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CHEIOKEE -PIHEJtfIX, ANI> ]
PRINTED UNDER THE PATRON AGE* AND FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE CHEROKEE NATION, AND DEVOTED TO THE CAUSE OF INDIANS.—E. BGUDItiOTT, IDUfcl. TfQlt. HI. PRIHTKD IVi:r.H.Y 0* .TV) F. WtI3SL,ER, At s'2 50 if paid in advance, $3 in s:s months, or £3 50 if paid at the end o the year To subscribers who can read only the Cherokee language the price will he $2,00 in advance, or §2,50 to be paid within the year. . Kverv subscription will be considered as continued unless subscribers give notice to the contrary before the commencement ot a new year,and all arrearages paid. Any person procuring six subscribers and becoming responsible for the payment, 4»hall receive a seventh grat is. Advertisements will be inserted at seven ty-!! ve cent s per square for the first inser tion, am' thirty-seven and a half cents for each continuance; longer ones in propor tion. SCJ»AII letters addressed to the Editor, post paid, will receive due attention. AGENTS FOll THE CHEROICgE PHtENIX. The following persons are authorized to receive aod payments for the Cherokee Ph euix. Messrs. Peirce & Williams, No. 20 Market St. Boston, Mass. Geqrge M. Tracy, Agent of the A. B. C. F. M. New York. llev. A. D. Eddy, Canandaigna, N. Y. Thomas Hastings, Utica, N. Y. Kev. James Campbell, B-aufort, S. C. William Moultrie Reid, Charleston, IS. C. Col. Gsorge Smith, Statesville, W. T. Jeremiah jVustil, M<Jbiie, Ala. ltev. Cyrus Kiingseury, Mayhew, Choc taw Nation. Ca it. William Robehtso.v, Augusta Geo. Cj'- Ja :Es Torit, B<dlefonte, Ala. fWß&an* <sbuw ,y7.~<r.r«i—■BBqaaaar.^tMW——wm4 INDIANS. From the Spirit of tlie Pilgrims. SPEECHES ON THE IND/AN DILL.* ACTUM EST DE REPUBLICA! The i .contemplated perfidy is accomplished; aha constitution has been violated by its appointed guardians, and whatever may be its consequences to the In dians, a page of the darkest guilt is already written in our country's his tory. The passage of the Indian Bill has disgraced us as a people, has tvounded our national honor, and ex posed us to the merited reproach of all civilized communities in the world. If we go oil in this way, we shall be come a by-word to the nations. It will 110 longer be Punica Jides, that points the moral of the school-boy, and tips the arrow of the public s it iristwitU gall. The memory of the uictced shall rol\ —but the memory of H faithless nation cannot mingle itself with perishable elements; can never stagnate in the forgetness uf contempt. Oars will be embalmed, unless we prevent it by a timely interposition, in. curses that can never lose their ener gy, or weary the tongue which ut ters them. The world may now see what re liance can be placed upon the faith of a republic. Had we been dealing with a European community, instead of an Indian tribe, who would have dared mention the claims of selfish ness, or the clamors of party, against the solem i obligation of treaties? The frown of the eastern continent a fone would have intimidated (he most reckless politician. But a nation that will cheat an inferior, will also, should a fair opportunity occur, over reach and violate justice with a higher power; nor can any confidence be placed, < ither in an individual or a " » The speeches against this Bill are now in press in this city, [Boston] &will shortly be published in a neat duodecimo volunje. NEW ECHOTA, SiLTURJAIT OCTOBER 3,13 30. community of individuals, proved to have acted, on a great and important occasion, rather as a furious partisan, or an unprincipled marauder, than from a sense of duty, or a knowledge of the truth. This is not the first lime that the American Republic has shown a disposition to trifle with the sacredness of its plighted faith; it was all that the eloquence of an Ames could do, to keep his countrymen, in the memorable winter of 179G, from the guilt and the dreadful consequen ces of violating the British Trea ty- "Let me not even imagine," said this illustrious orator, "that a repub lican government, sprung, as our own is, from a people enlightened and un comipted, a government T whose ori- 1 gin is right and whose dnily discipline j ie clulj, i-flii, upon a sot trill 11 debate, make its option to be faithless; can dare lo act, what despots dare not a vow: what our own example evinces that the States of Barbary are unsus pected of." When the subject of Indian rights began to be agitated in this country, it was regarded by reflecting minds as by fai the most important which had occupied the public attention for ma ny years. The apathy manifested throughout the nation as to the pos sible fate of these interesting commu nities wis looked upon with anxiety, as an indication of the most alarming blindness or insensibility. It seemed to argue a torpor of patriotic feeling, a selfish indifference as (o the treat ment of a defenceless people, which was cruel and criminal in the highest degree. It argued a melancholy dis regard uf the sscrednesss of national faith; a point oil which the citizens of a republic should be exquisitely sen si' i\'e—on which they could hardly be sensitive to a fault. On a subject like this, no people can ho made to fee I deeply without information; unless, indeed, oppres sion enler their very doors, and come in a palpable form to each man's sen ses No question, therefore, involv ing (lie rights, the property, and the privileges of a large body of men, to be discussed in a republican legislature, till tho public mind har first been rightly directed to it aud informed respecting it. The subject of Indian rights was too long delayed, to admit of its be ing examined before the tribunal of public opinion, till it was on the eve of a final decision in Congress. It should have "Keen foreseen and studied by the people at a period previous to the last election of their representa tives, that they might have sent tliem prepared to vole for the nation, and thus have preserved a question of such vast importance from the possibility of being influenced in its decision by 'the bitterness of party prejudice. This is done in regard to such biils as the tariff; and why should a mere po litical business be treated with more solicitude, than that which touches the honor oi the nat on, and is to in fluence the lives and liberties, as well .as the fortunes of men. In respect to the Indian bill, sufficient time was not affoi(led for tluj people to form and utter their judgment. Memori als were incised numerous; yet the expression of public feeling was faint, compared with what the exigencies of the case demanded, and with what we should have witnessed, had the true nature of the bill, the character prospects, ami rights of the Indiaßs, ! and the wretched sophistry of their I enemies, been largely exhibited, and ill istratcd with familiarity and pow- I er. There is, however, a portion of our people who cannot plead ignorance in excuse for their apathy; and whose course would not have been altered by the greatest degree of additional light and information. The people of Georgia, or their leading partizans, know well fjie iperits of (his case; but there, as in some other parts of the country, the prevalent feeling in regard to the Indians seems to be not merely reckless, but inhuman & sav age. If the toasts at public celebra tions ore not a totally false indication of the tone of public feeling, then what must be the degradation of mor ality and honor which could dietati or tolerate such sentiments as sonn of those delivered at public dinners on the 4th of July in Georgia? Thi Style of expression adopted by somi members of Congress from Georgia in speaking of the Indians, is anothe proof of the cruel indifference am c ontempt, if not absolute hatred, .w ill which this portion of our race are re garded in the scaH of human existence The idea of sympathy for iheir dis tresses, or anxiety for their fate ivns scouted, as if it were perfectli ridiculous. The designation of "poo ieti/s," applied to them by Mr. For >yth,.wasan outraae 011 the mora sense of the whole community; an in lull upon the Senate; s contemptibli aunt upnt» the Cherokee nation vhich a child's sense cf honor miehl O lave taught him to spare; a w&ritoi iolation of the delicacy due (o tin beliefs cf the Cherokee Chiefs ii lis hearing. With what a sense 0; \ ounded dignity, with what grief 01 oul, with what ideas in regard It Dhristian and civilized refinement, t: ist they have departed that day roin the halls of Cengress! The discussion of (his bill in the senate and House of Representatives >rodneed apjea ranee not often wit lessed in the deliberative proceed ngs of a national assembly. In the senate, the American Senate, which night, of all bodies in the world, to ic most illustrious for its dignity and •irtue, was witnessed, tiot an implied, Hit a direct, disgraceful refusal to Maintain inviolate the public fifth. There was witnessed the evasion ol in appeal, repeatedly urged in the nos! solemn manner, and intended to ibt in a pledge, that nothing in the neasnres about to be adopted slioulil ic construed as denying the obligation if existing treaties, or operating to uspend their execution. Messrs. spragtie and Frelinghuvsen, it will ie remembered, both offered auiend nents to the bill, whose total and re jected failure; placed the Senate re* ieatedly in this disgraceful attitude. The last proviso offered by Mr. Fre inghnysen was the following: "Provided always, That nothing lerein contained shall be so construed, is to authorize the departure from, >r nr>n-observonce of any treaty, com tact, agreement, 01 simulation, lierc ofore entered into and now subsisting letueen the United States and the Jherokee Indians." | This was rejected by the Senate, which thus publicly authorized the violation of its own most solemn acts. Mr. Sprague's previously proposed a mendmcnt was as follows: "Provided always, That until the said tribe or nation shall choose to re move, as is by this Act contemplated, they shall be protected in their pres ent possessions, and in the enjoyment of their rights of territory and govern ment, as promised and guarantied to them by treaties with the United States according to the true intent and meaning of such treaties." This was rejected by the Senate, thus publicly reiterating the denial of the President to the demand of the Cherokees for protection! We were astonished and grieved when we found that this avowal of a determination to break the plighted faith of the United | StateS excited so little alarm and in dignation. The discussion of the bill irr the House of Representatives, was at tended with circumstances, if possi ble, more fatal to the cause of jus tice, and more discreditable to the character of a legislative assembly. I For some time at fust, the support- INDIANS' ADVOCATE. ers of the measure seemed anxious; but all at once, their whole inannei changed; their air was confident; they gave up the floor to their oppo nents, scarcely deigning to be present, or listening to them with the utmost indifference, and evincing by theii whole department, what was known to be true, that they had brought a bout an arrangement among the mem bers, by which they had secured to themselves a majority, v before the hearing of the case-. Our disgrace and guilt as a com munity arc eat; and if it be possi ble, we will not believe,) that this meS'sure can ever be execut ed according to the intention of its authors, this nation will be criminal indeed. In a merely worldly point of view, the plan in question can biin'o nothing but unmingled ddiuin now, and incalculable expense and injury hereafter These would grow out of the natural operation of the bill itself. Then too, we must remember the teriitic consequences of blotting the national reputation, and breaking down the national spirit, involved in '.he aot of annihilating the public faith- Individually, a liar is the basest crea ture lhat walks tlie earth: can (lie spirit of a perjured nation be less de graded? Still more, let us rernein- Bei,this cause must be heard in the chaucery oi' lleaven; and for a nation to incur the vengeance of that court, is an evil which no mind can grasp— -110 words express. But in spite of its present result, the discussion of this question in con gress must prove, unless all honor and humanity in the country be ex tinct, eminently advan!ageous to the interests of the Indians. It could hardly bo otherwise, so iong as oppor tunity of free discussion was not pi e vented. No course could be more fatal to the Indians, than silence on the part of their triends, either in congress or out of it. Troth,'justice and benevolence, are on their side; the power of argument, and the power of Christian feeling; any discussion therefore, though ever so limited, if respectable talents ore engaged, must be favorable to the Cherolx-es. Accordingly, if this interesting- peo ple are saved, it will be in a great measure, through the defence their cause has received on the floor of con gress, though that defence was inad equate to arrest the progress of the Indian bill, borne onward as it was by life concentrated euergy of an in flexible-political party. I he investigation acts upon public feeling &public fueling thus corrected, reacts more powerfully upon Congress. There is no,v not a pin /eft to hang a doubt upon. The case of the Chero kee* has been defended with such ir resistible power of argument, that any man in his senses, who has but glanced at the public prints for the last six months, must feci ashamed to open his mouth in favor of their op pressors, or in support of the misera ble sophistry, patched up for its ex cuse. We do not believe that a question ever came into Congress, where the argument, the eloquence, and the truth were so exclusively on one side. The speeches of the sup porters of this iniquitous bill were as lame and poverty-stricken, as could well beimag'ned. Whatever of dec lamation they exhibited was disgrace ful for its inhumanity of feeling, and its recklessness of truth; and every th ug that looked like argument re ceived from their opponents a com plete annihilation. Notwithstanding the final result of the discussion, and the fact, that the resolution of the party had been mado up before it commenced, and not upon any grounds of reason or humanity; there never was a nobler triumph of truth over falsehood. It would doubtless have Sheen favorable to the cause of the : Cherokees, if some one or two of the I speeches against them had been print t.d in llie coming volume. The mis erable abortions would have operated as powerfully, by their own flioial de formity, lameness in argument, and ragged, beggarly appeaiance, ;o pro duce a conviction of the truth, as the best reasoning on the oilier side. This discussion is of great benefit to the Indians, by making known their' present character and condition. The? proofs of thpir civilization and Chris tianity were before fciv, and scattered like the leaves of the Sybil. We re fer not now to the information obtain ed directly from Missionaries; there was enough of this to satisfy any can* did mind; but it bore not the world's seal. It was the best authority, but from me it- prejudice, was often dis credited:—in its teeth and eyes, men persisted in asserting that the Indians ivSrVaTTmvitgei7 It is an :bsoiute fact, that many in the community hardly knew that such a people as the Cherokees exisied; and when this truth was with a geed deal of pains discovered, an ideal picture ol the if state cauic with i!, like that which we form of (he condition of the ear liest Aborigines. No reasoning, no statements of the truth, though back-, ed by the testimony of the most unim peachable witnesses, could uproot these prejudices from the minds, in some instances, even of enlightened and charitable men. The snnciiori of respectable Senators and Represent atives in Congress will, however, work wonders. When it was found'' iliirt sucb rn'.n as Mi. Sprague, Mr. Everett, and others Relieved in the doctrine of Indian improvement, (here was no longer any want of converts. It bega'n to be suspected that the Cher okees were not absolutely wild; and' Uiat even Missi-oiiarit's ■ c-otvld speak the truth. In the light shed upon' this subject, such slander and sophis try, as were palmed upon the public in the North American Review, ap pear in their proper nakedness. It has come to pass, moreover, that a • man may exert himself in fav&r of this oppressed race, and yet not be sus pected ol fanaticism, or branded witlr the title of a meddling enthusiast. The most shameless presses are spar-' ing of such epithets, when tliev fair upon able Senators' of the United , States, as well as on the respected" author of the essays of YVm. Pehiv Wo were gratified when we saw Mr. _ Everett, with ihc true dignity cf at? honorable mind, expiessing on Ihtf floor of Congress his own respect for the motives and character of that gentleman. £ llad ibe activity of tlie friends (.1 Indian rights in Congress been illstr.i:t -ly succeeded by a corresponding ac tivity, on tlie part of their friend# throughout jibe country, the result would have been incalculably more favorable. Delay and supinchess have marked their efforts. If is the fate of almost ever) measure adopted in behalf of the Indians, to have been suggested and executed too late.—» When the final passage of the Indian bill was made known, the papers a baudoned the subject; for a while I there was a slight excitement, but it I soon died away; a few speeches were published in a few journals, but most editors were too busy with the in significant trifles of the moment, to allow themselves to bestow much at tention on this momentous sub ject. Scarcely a newspaper has performed its doty; and now the j topic i 3 almost forgoten. A steam j boat disaster will awaken more sym j patby and talk, than the alarming oc currences that are every week taking place to terrify, coerce, and enrage the Cherokees. Yet the Cherokee Phoenix contains, in every number, sufficient matter to awaken the pub lic mind, if it could but gain attentive attentive readers. It is but lately that, in reading that paper, we met with the following fact. It has been extensively circulated, but it will dot no Uairo to repeat U he ' NO.' &A.