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\) 'in . I :k 9 VOL. 11. jRTKINq wefkly by JNO. F. WHEELER, At 02 50 if paid in advance, ftS in six .fnonths, or £3 50 it' paid at tltc ciid of the year. j l'o subscribers \vlio can read only the tJhirokee language tlie price will be $2,00 in advance, or #2,50 to be paid within the year. Every subscription will be considered a s continued unless subscribers give notice to Ih? contrary before the commencement of a tjew year,and all arrearages paid, Any person procuring six subscribers, an 1 becoming responsible for the payment, shall receive a seventh gratis. Advertisements will be inserted at seven ty-live cents per square for the first inser tion, am' thirty-seven and a half cents for each continuance; longer ones in propor tion. All letters addressed to the Edit °* j,osl paid, will receive due attention. Oivy 3 A V O~J> Jl) liJi JEtfiJ VOAVXw).! TA-9iT> U-V" JliifßA^l BBAE T<rz TEJUO-r 1 TCTZ Vl>P TdSO-A xc D9JrSJei-«) t I, kt D?-4 (peJBJI P-4o?vI. tb yiv O-yjlT ttvvyz VCvK Jh«h4<ny, Di4 kt.IZ i)|i s cpian VaR AGENTS FOR THE CHEROKEE PHtE-NIX, The following persons are authorized to Jvtceive subscriptions aiid payments lor the .Cherokee Phoenix. .Messrs, Pr.iRCE & Williams, No. 20 Aiarket St. Boston, Mass. George M. Tracv, Agent of the A. D C. F. M. New York. 3tev. A. D. Eddy, Canandaigua, N. Y. Thomas Hastings, Utica, N. Y. Pollard &, Converse, Richmond, Va. Rev. James Campbell, Beaufort, S. C. AVilliam Moultrie lleid, Charleston, 3. C. Cil. Gzorge Smith, Statesvjlle, A\ f . T. Jeremiah Austii,, Mobile, Ala. . Rev. Cyrus Kingsbury, Mayhew, Choc fa w Nation. Oapt, William Robertson, Augusta, Goorgi^. Col. James Turk, Bellefonte, Ala. TKTDIATS. An Address by the Rev. Calvin Cilton before the Lyceum. Amherst, Mass.—- delivered Jan. 5, 1330. [Continued.]) From all the state papers and pub lic documents, oh Indian. Affairs, the following things are evident. 1. The proper national character of the Indians has been from the begin ning and uniformly recognized, in all .our public negotiations with them. 2. Their origina. right in the soil plains 1 and tenanted by them, lias olso been uniformly recognized, by tlie same authorities. 3. Those negotiations between our Government and the Indians appear to have been, and no doubt Were, sin cere, in all good faith; —and (licit too according to the common understaiid ing of international correspondence. 4. Inasmuch as reports !iad been circulated to the disquietude of the Indians—that the United States, in these negotiations, were only acting the part of a mother quieting and lull ing her child with false promises—re newed negotiations Hiive been entered < into exprewly to allay these anJietW, j and to give the iftost solemn assu rances of the good faith of the na- j floU . : I 5. All our public parliamentary and judicial constructions of these nego-; tiations a.ccord only with the suppo sition of their ftftenfn and billing char-, Acter. . 6. These negotiations, Uv any fair construction, secure to the Indians alt that thev ask; —although justice, ami ft eerierosity in us towards (hem equal to that which they have sliown to us would allow them qreritly—vastly in excess of these slipulations. So" much for thf? fair and honorable course pursued hy our Government and iljis nation, in relation to the In dians. The jnoJTent thoy vfew PRINTED UN'DER THE PATRONAGE, AND FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE CHEROKEE NATION, AND L)E MEW ECHOT.A* WEDNESDAY MARCH 10, 1830. thrown into a condition of dependence, so as to be seen and felt, not only by themselves but by us, a sense of just ice thrilled through the common pui sntions of the nation; they were taken under protection; their native aiiu proper rights, as a distinct people, as the prinjeval tenaiits and original pro prietors of llio soil they occupied, ! were recognized, by the most formal & solemn instruments of international negotiations. All the points nt which their rights were exposed to invasion, on account of their peculiar condition and relation of dependence, were an ticipated and guarded in the most sol -1 emn manner. Our own Government, as a party in these negotiations, fore seeing that power would be on one side, and that occasions of injustice and oppression might naturally arise —seem to have been unwilling to! trust themselves, or their successors, or the nation—without setting Tip the most effectual barriers at all points for the future protection and defence of Indian rights. Solar, tlibrfore, as the earliest, a continued & almost un intr tupteid negotiations by formal and solemn international treaties may go —the rights of the aborigines of this country, in anil over the territories defined to them, and in all respects, Have been fully acknowledged and well defended. But, as was anticipated —or at least apprehended—tlie unexampled prosperity of this nation, the rapid in ; crease of population, spreading out their tents over the unoccupied terri tories—the growing and almost ovei ! whelming spirit of enterprise, which i allows itself to be impeded by no phy sical barrier—the all-absorbing cu pidity oflancte and of jvealth. the col lision of individual and sectional inter ; csls —orid other causes akin to these, and acting in conjunction with tliehi —have been gradually and indirectly, though not less certainly, operating, in their great public relations and in fluences, to swallow i!p. and over [ wiielm the territories and rights of the Indians. Not only have individual j persons, and associations, and corpo rations, practised on the simplicity and ignorance of the natives, over i reaching them, and bargaining Fro til I them by the most unfair means and j fol' most uimQrthv considerations, piece by piece, their 1 litle remaining territories;--but, I am mortified, • I grieve to say, that, in some instances, our state and national authorities have sacrificed their dignity to avarice, their honor to cupidity, by conniving at and creating facilities for these ve (ry operations; and themselves, have become parlies in bargains, which con template the ultimate displacement ; and entirp removal of the Indians from I all their territqries on this side of the I Mississippi. And tlje infatuation of lust—lust of wealth and power, I niean—r-luet of territory, Such as in sa cred history coveted Naboth's vine yard—this species of infatuation lias to strangely & to such an extent poss essed the minds of interested persons ! and interested authorities—-that it has | been gravely and solemnly declared, iri parlipjeotary assembly, that the force, which shall expel the Indians from their present possessions, if ne cessary jo be employed, becomes right. , Force gives right.'-and in such an application!, Vi bo had been will- Ihgglbiive, and be obliged to hear with patience 3ueh a declaration— that force gives right, a declaration coniirig out from a legislative hall, and reporting itself thron-.h the galle riej made Ijy, lliejJA* heavens!--these heavens, which once,looked down up on a mighty, bloody, and long pro tracted conflict, scattering its desola tions over these sacrcff plains, that it might redeem them forever from the i pollutions and blighting cllrSj of such i a sentiment in power. Ford gives i right!—l am not bound to give the i argument, or to state the protended j I qualifying circumstances, in view of < which this declaration was made, so M long as it was made lor such a pur-|< 3<fJ®TJ CX'e®, AM) TOAIS' ADVOC i TU. j pose. No circumstances can qualify it. And yet the argument was no j more and no less thah this:—That ji he discovery of this new world, and I its particular parts, by Europeans gave to them the right of possession! ! \ d that Europeans have ever recog jnized this right! Monstrous! —In- sulting!— 'Tel! it hot in Gath."— Publish it not to the world—that si.ii li an argument was gravely made out and solemnly reported by a commit tee, to a legislative assembly of this j eon federate Republic, and by that as sembly approved and adopted, for the implied—nay—for tho express pur pose of an apology for expelling the Indians by force from their rightful territories. Admit that it woljld be best for all lie Indians logo beyond the last cab n of the white man, if themselves re willing. And even that is a ques ion not easily sfettled-and which has lever been decided in the affirmative, ■xeept by those,, who, coveting their ands, have resolved they shall gb.* But so long as tlicy are unwilling, it •an never be best, either for them or or us. The moment you interfere villi the natural rights of inan, and ■villi bis acknowledged civil rights, & ell him oy force: You shall do this, 3r you shan't do that—you lay a con straint r upon bis nature, which lie The time has ceine, (lie crisis has lv '" Not endure, and lor exem|ilion irrived,, when the fate of the Indians ''•° m which, rivers of blood have been vithin the boundaries of the United slletl - It is with us a famed, a ven ules is to be decided. Tin; public «rpble, and sacred declaration—and •pinion and voice of th..- iwtiim exist on account of the circumstances un iuavoiiiably approach ;h.• •••'. tier which it vvya first itiid solemnly md let it forever at relst, in a very ' nade nn( ' published to the world, it ■hort period!'— Whether the in :h of a/m-famed declaration:—"That all his nation, oiice— so long time—| men are created equal:-that they are uul in so many solemn four." jiledg-I en .dowed by their Creator with cei:- :d to the Indians, shall be im.e.Uaiued ' tain e laiieimblo i i;:lits—am\ng which liviolate—or whether they s!|all be ! '° liberty, and the puisuit of ibandoped to the mercy of those, who ; happiness.' O tl:i-1 the prinriplcs inve already sold their rights for mo-1 " le : holy and sacred principles, in icy and decreed them outlaws?— Yes j vo,vc<l I hi* declaration, might —ovtUtics—unless they set their j touch and tin ill o\ ery pulsation of the nouths forever to the tory of their children of those who made it, when ' :o::gs, and fly away to unknown and 'hcv come to dc nle or. lie destiny or mexplored regnns. A pubiic lepis- ! *'■ Indians, rr • :,e>. t: ; ••. Is alive enactment of one of the i'es j'' a!:f l e moeken r i>.»i tb-.i !'• is iHhis Union, has already passed sen- declaration is publicly renewed and euce on one of the most respectable : adopted as a solemn eoveuaiit once if the Indian crceing—ly« a l lj .V this nation, throughout nil hat "all laws, usages, wild customs their tribes.—o9 the -Ith of July ? •Kdc. established and in force by the) N , cannot/orce the Indian to aid Indians''; that is, within the I quit the inheritance of his fathers, 'graphical limits of that Stale, sh .ll ! a J , vl ln . ke , |im ~ Y ou , lk »e null and void on and after the first aIK , „ 0l b[> ll( i J of a vlo)alio( , ol une 1830; and that 'no Indians, or rig))t , which would bb the political iesccudanl ol Indian-shall be a com- damnation of any people. The thin .etent witness, or a party to any suit, [)roposed , ifc: by force, is tlu 11 any court created by the const,tu- nlost,-tho V< ry last prerogative o joii or laws of the state. Not only oppression: to expatriate a man-t, shipped of their own laws but banish, to drive bin. forever from hi: brown out from the protection of all! ho|nc< a|a , , bat (oo < vhhout e . law!-mayno bea party toa suit m tcxt of offclK . e . That 0j any couit—not even a )v.lnes S !-ex- | <;hich takcs i ife , so f aP asthepresen eppt m such cases as the Court in Mn(c is ( . 011tenlbtl , bri , lhc ' i|ljur , then grac.ousnesS will allow. bfils hand ton eonsiiihmalion.-fini he Well may the world inquire the occasion ol this outrage. A d what is the answer?— Why this is it:—- Tits General Government for a con sideration already realized, have eov- enantcd with tliis state government, that they will buy out the Indians within their bounds, as soon as they can, and coiiveV their lands to the state But the Indians, the third party, refusing to sell, as they have the undoubted right,-arc iioiv to he forcTdl by siich means. And the pres ent posture of our national authori ties, in relation to this affair top plain ly indicates a disposition to allow, End the statu concerned are manifestly ready to execute this forcible eject ment. In other words—the faith of the nation is to be broken, and the In dians arc to be sacrificed. And on this single altar; simultaneously W ; ifi bleed and burn the hopes of every In- dians within the boundaries of the U- nitcd Slates—all his liopes, \ , \!iich make life dear and precious—nnicsS a publte sentiment can be roused and organized thronliout (he nation, thai shall roll hack this tide of ruin, which at this moment threatens to sweep from the (and the habitation anil (he name of Indians. , Let Hot Oilr judgment, or (iic In dian's hehrt, be insulted oy this pita that the course dictated by this policy will be better for the Indian. Tin's nrgurh'eiit (lie Indian will consider at his own leisure, lie lias already con sidered it, and come to his conclu- And it is remarkable, that sion. those onlv, who covet his land are n nited in this advice. But justice goes before counsel. And shall advice come trampling over her, and effect to whisper words of consolation in her cars, or strive-to atono h'er »leening iEVOTED TO THE CAUSE OF INDIANS.— E. BOUDINOTT, EDlT€It. vengeance, by telling lioi* that her fall is best for those in whose defence she stood? tlieui. But eject a man forever from his home—undoyiestioate, unmake him—and you doom him to a sense of jnjury, which he can never forget--- lyliich IlefivCli will re/Wtnibfci- to re- quite, t- * The Qjjn actually proposed for the re moval, location, and subsequent treatment of the Indians, eo iar as it hail been dis closed by its authors, can be accounted for only I>y (lie desperate necessity bftk-viyjig unci specifying soinethiiik to incet the exi gency. 'X'he present condition anil rela tions of the Indians are sufficiently embar rassing and anomalous—without precedent, or law—except the law of treaty, which on all hands is allowed to be supreme, liut remove iljeinj under the proposed project'; and there is. nothing Utopian vision, but would lie sobriety in comparison. It would be a furious launching forth into the opean of experiment, of uncertainty, utterly be yond sight and lL'tnclnbrance of law" and precedent—an cnCtrprise, fronted with the darkest and most ominous presages, so far as the well-being, and even the existence oftho Indians is concerned. [To BE CONTINUED.] Cherokecs.—The last Cherokee Phoenix contains the memorial of (he Cherokee* to Congress, praying for protection in their fights, against (he encroachments' of Georgia. The memorial was written in Cherokee. It lias already been signed by three thousand Cherokces, and sent on to Washington. •It is still circulating in the nation. The editor of the Phoe nix says, this affords 'a most positive and practical answer,' to the asser tions of Col. MKenney, thai there is a disposition among the Cherokecs to remove. Some of our readers may think Hint three thousand is only a small part of the Cherokee nation. " A, writer in the last New-Lnglaud lie view, among -■—... \ oilier strange statements respecting the Cherokees,, says, there are about sixty thousand of them. If it is so, tliiee thousand is only a fragment q|* (lie nation. If it is so, they are much more formidable people than wp had supposed. There might be some cause of alarm, perhaps, among thg Georgians. The writer does not tel! us what his source of information is. As, however, he says, the remark of WiHiam Penn that -a majority of the Cherokees can read their native larii j gunge,' 'cannot be true/yve must sup : ]iose he had good data before hifri, when he made llie statement. Ac cording to documents published b* order of Uie War Department, in 18„0, the number ot Cherokees ih Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee, was then nine, thousand. The state menu of William Penn rfeferred to the Cherokees in these limits, or rath er to the live thousand Cherokees in Georgia. The statements of the writer in the Review must i-elato, then, to the same. But if we include the six thousand Cherokees in Al kali* |sas Territory'it will make only fif teen thousand of the iyholc race. I'f they now number sixty thousand, the rale of increase since 182G, is unex ampled. Havß.jifit only Penn, and Mr, M'Coy, and all the missionaripj joined to deceive us-'lt but has the 'War Department'— has the General Goverpjiicrit, Joined in the deception? Justice to die cause 0/ .Missions,perhaps,lequircs. an exam - ination of some of th'fe. other Stnfi?. ments of this writer, in his last ni m» ber.—But the documents called for in I lie Senate, will soon be. made. pub-, lie, and they will spttlfc the dispute about ihc Chbrokee civilization. Connecticut Observer How to I rent wi'th \j,'t buttons.—Tfs following is from the instructions of (he Secretary of War, to the secret agents appointed to persuade the Southern Ttalions to remove beyond the Mississippi. We are often (old that the f nil ions are anxious to tt ! » move, but are prevented by theli chiefs. Can any one after reafliflg these instructions, think the Secreta ry o! War believes so? If he does üby is he so fearful of a 'general councili be chiefs, however. ni;jy bo bi ibed-f-nntl thtri the way to tho West will be open to tho Indians, po if Great Britain could have bnbeff Washing! on, anil Jefferson, and Ad ams, and others of our 'influential: men,' she might hSvo contrived (o keep (his country in subjection a lit tle longer. But, our'influential men 1 were above such paltry considerations —and we hope those of tlje Southerd Indians will be.— Cvnri. Obs. "Nothing is more certain than that it (lie eliiels, and influential niei) could be brought into the measure, I (lie rest wojild implicitly follow. It becomes therefore, a matter of necessity, if the General Government would benefit these people, that (It move upon them in line of UiCir own. prejudices; and, by tiic adoption of proper means, break the powef; that is warring against their best in* (crests. The qucsiio.n is Jioyv cat; ibis be done? Not, it s believed, | lor (lie reasonsjsuggested by (he means of a general council. There tber would be awakened to all 1 he|in<imitl r.tions - bich those who are op.posed to their e .change of couniry might throw out; and the consequence would be—that it has been—a fir in refusal to acquiesce. The best resort is be'ii'ved to be that which is env br; ced in appeals to the chiefs aiii influential Jmen —not together, Lut a port fit their oten houses; and by a proji- Jcr exposition of their real condition,, rouse them to thiijk upon that; whilst offers to them of entendre reservations in fee simple, and other rewards, would, it is hoped, result in obtaining their acquiescence. This had, their pea* pie. as a body, it is believed, woutif gladly gq.'? ■ NO. 47.