the number of people! and what are these when compared with the whole number in the United States? Why not more than one leaf is to the whole number ol (hose which grow on a tree. Had you travelled to this place by land, in stead of coming by wa!€F,' you would have been an eye witness of the truth of this observation,even then you woud not have seen half the extent of the Umted Surteir which'are now join ed together aiuN ill act as one ian, ' Zt 'T 9t Vvhrit . is <'one to a 1 " i these matters to you |my : Children'fciid-' frtehds, 1 that all bad Indians may be'&equ&inted with it and know what ffiilst bb-the Consequence 0 waging an unjust war against the mted States, or injuring the proner ty of any of its citizens. JYly Children— There are several other matters, which General Knox the Secretary of War will speak about to you m my behalf and which you must attend to. . But I shall subscribe my name to 11S u which written in your book, in order to be preserved a mong you as a witness of our transac tions together, and to which you may have recourse in future. 1 his book you will sacredly ore serve and not suifer any thing to be written therein but in the presence of the United States or their A«-ent iim Mr sZ™. 0 ' '° J " Sj ' r In this book the treaty between the United States and the Cherokees will be written together with your speech es here, and this answer thereto. Besides this manner of recording our proceedings, I confirm all I have said to you in your own method, by a White Belt as the emblem of the puri ty of our hearts towards you. 1 shall also in answer to the Messa ges and Belts brought by you, send I particular Messages and Belts by Mr Shaw to the Creeks, the Choctaws and the Chickasaws—l consider their interest and the interest of the United Mates as the same, and shall accord 'r'§ Ji 1 eat theSi as our firm friends and children. Given under my hand at the city of I hilaaclphia this third of February in I the year of our Lord one thousand se ven hundred and ninety two. GO. WASHINGTON. From the National Gazette. Extract from the second volume of Dr. Goodman's American Natural History. the beaver The general aspect of the Beaver at first view would remind one of a large rat, and seen at a little distance, it might be readily mistaken for the common musk-rat. But the greater size of the beaver, the thickness and breadth of its head, and its horizontal- i ly flattened, broad and scaly tail, ren- R 17, 182 S. In a state of captivity or insultation, the beaver is a quiet or rather stupid animal, about as much intelligence as a tamed badger or any other quadrup ed which can learn to distinguish its feeder, come when called, or grow familiar with the inmates of the house ivnere it is kept. It is only in a state of nature that the beaver displays any of those singular modes of actin°- which have so longrendered the spe cies celebrated: these may -be sum med up in a statement of the manner m which they secure a sufficient depth ot water to prevent it from being fro zen to the bottom, and their mode of constructing the huts in which they they pass the winter. They are not particular in the site they select for the establishment of their dwellings but if in a lake or pond, where a darn is not required, they are careful to build where the water is sufficiently deep. Fn stand ing water, hoifevcr, they have not the advantage afforded by a current lor the transportation of their supplies ot wood, which, when they build on a running stream, is always cut higher up thgn tiie place of their residence, and floated down. 1 lie materials used for the construe tJon of their dams are the trunks and branches of small birch, mulberry willow, poplar, &c. They Login to cut down their timber for Building early in the summer, but their edi- d ,es are not commenced until about J the middle or latter part of August, ■ and are nqt completed until the be- I ginning of the cold season. The J strength of their teeth and their per- M severance in this work may be fairlyM estimated by the size of the hey cut down. Dr. Best informs uM that he has seen a mulberry tree I eight inches in diameter, which had V been gnawed down by the beaver.— W e were shown, while on the banks '1 of the Little Miami river, several " stumps of trees, which had evidently been felled by these .animals, of at least fire or six inches in diameter. These are cut in such a manner as to fall into the watUr, and then floated towards the site of the dam or dwel lings'. Small shrubs, &c. cut at a distance from the water, they drajr with their teeth to the stream, and then launch and tow them to the place of deposit. At a short distance above a beaver dam the number of trees which have been cut down appears | truiy surprising, and the regularity of the stumps which are left, might lead persons unacquainted with the habits of our animal to believe that the clear ing was the result of industry. The figure of the dam varies accor ding to circumstances. Should the current be very gentle, the dam is carried nearly straight across; but when the stream is swiftly flowing, it is uniformly made with a considerable curve, having the convex part opposed to the current. Along with the trunks and branches of trees they intermin gle mud and stones, to give greater security, and when dams have been long disturbed and frequently repair ed,they acquire great solidity, and their power of resisting the pressure of water and ice is greatly increased | by the willow, birch, &c. occasional ly taking root, and eventually growing up into something of a regular hedge. Ihe materials used in constructing the dams are secured solely by the testing of the branches, &c. against the bottom, and the subsequent accu mulation of mud, and stones, by the force of the stream or by the indus try of the beavers. In various parts of the vvestern count ry, where bcaVers are entirely unknown except by tradi tion, the dams constructed by their 3TO. 29. der it impossible to mistake it for any other creature when closely examin ed. In its movements, both on shore ln tbe water, it also closely re sembles the musk-rat, having the same quick step, and swimming with great er vigor aud celerity, either on the surface, or in the depths of the wa ter.