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BOOK AND JOB
ths "0Alml!, ofnc
It M' prrparsd W tl all ere-tr tor
no hi umt num.
OT KTKST BWCMrTICCt,
WITH XXATNBM AND SIBFATOK
Every Wednesday Xornin,
r I'sri m )'nk MkaiUan a "trjUfc.
Omcx- MR&avt street- west t
le Feet 0. llomuiatt. H- L '
.. VOL. ITNO. 49.1
HONOLULU, WEDXESDiT, DEGEM BER 23, 1868.
86.00 PER YEA11
Istrar. "WaaSoa! and Sj-x-I raitr
II Til nflir i if T iiMlnrlf " I Jw.tttl
AV. I tiiiiinx.
Set JK1 Itrrfrarf VmUhi r HtMliM
ST Smwtata, K. X.
e. j. utun. . ictxi-i.-x.
CIIAS- TV- SPOCEK Jt CO
zt; fa--.rjHn-,-fti g I ar
McCOLCAX At JOinaSOX.
I fwt-c. auauflt!. fuitT V twttt 1
Is hnffn h7 4,-Li.s-sai-L luraSkarv Wir.
5-moi at Fur, itpw a
303T A53 SETS TflT-TU
C same $-- ta-- ). n.iiiut. Ty
JL. X. po.vn.i.
Xk-$n-C. Huiu-t-Jn. .i mrx Ijto' ClT 3g
IX WHiaiIHmtftnw rty
Mas sun. ew. how-
SHIP CA2PSSTSSS &CJLUISSSS'
TUEO. 11. DJLTXESi,
Brmod. aa fgrcMfi SLiow bmruor Cs suit
Xr&tT3-. mcsck Qimgany- 3V
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WAIVES Jc JLXJLEX,
OX 3HI3Ere TTTTr..
H nsz Gww Jtet sol Iirt siswql. tji
BOLU Jc CO
Carat S&nfC Sfodfote. Pwieir sesnAm. jmit
12JT3S 3T -
C L SSeiarte a Xir Star ISnn.
GB0CS2 A5B SHI? CHA5BLEB.
Xo4f aaitXicrufii ImitVf lo oa.a murt
bciurtar I ut Hum t Ivr
.juj. WtiltinrnV Ba&a- a. an-vutiuL ?taE ml
.IFOG Jk AdirCK.
GEOEGE G. HOWE.
SuOjffiH Souw Sid&iM. 2Ikijii. gm'nRi. MiL.
3f Itianil aaii TO ti bgiiuaiUi. ,t?t
E. St. FL1GG.
crm. AX3 szstzics.
Ilium rwti I'ffln 3ux 5 2. Edaitaiki. S-4ia
F. A. $CHAEFCK Jt CO
3SJ Smuiato. jaq; X I. T?4
23). H " ' ' T- & CO-
ntrOSTESS C023EESI9 J2EECEA5T5
t EanMfiitB." aa. g. t T
A- S. CLEGDOS5,
B3JIS2AIX AX3 TT nriTrr u
Tln-?wf ion; atirar f Qsrnn ami Xioaonuum.
THEODORE C. HErCK.
tf gjiMimn. aa. H. t tr
II. HtrCfELD A: CO
GISESAi C03E3CISSIOI A6Z5TS.
I Stmt, Hrimrfafa. HI t ly
THE TOX 3C00ES TATEE5.
BV J. o-xteix,
CHAOCEY C. BECTETT,
PTAtn ET XZV37AT53JJ, 1LLEAITJZ2,
Aail FioWIiaii, 7irc ScwC 9-l7
X. T. inns. A. JXICXX-
B. I'- EHLEKS Jt CO
SZAIZZLS TS S3T C03S A33 SX22AL
x. r. uun. f . e. wnsu.
ADAHS Jc WILDER.
C S. BARTOW,
SuTxrwrtcagiigeg fffatt, Jimr fcsm. Xfiai- j
J8M5 H. PATT,
Ssarr ?rfrTT xi Oi,;i,;riirnac cf Sii
Jorti Sotarof CaOSirxa. Cn ic t Bintrf
t .-s in-A tfaxt j
ql taMt;illnMte 3f
C. MiEYVEK Jc CO.,
AGCXTS-tVr U Fluxing SoW X
Am X Km, Exi.
Css. B-r.i V
J.k. fi.r-esar.-s-. Si
J C. atua&tdk.
7t. S. GKLYBAOI A. CO
tSE02I23S AS3 BiAIZSS
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i a. p. uc'U!i.
C ait limfa t sii&f7 tcmw tnminxnif ihm.t
vjM. li'.iriii'W ui rfnuliiT'l i-X artbri vrwtpD-
m, zrsc asb cqppss sxtxhs, j
AS3 S-rs-rr X3S3S j
szszzx ss. nratoiim cows, j
vuu2( fan Fxr. ?Uut UbZ Homt
rr utfTV ftu&. vr Tswar- rf rrn7 awcntmtL
tiiw maw iac tt faonb 3S-Ij
fia wscullj on. &iia ami lT ss Ldww
AS3 SHX? ZLZTC22
tea. Tore sat La Pnr Labt sail tfaCrtaixwi
2fHL Pp, .ail Zlamihnfi btsm-wxZs. Smog tirf
truttil la aim &i & mi natTr awaatfr. 3Sin.
sirrr- s.ix. 3'jtt.
SOTT Jt CO
.COPPEE AKB TET SMITES,
funs, soji caoji guyiini caaii. m irampiK
w!udlwv uEfrSiTHla xc Ijla LdwwfC 3Cv5C Ptiw.
Ail l;n tt lLtQmriaif 4un- wit 3irni anil
SfolMtea. 'Jritm arjm. til utftxr XjUaiiu auc
jrmpc aanem, SSat j
JAMES I- UEVlSt.
COQPF.-R AXT1 GAUGES, f
Asta CL15;xBi.C3air gasA3athaIS3.,
X trpi Stack 0ll Sbuuft ai I Xmiia uf Ce7.
-nif &irct emtiCaaJiy ,tt aiutiC E hup, fty
aESntsum. tu &uom &r iiimcc a uluioua f tiz
vicil !t now tvexestf am taaos. Ss3izl
jtk. jr. COSTA, !
jj-iyi. m.-RR A5D ZSGHAYEE.
Jar: Ssnec rr?caia Cdi. 7t&m' FiTT.
mu; 3innKt3noxJiirfry4mIEarTiitip 5at
GEORUE ffllJJ.lMij. I
IICHSSHD SHr??E5G AGS3TT, '
Cim oqox tik niint no. &u uf jEoa of tecxUnf
w;Cii niffimc .t wnaiffa. munribsHf an. thmr sirp-
" .iry mrf-lKrif ilaAHiJImiwie ml lliiw-
jii 4Ao to a cbtiMtiiwt at atifii. d tbif! tar
In pmt Mfitu55A at tl Cltarv w a ana ax.
G. TV. AOKTO.I Jt CO
COOPERS AND G AUGERS,
V ar acannl ttr wirit fii or Sn '
as tL Siy &tx (u tita COatam Hew, vcca we out
D SmaI a alt wjruii ttmua. W hi n Etiuit
aaw aoi olrf. whoA tv writ svtf XC tM TOT Lfwf9C
aoC wxrT-iaoull ftr err a2&icam. Jtft. fcniCi of
VOLCANO HOUSE, j
CHAXES 0T jlUJJTZA. ha vail i
MTHIS KiTim.iiinnnT I
auw gsm Sir soi nofabja jf rjtfin taa-
ttiitf iifiaaA tnt vaa that rifr un .Itti..
SiTCifiiN nstnif, a pm ufi&. M.f prmnpc anasibtao.
TtyuTf yn.f fiartfitf Oifitc inriu tnuuL
ST2A3C AX3 ',r r
Mmmfg vamaAii tar xhc juqruT: fij IX H.
NEVILLE & BARRETT,
Flifltsrs I GscsrsI Store Keepers
SliCiuA, SOTTIH XSXL, HA"5TAH
y..r cmixtr S.iaa 3aj spnEei wltii.
K. W. ANDREWS,
TVT A CBI3TIST,
Cirt pardcxliftr xczatunr t ti rp47 C
, F.r Araa. Sa-rigy ViiH;ttw, Lcis.
Er-cri-JW mf Jttrauirryr mad Ui Oritr.
I have oj Hjurn x sttresiob.
- Ecsa Coffee,
1 SIeadSyaLiffl3.SZ7ILXZ t2A32ZIT,
SEYESAXCE, CLASS fr CCU
j Asa ssi??Ere ASXSTS.
I 403 te S wag af Gar, Saa. Tnc tcg-
W -,-lL-a-Mtit ta ta trir C3ttirieaa'n.inii
of mi31 Ft-jwhi.---. iik fc O yaxT&dauuc mail a,
.infa; it Xtrcftinfri i Cau Alvaae mtJ n.
SaJivr A LHfcim6rjr
Jai Fi&ei, Cl .
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Sumn. SJivr ...
JLOmi a Uw . PvrtUotl
E- VJuV REED.
COMMISSION -SEE CHANT,
axctea. wiAi. tfu cmomxi trulv lie put vtidU
WTT.T.T a v & CO..
SIST CSOWZLL & C0
SO ASK OP TODSHWSmiES.
THE CSOESSIGXEO iLarlsx ba
sppuuitifdl Avac Sir to &ia. Tnai3iK Bourl
uf CaiirYntiKa cuatyruui: tan
rtlifjrai. liMnicf Ctfmpajty.
JlrvbAKt. JlatTrnt JXula IcCet.
XKi2e lumm Ctmpoaf.
. ; "
3S-3at E. HACSTEIff OX
B tin dw CmuiTaaj. ftaT Bwt ixtZrmz&t O
tnsar m C&x-t, Fwiztkit mi TTtti-
it. &7 CAaAtcn. trooL &JnuaXa. ta all pure f
Att EAvina. Sru soil vin vra
THE CIDEK5IG5XD lLaviB ba
appumte Juc-ao If tiltj i!hr Gjmpan j Ji?
ITRE rSSTTEASCS COXPAST.
sicnaiitl XpnUEv of tft aiMv Onjcaay, arv
Brtc BKlldlnv sait an. 3XcrclLxail
iismd tftmiix. art cur 3uwC imni tWnn& 7ir
wtiralan acchril t& ai2o of
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JjSZST 702 XEZ ?,J.i- M .- 20123
THE 1CE5T FOR THE BRITliH
ftmntrx 3jrm- liznnac Omxpaa?; Iiant
4V b notwti autT3ctum til rim: Ct nw f
lamxrsac bcveic Sinofniic ui P'irta la tfut-Purfav
And. a ouw prepare! ta hrns YikzM9 -sc tit Xwnf
-EJ-cT JtfraT Srtt Jr. Jfcxr Bis. G. (ZtmifrQ.
SUGAR k MOLASSES.
I3XLO, 27. I.
Cieop comus nr asd fob sale et
t aTTiTTrfrfwr ts sail purEtuers. by
WALEES A AIXES-.
Sor aad KalaiMi Crap X9$
rxayass js. foe. cr qcasti-
WATEEE A AirES.
Sagar aad 3Xelaas Crap lft9
-vMtnre lt, f&2 sals et qcasti-
j ties a vrx iiuajm. cy
TTALEES A ALXE2T,
-vrrs" C2.0B sow coxuc et. roK
SLr is .yi..-i-rr., t get fciaMn,
3Teir Crap ef Sssar Jc Xalaaacs
vre-w cosccrs it. axd jos. hxlzts
zaacu t act jutr-q tera ar
.CHHWEZ A OX,
Tbc Rrcrnt Cxrtltlas to the 1
3iorta tvU Coatrmplat
Mia. ha near sa?ctu ttean to bis 2L
cat cpa. br its D-i2Srvaii t&tocsa tbe
catsosi seross tie tctac kH tJw sstfice
cf t!i; ctfatieat$ awtrJ xith nSnrj,
hi Uia fiK pos$bae( lis Klsuoa.
asii tit eivtr aeukasd cunwr of the j
eatt b EusiBac tt fci. Bat in?,
na tk to tio wcjj&ij. br th sia- f
aecsceoeat cf soae gwt eat?rpri, of !
what rvffiuat stSI oIoc TiiJ tatecicr
of tt coatweaU U jit vrvfcp! la kts
iurr, isd the Mtrusitk of the worisl,
whtce iij asd oijht dnaie "JSl4 tvot into
twevcil parti, are yet byOi -ikaows to
the hosus ete. TbiKe s gut prob
Ieo. the foiatitfa of whin wit reqalre
a vast aceoat of pertmaofeci nisei acJ
Jlaajr ittemU hare beta rr.n?a b rvach
the F?- Oar efcjrt b 1 1 rm5 the
mmtfj of aS the Barcratws who ha met
with x tembfe death: ia these tcr rvpec.
or who hare bea ebSU U ji'i ap'heic
rlass of eapforattea. fcete? asaMe to iTr
came iaiomoaotaKe ohstid. bat we
wbh to print cat the asdeccihte process
that caa be cotavl in the rescits et the
saccessiTe epedttiecs. which, resolti tead
to the belief that a ccmp&te jocces: u
oat prictici3T mpcssible.
Vteo Cook retorsiid fcttn the Antare-j
tic Oxas. he wai stroogly tonttnceii that
co ship wcoLi evvr be abl to go bejood 1
the fcjtitade of 71 , and ye; we hare seen
VrVdiisII rsacikg- 74 c . aoi Kcss pene
tratie? thracfh the tee is. xa opea sei,
where he went ir aj TS - sooth, bti
taie. aai that withoat the issiitiace of
In the northern hemisphere, the dfecor
eries of Parrr. Kane, and Haes hare ma
teraBy enhesed the Emits of the fcnowa
world, and jostifed the hope that, in no
distant fotare, the Arctic regi-ru will hate
KTcaled aS their secrets. SeTenI pro
jects of Pear expeditions hare been
serioaslr proposed and discsssed in the
cocrse of the tut few rears, and the most
prominent of these are the EngEsh, the
German and the French prefects.
The theory of Captain Sherard Osborne,
the main promoter ef the Ecs&h expedi-
ti- " based npoa hit btfif that the
rvk I uie X5 PKirrrrr tnrt air zmnxeizse
spherical cap ef icebergs, broken hers and
there by casoal ererices which, are closed
at time ef great cold- The rast expanse
of Gpea sea that ilertoa and Hayes rait
with, in the north-west, and the Polar sea
that Admiral Wraroret discoYered north
cf Siberia, waali not therefisre exist bat
at certain times, and nader certain Cirera-
bTe atmocpheric cseditioos. and the Pete
can only be reached, with any ehanes of
success, by aa expedHsa startimj in the
winter season, and by means of sfeihs.
Cape. OiborneV pEm was to feara Zcg-
hind with tws ships and 123 men; to
statist! see of these ships, with 23 men
en board, at Cape IsabeSa, and to proceed
with the other to Cap Parry. Baring;
thss pro rided himserf with a place of;
refaee in ease of disastar, he woold '
then sebct the nest eocrageoas and hardy
cf his csmparjecs, ami start with then in t
the titter part efFebraary. The distance ,
between Cap Parry aat the Pole, is 500 ;
tnrnTng. and that distanee Cape Osborne
Blinded to trare! in sixty days. This
ptirt was at firs: Cirenbly fistesed to at
the Eng&h Adnalry, bat bet many sap
porters whea Dr. Petersons opposed to
it another, based apoo the probobEe exist
ecee cf an open sea arsnsd the Pole. If
it had cat been for that interrentico,
which rssoked in dirrdrng the FnzCsh
canzatsrs into two parties, the project of
CapC Osborne wcoli prcbaHy hare been
pot to the test.
Dr. Petermans, as we hare already
stated, beCeres is an open sea, free cf cb
sticfc? He is cf optnica that the iUz.cC
reach fcg the Pole with: steia coght to be
entireiy discarded, foe he ecntecds that
inch an expedition wocM be as cnsnccEsa
&1 as that cf Parry is 12T, when the
masses cf ice were fcatin? ender him and
earryirur him Tr to the santhwxrd, vh2e
he waa adrandn?, witi great tracile, to
the ccrthward. Dr. PeUrmans thinks,
therefore, that the Pete can ccly te
reached by sea at the time cf the breaHcx
op cf the ice. His ptm is that the expe
diticrx Tzsst JcBow the direcrics cf the
Gslf-streant rexmd tie corthers Emits cf
Europe, and then that the ships stccSd be
sent between the fiaxizz iceberg cf
Spitxbergga and 2Tcr Tmt&i. beeanse
cc that tide: the banks are less dacrerccs
than at Scdth.' Htnits. He ssssna. a
that the epea sesL a to be Czzad in that
direction a Eiile abore the g3i and 4th
ee&tta tl toitsde. Thanks to the cstir
ce e&rti cf Dr. Petirsans, the Germaa
expedtosa ftctad from Bases, Kcrway,
in ts mocth. cf Ifij, cf this ysar, ssder
the ecosand cf Gcpt. Ca. Scldevey, as
casrparied by Tiwrt HUdeirindt, oce
Ticr and 13 aScrsr fracx Bre&esJ
I Tie Qtreuxsaa,x oew rtsatl cf 60 tasi,
ha been broght and fitted oat at IVr-eo.
The object of the expedition is to attempt
first to reach the eastern coast of Green
land, above the "4th degtv of latitude,
and then, after toochic? at Sabine Islied.
to follow- the coast la order to pit aa en
trance into th Fcfctr Sea. end EttaBy to
emerge, if possible, froa Kehricj Straits.
If they were not able to penetrate farther
thin S pits berry nv they would try an ex
ploring royaje ta GiUb Land, situated to
the eastward. The G-rmumk: tookpro
risions for one year. The expedition was
heard from in the titter port of July, the
shir beto thea blocked np ta the midst
of an ley reytoo.
Xot looarajov a Swedish expedition set ;
oat with the same object ia view, ia the i
directioa that Parry indicated ia 1S2". i
We are now guinj to set forth, the '.
chance of socoess offered by the French
project, aad explain the reasons jastifyiny j
the choice of the way by which Mr. Gus-
tare Lambert proposes to reach the North
Mr. Lambert, aa hydrographer and aar-
tritor. aa ex-papil ol the Polytechnic ,
School, has already visited the reioas
lyioar ia the nehborhood of the way by
which he intends directing the expedition.
He left Harre on board the IFTjw&iic,
Caps. Laboste. oa the 12th of Jaly, 1S55,
and passing throogh Dehrinj Straits, went
as far north as 72, and, daring three
months ia the midst of the icebergs,
earnestly stadied the problem, the sols
tion of which he is going to attempt.
Mr. Lambert has fixed his choice open
a way that has been tried bat occe : that
is. the way cf Cook. Ia the month cf
July, that is to say, at the time of the
great breaking- up of the ice in the Polar
regions, be wishes to possUehring Straits,
to leave Cape Senile and Cook's JJcrth
Cape behind bin to the west, and posh
through the fioatioj ice to reach "Polynia,"
or the open sea, and thence to make his
way to the Pole.
The considerations on which this pro
ject b based are of two kinds. First, a
series of facts, ascertained by observation,
or deducted from theory, leads to the be
lief that the niean temperature, instead of
getting lower and lower, in a continsoos
manner, towards the Pole, is, on the con
trary, htrher there than ia the Arctic
Circle, or at about 67 of latitude. From
this, woold arise the possibility of finding
at the Pole itself aa open sea, surroanded
branier barrier- wkieh nnlr wtirlr
closed coring the oddest months of winter.
An attentive examination of the polar
currents, and of the icebergs they carry
along with them, brings an additional force
to the hrpothesis of a vast open sea roll
ing- its waves around the North Pole.
The reports of Hederatroem, "WrangeL
and d'Anjon, who have seea an immense
sheet of open water north of Siberia,
and those cf Morton aad Dr. Hayes, who
have met with aa opsn sea north of
Smith's Straits, assume thereby a Tery
precise and dear character, which hardly
allows as to doabt the real existence of a
It is now well known that the tempera
ture of a given place on the globe is not
merely regulated by the position of such
place between the Equator and the Pole;
and this is proved by the Isotieros, or
Enes of equal warmth, whicfi Alexander
roa Humboldt has taught us to trace on
the marts of the globe. It is not, there
fore, an absoiately necessary law that the
poles, where the axis of rotation reaches
the earth's surface, should be, both, the
oldest points thereon. In the year 1E2I,
Sir David Brewster came to the eondusioa,
by a thorough examination of the isother
mal lines, that there were two poles of
cold one sitsated in Siberia and' the
other in North America from which fact
h may be inferred that the mean tempera-
tare is higher at the Tery Pole than in
some ports of the Arctic Circle. In 1SS4,
a celebrated Italian geometer. Plana, cal
culated -the distnfktioa cf solar warmth
ca the surface of the earth, and demon
strated that from the Pottr Grde. the
mean temperature increases np to the
Pels : a result which it was dificslt to
have theoretically foreseen, although it is
quite is accordance with practical obeerra
tian. Mere recently still, Mr. Lambert
has arrived at a similar eondusioa in stady
tng the laws according; to which the inso
lation, or the quantity cf heat furnished by
the sun, varies firsux oae place to mtt;T
at dif&rect seasons cf the year.
The quantity cf heat which aspotoa
the earth reeeirej in a gives time, deceadj
cc the cbGsnhy cf the sua's rays, and is-
crzasei in proportion to the ascent of the
fun, bet if we wish to have an idea of the
effect produced by the aa daring-a cer
tain pevicd. we mast also take into cos-
sideratioo the relative duration of day and
night. Tbe Elarral e&cdeniaii&a cf tie
atmosphere makes the sod toee z actable
pcrtsoa cf the calorie absorbed dricg the
day, and, therefore, fang sight! caynea-
traSze or eocuterbalacee, to a certain ex
tent, the eSactcf very warm day.
&m (tsec nam!. 2a.
"Wjc3- Astoz. of Sew Tor, b resorte!
to fce wovtb oae feuadrri ssa tvestj oHTJob
tfdo&ui. TTrTarjrHTr.il nr ItaTfof f-it
ssz, ai tit Fwitf U wertfc ass&ie &
Cavera aad SnblerraBrnB
Wbeawe ivfiect apoa the manner ta wbkh
tie solid cratt of the earls, appears to taw
Nva Rjnaea, upco the powerful npbttos
ft roe by mrhkh tt elevated lte rave been
raited, aad the potttriw arettey of fabler
nmo r, vwcaiwe and etrttxiaakvs, tt
b natural to expect eha$m In tbe arfee of
tretaendoas depth, tpace Uo la th Interior
which have not been filled up with ntae of
Hoae lmlUr to the matertiU of the earth
Itsctt bat by water, air or vapor, with Ihwe
cavltle of sroteaue ami romantic appear
ance that are found In the mountalnoa re
cioos. There are few natural oojeeta which
have awatened mora cntloclty, or more
atrvusir afftcd the lotasinatloa, than the
hollow pUcrs of rarioui forou and tlxe,
common la dUtrieta nhU-h have teen atjeet
to srvat physical disturbance. Their tux-la-ttoa
and ctootru, their (antastle architecture,
the ccVct of torehll;bt upon their numerous
cryttallcitlvuis thu anstuentatlun of sound
and Its reverberation, together with their uu
knowuexteut In many cases alt these cauea
contribute tv lnvet the cavities of the earth
with eiclllor Intemt; nor k U traoeto
find tneoi laterwoven with tradition and
mvtholoies cf uncnlbthteucU cation;. Oa
aceoant of their oaibr! Interior and trance
vatline beta; adapted toXtut4,upon an L
nonnt popolace, and civc enect to religious
obsemacea, the priesthoodi of antiquity lo
calised lu cavern their bUc dlvtnltle, and
celebrated sanguinary rites upon the natural
altar found la their recesses. A cave, with
a priestess totted upon a tripod at it tuoatu,
pretending ta Inhale a vapor front tho tntc
rior which Inspired a knowledge of future
etent,the trtft of Apollo, was the original
TX-lphUa oracle, rcverencra by the mluda of
urece, ana reioniM to oy tac prouaes. raou
areas of th ancient woild. The cavern,
alon with the deep forest, commended ttjclf
ta the primitive luhahttints of Northern Eu
rope or in mystery ana rioam, as an appro
onate irot for the performance of a turbar-
una worship, and many local titles of tuch
sites preserve me memory oi taur tormcr
In India the Unrest use baa been made of
caverns for religious-purposes, and immense
pains have been taken with their adornment,
extension and architecture, at Eiephauta,
Salsette, and EUora. where there are elabor-ately-wroacht
temples constructed, probably
oat at tuiau natural crevices in ine rocx.
We shall cow refer to a few of those cavities
which are entirely the workmanship of na
ture, with whose form man has not Intermed
dled, and notice the principle phenomena
which they exhibit.
That extensive cavities exist in the Interior
of the crust of the rlobe is evident from the
phenomena of volcanoes and earthquakes.
They are not accessible to observation, but
the repeated tremblings of the soil in various
places, and experiment made of oscillations
of the pendulum, point to the conclusion
that there are larce acderlavlmr hollows at
co great distance from the surface, or which
the surerficial land forms the root. The ta
ble-land of Quito, ahd the burning mountain
of Joruilo, each surrounded by the most
powerful volcanoes cpoa the earth, are sup
posed to be example of this. Condamine
believed that a consUcrable portion of the
former mountain was to be regarded as the
dome of aa enormous vault; and Parrot has
shown It to be highly probable, by a careful
calculation, that a cavity ot at least a cubic
mile and a halt exist "beneath, its surface.
The rumbllnc noise, like that of distant
thunder, which, oa the testimony of Hum
boldt, usually precedes and accompanies the
eruption of its volcanoes affords evidence in
favor of this supposition, and aa aa increase
of the snhterraneaa vacuity must be the nee-
in:; landscape will ultimately tall in, and this
piece of table-land become an immense de
pression. The quantity of material scooped
oat of the interior of the earth by volcanic
action is Immense, and calculated to produce
vacuities ia which the largest mountains
would have ample space. It has been esti
mated that Etna, in one Of Its last most im
portant eruptions, that of 1TC9, threw ont a
mass of lava equal in volume to a cone 3,S50
feet In heLrht, and 11,640 feet la breadth, or
nearly four times larger than Vesuvius ; and
fourteen sueh eruptions would produce a
mas equal to Mont Blaae, reckoning from
the level of the sea, and twenty-six tech
large eruptions have occurred since the
twelfth century. Ia ITS!, when the earth
quake of Calabria occurred, the Skaptar vol
cano. In Iceland, poured fourth a stream of
lava fifty miles long, between twelve snd fif
teen broad, and from one to six hundred feet
in thickness, which must have been equal to
six times the mass of Mont Blanc, and two
and a half times that of Chimborazo.
In the volcanic rocks, cavern formations
are very common, and one of the nt splen
did examples seenrs in the basalt, a rock ol
eomparitivelr modern igneous oririn. This
is the well-known cave ot FicraL In the isl
and of Statt, a small Island on the western
coast of Sciptlaad, composed entirely of
amorphous and pillared basalt. The came of
theislaud is derived from its lingular struc
tare Staffi signifying ia the Xorweelan Ian
guare. a people who were early on this coast,
a staff, and finratively a column. The ba
saltic columns have In various places yielded
to the actionottbe waves, which cave scoop
ed out eaves of the most picturesque descrip
tion, the chief of which are the Boat cave,
the Cormorant eave so called from the cam
ber of these bird visiting the spot and the
great cave of FlnuaL
It is remarkable that this grand natural ob
ject should have remained comparatively un
known, nnlil Sir Joseph Banks had his atten
tion accidental v directed to it, and maj be
said to have discovered it to the Inhabitant
sf South Britain. This creat cavern consists
of a lava like mas at the base, and of two
raczes of basaltic columns resting upon it,
which present to the eje an appearance of
rrzuUrity almost architectural, and support
ing an irregular ceiling of rock. According
to the measurement of Sir Joseph Banks,
the cave from the rock without Is three hun
dred and seventy-one feet, six inches; the
breadth at the mouth, fifty-three feet, seven
inches ; the height of arch at the mouth one
hand red and seventeen feet, fix inches;
depth of water at the mouth, eighteen feet;
and at the bottom of the cave cine feet.
The echo of the waves which wash into
the cavern, has originated its Gaelic came,
IJaimbhinn, the Cave of music M'Colioch
remarks: "If too much admiration has
been lavished on it by some, asd if, in con
sequence, more recent visitors have' left it
with disappointment, it must be recollected,
that all description are bat pictures of the
feeungsof the narrator; It Is, moreover, ai
unreasonable to expect that the same ob
ject should produce corresponding effects
on all mind, on theeniigbteped and on the
Tuigar, aa that erer Individual should alike
be sensible of the merit of Phidias aad
EapbaeL of Sophocles and of Shakapeare.
Bat if Us cave were even destitute of that
order and symm-try, that richness arising
from aultipDeiiy ef part combined with
greatceas of dimension and simplicity cf
style, which it nweasea ; atDI the prolonged
length, the twilight gloom half coneeaucg
the playful and varying effect of rejected
Bgtt, the echo of the measured (urge as it
ries aad fall, the transparent greea of the
water, asd the profound and fairy solhsde
ef the whole scene, could sot tail strongly
to impress: a mind gifted with any sense of
beauty In art or In nature, asd it win be
compelled to admit it I not witbont cause
that such great celebrity his been eon&md
oa the care ofFIngaL'
Ca-venu occur in modem porphyry in ihe
ceightiotirbood of Quito, and even ia mod
em Ian, the ejection of which ha taken
place within the memory cf mas. Tlinders
has made c aeauaicted with caves in the
bra of the Isle of France; asd fa the lava of
Vetattoc of 1303, Gi j-Lawae fcsad several
on a small seals. But carers cf an enor
mous extent ocesr in the bra of Iceland,
that of Gsrtaheilir, titsaSea is the tomstt
wtka fcaa Sowed from BaW yotul. fcefee 40
teet ta fceigit, by 58 ta hwutsw, aad sesafys
mile ia lesfth. Btmatm Mtdc voioMic
...,....-. V IV - VTi-. . .1 .....I. -in.
vault, and the aide pnrcnt a tuceettloa of
viu-iaru noruonni stripes a iuick eoauoi; ui
tee clear as crystal corerlnc the Soor. Hen
dtrsoo, la partkalar, describe oan Sfot, the
crandrur of which surpsed all expectttloB,
the llRht of the torches rendering tt peculiar
ly encbantlnj;. iavAjujx.
A correspondent of the Philadelphia Frit
n ftmtCir wrltra from (lertnanr:
Cwnsiderinc the number of it fnbsbltant,
I Lelpabr Is no'doubt the lartest prlntlnc cen
:tr In the whole world, tor, tn a recently
pnbtltbed statistical return, we find that Lelp-ik-
rontalned. In 1SC& S3 prlntlnc 0ce,
with VO hand presses, and loljmsehlnes; the,
number of journeymen, compositor, and
pressmen, amounted for the tamo year to
915. Over 31.CC0 bale of paper were used
A new era In the typographical history of
Lrlpal; may be said to have begun with the
establishment of Mcssr. Gleseeko A Devri
enf priutinsr offlee, which wa opened on
Juoel, lrSSl. Hermann Glesecke, a ton of
the late well known typc-lounder at Lelpaiir
and. a printer, a Pur.ll of the celebrated
. Berahard Tauchnlta, and Alphona Devrteat.
: sou of a Lelpal merchant and apprentice of
! the late Frederick .SleMone of the best Lelp
! aiC printers, Uhe name or tbe present being
r. brumln.) and Edward Haenel (now Vs.
Urucului In Berlin. Mr. Devrieut sub
quently passed four years (tSU to 1S13 In the
Kovat tuuw'ImterUl"i printing office In
Paris, nbeuce herctamedto Lelpslg In order
ta prepare his own establishment there, to
gether with his friend and partner, Mr. Ole.
ecke. A third partner In the firm 1 Or. P.
Bruno Tbeodor (Jlesecke.
The first department, namely, that of gen
eral book aud art printing, which was, as
shore mentioned, beirun on June 1. 1S52,
; was aoou followed by aa extentlT tltho-
ETaphic establishment, in uctooer oi ine
tame year, and in 1STS by the addition of the
copper and steel-plate department, which
has ever since been used for the production
; of bank notes and other valuable paper which
shall def f Intimation. They are almost un
I Interruptedly encaged In printing notes,
i checks, etc., for "the Royal Government ot
I Saxony, and a host of smaller state, espect
, ally Swltxerland. About IStU, engraving In
i alt Its branches (so far as It Is connected with
printing) was added, and provided with
' electrotvplnir mechanic, and micro-photo-i
graphic "apparatus. All those enlargements
I necessitated larger premises also; and the
i present building; la which all the branches
l of the art preservative are carried on to per
j lection, was erected In lSSo. It is a stately
construction of lour stories and an aisle of
( considerable dimensions, surrounded by a
! msgnlficent garden, similar to Maine's at
; In ISM already, at the Munich exhibition,
the produce of this establishment won a
medal of honor for its enterprising propti
! etors; in 1SS5 they were awarded the first
l prtie at Paris; and German typography,
! was the result of their exhibition In the
" Palais da Champs.de Mars" last year. In
London, ISSJ, two rrinrs were awarded to
' Messrs. Glesecke & Dcvrtent, In two dasses.
The Emperor ofKnssia conferred upon Ihe
1 establishment the great gold medal of honor
' prvmS dtgoo; and the King of Saxony, upon
the senior partner, the croM of a Knight of
I the Order of AlbreehL
The copper and steel-plate printing bank
1 notes etc.. Is carried on In one or the tide
aisle in the second floor. To the right of
the entrance U a room Set apart for Govern
i ment officers, some ol whom are constantly
. on the premises, as also mllitarv sentries In
f ifr-g is'mosurl.T'i'nisirSuglr rl'led'off
for the keeping of the produce ot this de
' partment until its being banded over to the
; proper parties. It was especially this kind
of work which. In all its details, long en
; gaged the attention of Prince Napoleon.
! Commencing with eighteen presses, the in
j creased demand on this department brought
their number to twenty-six in ISCtJ; but
Prince Napoleon saw at the commencement
f of the present year, thirty copper-plate pres-
sea, sixteen numbering machines, three print
Ing machines, and five manual presses en
I gaged in the production ef those very taste
J fully executed, yet also very complicated,
notes of the Saxon treasury. His Imperial
Highness tried himself the superior quality
of the paper used, which cannot be torn
: across, and only with difficulty longwise.
Beaides the work done for the Saxon gor
i ernment, there are a number of workmen,
presses, macnines. etc, continually employ
ed for the Bavarian, 1 nrtemberg, and other
German governments; also for several Swiss
banks. In 1S08, on the ontbrake of the Pms-
to Austrian war. the Mtssra. Glesecke ik
Devrient had a very difficult and delicate
' task to perform. In order to save and protect
I the interests of those who, being for the
, most part the enemies of Prussia, bad em
ployed them for the mabnfactore oi tbelr
oanat notes, mey sncceedtd, bowevir. In
having thdr purely commercial calling pro
tected; by the Prussian commander. Jtfor
gin's Tradt JovrnaL
PKOor-KxaDEio. Tew persons outside of
printing otSce know the Importance of
"proof-reading" that Is, the careful revisi
on of the type after It I set np, for the pur
pose of removing wrong letters, etc.. Tor
instance, a miserably scrawled marriage no
tice is handed In, which ought to read a fol
lows. "Married On Anzust 1st, A Conkey,
Attorney-at-Law, to Enphemia Wiggins.
"IdreU the Bain cf ttro Levi list beat ia ofU
TIaM-rithlUranftsiapcru no fchUr fallen tn its
The notice I banded to the compositor, or
type-setter, whose rapid fingers fly among
the type-Loir for a brief space. A "proof"
or first print, Is then taken of the type, and
the proof-reader baa Ibe following verilon
"Married On April 1st, A Donkey,
Eternally at Law, to Eupbnnia Plggin.
'Jar, It aa colon with ttro toads last beat la softest
Ttee tdth iu alU Imparts no UtUr food to la
txxra dzaj.' "
Tke proof U then banded back to the com
positortobe corrected. "D" ia taken out
or Conkey' name and a C inserted; "Etere
aTIy Is altered to Attorney, and so on until
the whole paragraph bin proper thane for
the public eye.
ILLEirrT Petjcott. rrora ibe sky sbe
became known nntn the present, her life baa
been one cf unflagging toIL She probably
writcd more and more constantly ttaa any
authoress In America. Xot only to tbe Al
Uxiie and Harper t, bat to tbe Gat&u, the
i"ow7 Uir, Sbtrtidt, and every publica
tion to which she can get access, the send
her prod ut tiona. She writes poetry as weS
as prose, and many of her poems are remark
able for their beauty, trstsgestlt'eseM sue
music Sbe Is sparine of them, however, for
they require more time than prose, and,
with her, time literally b money. Of coarse
with such a perpetual drtszbt os Iter bras,
and sueh severe toil for wrHlsnf b the btrd
eat of labor eomposHIoB mast fogg un
bare lost all iU charm. 8be writes because
sbe must, not becatwe sbe want to, and the
hat often said the wbhe the tbe coaJd not
see pen, ink or paper -! for test ysars.
Tbe uniform excellence ef her vet b re
markable, considering bowBsea tbe doc.
Sbe reevd it s a bssheM tbat tris
is so amek seceury rereace. Sbe seeds
somethlsg to tie WfCtaHe, sma fa deeJswetL
Then she s-mss It to Ktnm. It b tMt x
eepted there; te titea ftWar-b Rt W
san'sortBe Cafaay. What toe rssmm ttr
oee msgtistne very ertea smsb Ms ssm- So
aotber. Sbe h little tWsVally vmAj hj
pUdog iter -Salter, VotKb eHes tster tT
erai atttmptt & J. M.
I tbe last twdre y-s,3e5 sssss -
bate twewf-J-f tsa wuSt