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The Hawaiian gazette. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii]) 1865-1918, September 28, 1870, SUPPLEMENT, Image 5

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Paris Correspondence.
FjCtas, July 25th, 1870.
3n Editor Wbea I wrote yon last. I ni
ft; fm asftkipaucr, that the cloudy tspoct of
the fMa! nrUtMM between France, and I'ru
tis M aiswn.-, in a sbrt time, decider
thmteaim; appearance. It is unfortunately too
Inc. that betsre a few days ore over, a terrible
work ef de(raeUes wiB bare taken place
"Jiba jacat est" Caver fcaki before creasing
the RwWee; bat is the present csetMt, if the
duttwiu iWTwHeJ are net lea tatportasl, more
Ui.Wi will cectataty be the W eoceualer of
t tm( saw powerful people baring at their
jkpt.A the aeir04jvr arent of war invented
hh gears tiece tbe days of the Roma
Bel swce war is a necessary era, jt
dm seblanary wrW as too: as it
asty iisisa-al ea
iwiwli u. awd iiwIbt the r-ret oircerailance.
M at wt be ayieel. it M jut as welt that
b Vm ifcMc aswigwawt' -bare it tit," am
i a? posjKJe. tbe uistarbed coa-
af tteeaya. the beaeSts of a d arable sad
2Vw. Mc Bw. I perceive that my duties as
laa'istl Sac Jw estieaabk GAicrrc are
assssaesr satawr fc ir for the reason that
IiMtMSf -r trie ads bet gisg K both m-
i ea the ta-w WmI. my l4r a
I aaaV ase LaUe le the sccesatHW
( awsttaSty to ay eeeairy. I witl tarn
ttjw SaaMi eauucle by ateteiawc trass aay
. ami ttariac abeve aa-
. I fB cie yo. day by day. the
I Mr be able la gather bete.
H wt be tbe Mk risk W jtiesfiew.
I rt I casts' BkewUe traasoat to yas tbe
fcass her s4. bat the Mal coamra
aeoataea balwaa the ta oowlries is very dtGi
Mb, aa the teSwrrafk vires hare already been
pat aC by liJ.t af the Prussian GorerataenU
-fji C in Oamsfaadeat flt probably 6 It op
the Mak Mt by yaar Paris Oarrespsaaeat. aad
hf that wu,n wall arrive at a eeaeta.-ioa of
Lmosjc wt f lB y?efl Ine re-
tasK af antac oooctesiens ami decid-
lac a it M the rich ai who is hi the wrong.
I pew- iala the aetaSs af the salject, aad am
fjafcfef ih the rt af a (aitbtal traasktar ef
!! irl" aSeeaflr priateJ sad oaQBtersigaed.
The aaafre af the war, (Freaeh paiat ef view)
k efcariy axavessed ia the fifdnawtie areolar ef
X. k Dae ac Graawat. H. I. .M s .Miatster af
i Afiars, the traafktiaa af which reads
- Task, Jaly 21st. 1ST.
5ar Ts are akeady acawialed vith the ae
n j i af (us that hare led la the diragreeseal
m4ah ISajiia. The ecinawaicaUoa thai the Ger
ataaaeat af the Baferur has breacbt. ea the 1Mb
gt ahk anath. at the tribaae of the rival bodies ;
af the date, aad the text of hieh 1 hare seat
yaacauaxpased la Fraace aad Harape. the rapid (
lara af a ataunian. ia bich. while ce vere '
eanaacr sans ai araer m preserve peace.
I the seerat desicas af aa adrersary
ap his aaad lo reader it if05.-i-
Me. Whatbar the Cahkwt af Bertta bare deeea
ei Chat ar vas aacn.ary ta carry oat projects
aaaaMd luac Ware ha ad. ac iast the toaoay
af tke tSetaaa States; whather aat sati:lied
vath kniac i-labi-bca. ia the eealre of Earope.
a aaMary paver taai M iceaaic aaageroaj le i
la al ru aaithWr? they aat to profit by the
aat i1 L a aaaer ta dlcpkee. Ibr their ;
the aatkaat eaaoriaai tb
ta dwar as the awst iadspea;-a-
fcr oar recarily as vol as lor oar
the atatest endear is
That has beta, vfthaat a daabt. the pka fona
4 aaiaa4 as. Aa aadtrAiaaiac. a MenuaJr
by mckc asaats. voabi. if hght hod
ataaiitafcdr oa their scboatvs. here
f iar. that the caaa1date?aip of a
i Pikai ta the &a of Seaia. voeM
Woe baa uMiary dkelosed to the a-MiMcd
fam A aoe tabaa br sarprise. vitaoat gtr
ac ia ta af tai'h popte tiae lor rvSectioa.
vaaal bee patiAaaii a. as vas hoped I'nnee Leo
jM aV Hahiat'ia. a hear la the seepTe of
. V. Thoc Eaiape oaM have beeo ta
af aa -iteiPpK had hct, aad speca
aa oar nmraaee Car the cmt priadpte
af aataraataiaal sareagaty. Ibey ipected that
. ia (file af a paieotg dtspkasare. voald
Are she acliaajbly ezpreesed vifl of a
, tar vhaaa aar feekan of frieadjbip are
ftl lmta
As eoaa as thy Vaev of this perX. the Ger
Luaal of tbe Saatetar has aat helhated to as
saaae it to the Reareseatatires of the Coaatry,
as va as ta at the Fanhga Cabiaeu. gaiast
tha i tchiaies. the jodgateat of pobiie o pi mod
vs ta hioaait their aaoft legttiawte aaiHbry.
The baa fial aaaas vere aavbere deccired aboat
lae trae fitaataoa of thiags : they hare easily oa
dmal that d ve vere puaMj aSaeted to
ce that Sftua vas ta be aude for tbe exciesire
bli i it of aa aaibitku dyaasty. ta pky a part
aa aavortbr of that kral aad chirah-oes natsea.
fa ittte ia caafcraaty viih the iastiacts aad trx
dhiaa of frieadship. by vbieh it is Batted with
as ve coaN aot eatertaia the idea to belie oar
toirriiat respect ibr the iedrpeadeace of iU aa-
Tfee ha fek that the Beserspofocs pokey of
th Pratstas GorerMseat had aot to do ia ibis j
aSahr. It is aadeed that goreraaeat. vbo. sot f
geeaaac thesseirrs bosad by comeoa kv. aad
I m aia, the rates ta vbieh the most poverfdl
i bare had the wisdom ta sebaat thexn- j f tbe Kmperor;
The Cabinets of London, Fans, Vienna, I?er-
Iin and St. I'elerthorg, when assembled in the
conference of London, appropriated that example
to themselves, and made it a nil of conduct for
all. ia a negotiation where the peace of tbe world
was at stake, and they thes rendered a solemn
homage to that great law of the pondrronsness of
the forces, which is the basis of the Enropean
political system.
Vainly did tbe national Congress of Belgium
persist, notwithstanding the resolution, in elect
ing tbe Dnke de Xemoors. France complied
with tbe encagement it bad taken, and refused
the crown brought to I'ari? by the Belgian Depu
ties. Bat, at tbe same time, enforced the exrin-
HH) of tbe claims of tbe Duke or Lenchtenbcrg.
which had been opposed lo those of the French
throne, tbe Gorrmment of the Emperor wa ad
rere to the candidalesbip of Frince Alfred of
England, and at the same time, to that of another
Dake of Lenchtenbcrg.
1b Greece at tbe time of the btt vacancy of the
England recwgnixiBg the aathjrity of tbe con
siderations inrakeO by us, declared that tbe
Qaeea weald not anlhonxe her Son to accept tbe
crown of Greece. Russia made a similar declara
lion for tbe Date of Ieuchtenberg, althouch. by
reasoe or his birth, that Frince was not absolutely
coastdeted as a member of tbe Imperial Family.
ABd lastly, the Emperor Xapoleoa has spon
taacoasly applied tbe same principles in a note
petdfeh-d in the Mmiteur" of September 1st,
1SS0. disowBisg the cadidatnre ef Frince Marat
to tbe throne of Naples.
PrSfsia, which we have not failed to remind of
those precedents, seemeil far oee moment, to
yieW to oor just cempkints. Prince Leopold
desisted from his candidature, and one could
thiak that peace would not be broken. But that
hope has soon given way to new apprehensiaLS,
and finally to the certainty that Prussia, without
seriously wildrawing any of its pretensions, was
only trying to gain time. The language, at first
hesitating, and then decided and hacchtr of tbe
Chief ol tbe Hoaseof Ilobenxllern, bis refusal
to bind himself to maintain the fallowing day re
resuaciatialions promised tbe day before, tie
treatment inflicted on oar ambassador, to whsm
a verbal message interdicted any new communi
cation on the object of his mission, and at length
tbe publicity given to this unwonted treatment
by the Prussian newspapers, and by the notiSca.
tioa ef tbe same transmitted to the Foreign Cab
inets, AH these successive symptions of arxres
sioa do not leave any doubt in tbe minds of tbe
most prejudiced people. Is any illusion to be in.
dalged in. when a Sovereign, comma ruling one
criHion of soldiers, declares, his hand on tbe hilt
of bis sword, that be will take advice of Himself
and of tbe circumstances? We were brought to
that extreme Kmit, when a nation, ecsible or
her own dignity, cannot compound any lonjrer
with ber honor.
If the last incidents of this painful debate were
not throwing a vivid lieht on the pmject3 en
lertaiaed by the Cabinet or Berlin, there is one
dreams Lance, less known to this day which gives
to their conduct a decisive signification.
The idea of the accession of a Prince of II o-
beazoDera to the throne of Spain was not a new
one. Already, ia the month of March 1S69. it
had been dtscioseJ by our Ambassador at Berlin,
who was at once directed to let Count de Bis
rek koow hoc tbe French Government wonld
look upon saeh a coatiwgeory. Coaol Beneditti,
oar Ambassador, ia several coaversatioss that he
bad oa the subject both with the Chancellor or
tbe North Genaaa Confederation and with tbe
Sob-Secretary. Minister of Foreign -A flairs, did
sot coecea from tbe at that we should not admit
that a Prussian Prince came to reign on the
other side of tbe Pyrenees.
Coaol de Hisawrck. os the other hand, had
declared that we should set be preoccupied about
a sehetae that be bimsvtf deemed impossible, and
dariag the absence of the Chancellor Federal, in
a nan m oat nheo Mr. Bt-sdelle was sbowinc bira
seif iacredatoBS and pressing. Mr. de Tbite bad
pledged his rd of honor that the Prince of
Haaeozotlern was aot. and wooid sever be allow
ed to be a candidate for tbe throne of Spain.
If we were to suspect the sincerity or official
assaraneej, as positive as tbose. diplomatic com
araair liens woeld cease to be a token or Eu
ropean peace ; Ibey wonld be Dotbiog but snores
aad danger. And. although oar Ambassador
tnosautted those declarations:, with reservations,
tbe Goveraateot of the Emperor bad welcomed
theat with satiskctioa, and refused to doubt their
sieeerHy. when, all at once, the scheme that was
a signal negation or the same, was disclosed.
While unexpectedly retracting the word she bad
given cs. without even trying to make an appli
cation to be relieved from it. Pru&i was. in fact.
setting cs at defiance. From that lime, we trere I
coascioas of the value to be attacked to tbe most
formal protestations of the Prussian statesmen,
aad we resolved to preserve, for tie fature, our
loyalty from mistakes, by an explicit warranty.
It was, therefore, our duty to insist, as we have
dose, ia order to arrive at the certainty that a
reasncktion that had alwavs been surrounded by
subtile distinctions, shoaM, this time, be definite
and serious.
It is but just that the Court of Berlin have,
before history, tbe responsibility of the war that
it has been seeking. Aad, under what circum
staarcs has it sought it? It is when, far tbe Ust
few years France, giving it be proofs of a con
stant moderation, has abstained, with somewhat
exaggerated scrcples. from invoking against it
the Treaties concluded through the very medium
the willful forrelrsloes of
Mtves. have aMen-pted te impose upon deceived
Hail i a aaareraas exleashm of their iafioence. j
Fraaee has takes ia hand the canse of all the j
Lilaia that are threatened by tbe disproportioa-
r i - ) - !
ate eaiaifriuiiai ot a r bvssc js so una,
was Prase acting ineassUteatly. as they bare
fcJ te haskMtle. with ber ova ssaxim ? As
fsredk; aot
Hvery aatiaa we like to proclaim it is free
to manage fc s lairs. This principle, of --air
-Visaed by Fraace, has becace oae of tbe fend
Ttatal kwa of sdera poktics. Bat tbe right
ef each Bibuc aa vtdl as of each individual, is
Boated by the right of others, and it is forbidden
that a eaiioa. atxJer tbe preteee of exercising
ks awa sovereignty, shook! asesace the existence
arthe secanty of a neighboring cation. It is. ia
the saa sense, that Mr. de Lacsaruce said ia
K-JI. tkC vbeoevtr a Sovereign is to be selec
ted, a raveraaeet has never tbe right of layieg a
ckfaa for. bat always the right of excluding a can-!
didale. That doctrise has been adaittd by all
the GahlaeU under drcsmstaaces aBalcgoos to
those is which ve baie been piacevl bj ti,e caod
dalrsifp at the IVioce of Iloheszotlem, parlico
ksiy ia 1631 ia the Bdgua qoestioo. aad ia 1630
ia the IleKesie oce.
In the Belgian aiiin. tbe voice of Errope it
self vu heard, for tbe fire great powers imposed
their derisions.
which is made apparent by ah tbe acts of a Gov
ernment which thought to get rid oT them at tbe
very time that it subscribed to them.
Esrope has witnessed oar conduct, and has
been enabled to compare it with that or Prussia
dariag tbe course of this period. Let Europe
pranance on tbe justice or our cause. Whatever
cay be the fcto of battles, we await, with con
fidence, the j aiign eat of our contemporaries, as
weM as that ef posterity.
(Signed.) Gejocoxt.
This important document will show yoa what
are the coosideratiocf (frota a Freueh point
of view) that have brought about the
the deadly truggle that is soon to take plica
between France and Prussia. It may be that
the canfiict might have been postponed far some
lime, and sou- say that the reouacialion of tbe
Prince of HoheflzoHern rcght to have been con
sidered by the Emperor as a sufficient atonement
rr the fears entertained by the French Govern
taTit ; vhiR others contend that tbe fact of tl.e
preteosiuas of Prince Leopold to tbe throne of
Spain, datieg back for many Dostbs. vas aa in
dication of the bad intentions of the Prussian
Premier against the peace of France, and that it
was necessary to iasure the fature against the
recurrence of socfa troubles by a solemn declara
tioa of tbe Kir.g oi Prussia. Not ooly did he
refuse to csale it, (rat he rendered war inevitable
The three Courts, that had takeo at heart the 1 br refusing to receive the French Ambassador,
veKart sJ Grce. actjeg cccer a coicoo ttucgtt ivoest besedetu. and lettirg him know, by aa
cfgeseral interest, had acrred beforehand cot to
accept the thrcce of Greece for any Prince of
tie? respective Erases.
Atdeie-euap that any farther discussion on the
subject was csekss. To impartial minds acd
I Caller nyself thtt I bosg to the eiprejadictd
category. it is evident that war was desired by
both parties, and tbe documents lately published
from the English bloe-book.at the requestor sev
eral members of Parliament, plainlr shuw ibat the
peaceable mediation of England, which endeav
ored to appease the excitement, was absolutely
declined bv each or the parties concerned. War
will decide, not perhaps who is right, but which
or the two belligerents has the best and quickest
mod. of destruction. It is a match between the
improved rifles Chassepot vs. Needlegun. How
ever, the enthusiasm here is akin ta fanaticism.
In less than fifteen days, 150,000 young men
have enlisted as volunteers for tbe period or the
war. and some or them belong to the richest and
most aristocratic families of the country. Several
millions or francs have been collected by private
parties, to be devoted to tbe assistance of the
wounded, and tbe probable victims or tbe bloody
strife. The other day, at Bordeaux, more than
30.000 citizens foltowad the soldiers who lelt for
the seat or war, and cheered them, singing the
mighty - Marseillaise' until thev were out or
sight. Five hundred thousand men are alrcaey
on the frontier of the East, and the Emperor has
taken tbe supreme command of the seven "Corps
d'Armew." At the present moment, with the
additional help of tbe " Garde Mobile," 1.CO0.000
men are under arms, ai.d each regiment is
furnished with four " metrailleuses." a new engine
uf death, discovered, as they say by Napoleon him
self. I have heard, from an eye-witness, of the
terrible effects of that new revolving cannon, and
it nukes.oneshu.der to tbink that men should
resort against each other to such means for
shortening the limited term of life. At 1.S00
yards, a " mitrailleuse" killed and scattered to
atoms 500 inoffensive horses iu less than three
minutes. II L give yoa all these details, it is to
prove to you, (as you will see by the proclama
tion of the Emperor to the army.) that France is
conscious or the worth and strength of Prussia,
that she takes all kinds or precautions against
her powerful antagonist. In tbe Navy Depart
ment, they are not inactive, and lately, being in
Cherbourg, (my native place.) I fair in the road
stead or that noble sea-port, an iron clad fleet or
eighteea ruen-of. war. seven of which have alfeadv
left for the Baltic Sea. after having been visited
and inspected by no less a personasre than the
Empress herself, who came from Paris on Sun
day, the 24th tnsu, to read to the French tars
the proclamation or the Emperor, who could not
come to see them, being on the eve or bis de
parture for the camp, with his son, the Prince
Imperial, who, for the occasion, has for tbe first
time put on the unirorra or Sub-Lieutenant.
Since war must take place, it is to be hoped.
in order that it may arrive at a speedy termina
tion, no other nation will take part in it. De
clarations of tbe strictest neutiality have already
Oeen made by fcagland. Russia, Italv. Spain
Denmark, Sweden and Norwav. Bekium and the
Netherlands, and unless some unforeseen compli
cation should arise, it is very likely that neu
trality will be observed throughout the war.
I will here give yoa a translation of an article
in tbe Journal Chficid, showing how eager both
parties are to propitiate the terrible power of
the great goddess of oar civilized times, I mean,
t uWic Opinion. Tbe article reads as follows :
" It has been objected that France bad carried
oa the negotiations at Ems. instead of pursninz
them at Berlin, through the ordinary channeL It
is the Representative of England in Prussia,
Lord Loftus, who will give the wanting explana
tion, tie declares, in. fact, by a dispatch dated
the 6th or July, that the Cabinet or Berlin, di
owning all interest in the question, and claiming
that it was a matter concerning the royal family
or Prussia, had declined all responsibility in the
candidature of the Prince of Hoheazollern. It
was,' quoting the expression used by Mr. de
Tode.' a matter that did not exist Tor the Prus
sian Government,' Being unabla to act at Berlin
we were then under the necessity or carryinson
the negotiation at hois, near the King himself,
who had an interview with our Ambassador.
" It has been also asserted that, in the course
of the debate. France had modified and increased
ber pretensions.
" The English documents establish, on tbe con
trary, that from the first our diplomacy 'always
place I itseir on the same ground.' The first dis
patch addressed by the Duke de Gramont to
Count Benedetto, terminates with this sentence :
' In order that the renunciation shall be effective,
it is necessary that tbe King tbould give yon the
assurance that he will not authorize the candi
dature on any other occasion.'
" It has been affirmed that Fraace. in making
that request or the King or Prussia, had made a
request contrary to the dignity or the mocarch.
The bast proof that such is not the case is. that
Lord Granville 'urged the King of Prussia to
grant s what we desired.
"To the Prussian newspapers which assert that
France wanted war al any cost, we answer by
referring them to the dispatch of Lord Lyons,
under date or July I3th. Tbe English Ambas
sador antes to Lord Granville that France had
bat one wish that or obtaining froa the- King
of Prussia the engagement that he would prevent
tee Pnnce of HohenzoIIern from accepting tbe
tbroce of Spain. Lord Lyons adds in tbe same
dispatch, that he asked the Duke de Gramont to
authorize bin to transmit that declaration to
tier Majesty's Government. The French Minis
ter took a sheet of paper, which he placed in tbe
Ambassador's band, after having written on it tbe
foBowibg staleotest : We request or tbe King
ir Prussia that he forbid the Prince of Ilobeszol-
lem to recall his word. If be does it, tbe
trouble is over.'".
But, as I was saying above, or opinion is that
war might have been averted for a wbHe if either
party had desired it, and yet, as it would have
been at tbe expense of tbe pride, or dignity, as
some may term it, or either or the two defiant
Toes, peace could not be durable, and where ar
guments are vain, force aast prevail.
In tbe midst of thee feverish expectations or
excited hurcpe, I can cot help remembering tbe
quiet aad undisturbed life or the shores or Ha
waiishores that win never witness horrible
scenes of deflation aad destruction, bat win
ever be the seat of prosperity aad tappiaess.
Such is jhe earnest wish of
Yours, truly. F-uuuri.
Hostility to tie Cbiaese.
A short time since, a shoe maaufacturpr in
North Adams, Massachusetts, needing more
workmen than he could obtain ia his locality at
fair wages, owing to a dictatorial combination,
sent to San FraocUco for "leveaty-Sre steady,
active and intelligent Chinamen, such as are
quick to learn a trade," and entered into a satis
factory contract with them for three years'
services. Forthwith, he was fiercely denounced
aad menaced, and for a time evidently ia creat
personal danger. The most inflammatory ap
peals were made to the working -dasAes generally
to resist, as for their lives, the in trod action or
this kind of labor, as calculated to materially
lessen their wage, if not utterly to deprive them
of employment- Political demagogues essayed
to Bake it a tavorahfc occaaoa to brisg grat to
their mill. The icfection entered Congress'
which body disgraccrully proceeded to amend, or
rather to keep in operation the old pro slavery
naturalization law, to that no Chinaman, whether
here or coming among us, can ever become
bono-Jtde citizen of the United States, however
desirous of doing to, and no matter what his in
telligence, pecuniary condition, useloiness, or
patriotism a law which liberty execrates and
justice repels as violative of the equal rights of
human brotherhood. Even the pulpit, as well as
the press, in some instances, give indul
gence to unseemly and certainly most unchristian
denunciation of the Chinese as a barbarous and
idolatrous race, whose presence among ns, in any
considerable numbers, is to be regarded with dis
gust and alarm, as imperiling all that we hold
dear, even tbe stability of our holy religion itselfl
With this aroused selfishness was mingled no
small measure or cant and hypocracy about the
horrible Coolie traffic; as if that traffic had any
thing to do with all this outcry, which began with
the .North Adams experiment, and which means
ntter hostility to all Chinese immigration to this
country, however intelligent and voluntary.
Now, if there was ever an illustration of a
tempest in a tea-pot, or of a mole-hill magnified
to the dimensions or a first-class mountain, it is
seen in this instance. Mr. Sampson, the North
Adams contractor, simply asserted his unques
tionable right as an employer, as against a brow
beating and exacting combination, to obtain la
borers as best he could in the broad fields or in
dustrial wants. For doing this in so lair and
quiet a manner he deserves credit, and will in the
end be sure to receive it. Be it observed that
bo did not send to China to induce the needed i
wotkmen lo come over and engage in his service,
though he might have done so without giving any
just occasion Tor complaint; lor thousands of
Germans, Scandinavians, Englishmen, Irishmen,
etc, have been contracted for on their native
soil, before reaching these shores, and no valid
reason can be given why Chinamen should not
be as freely induced to add their skill and labcr
to our capital stock, to tbo development of our
unlimited resources, and the consequent expan
sion and prosperity or the republic The labor
ers be engaged were residents or San Francisco,
quietly pursuing whatever employment ihey bad
been able to find. Offering them better'wages
than they were then getting, they evinced their
good sense and thrifty disposition by accepting
his overtures ; and to this hour both parties are
abundantly satisfied. Certainly, the contract
concerns none but themselves. It was made at
a common risk, in tbe. usual manner, and under
lawful conditions; aad it is equally abs-ird and
impertinent for any to inveigb against it.
The peculiarity of the excitement created hy
this movement is, it rages most intensely amoug
those who are themselves foreigners ; who have
no better right to residence or employment hero
than the Cbinese; who would be summarily
ejected from the land if their own proscriptive
policy toward this class were enforced in accord
ance with their wishes; who brought with them
an amount of destitution, ignorance and degrada
tion, as a mass, sufficient to make out a case for
their expulsion, if any such couid be found ; and
whose enlightmeot is no easy matter to achieve, j
Especially is this true of tbe Irish, who seemed
to regard two countries as entirely their own
namely, tbe oce from which they came, and tbe
oce to which they have come. They went in a
cuss against negro emancipation, on the ground
that the liberated bondmen would Sock lo the
North, acd successfully compete with them in
tbe labor market; just as they are now arrayed
against Chinese Immigration for a similar reason.
Bnt even they have seen tbe roily of their selfish
fears in regard to the Southern freedmcn ; and it
is no less signal in tbe present instance.
A fair field to capital and labor, and no favor!
Our national domains are ample to receive tie
population of tbe globe. We bavo cot ten peo
ple to tbe square mile ; Belgium cas fire hun
dred, and flourishes. Our ports are open to all
comers, so far as legitimate and voluntary immi
gration is concerned. Like charity, tbe act is
twice blessed ; for in tbe sequel, in spite or at
tending drawbacks acd temporary perils, tbe
general welfare is thereby enlarged and secured.
We call ourselves Americans ; but we are rastbe-
coming cosmopolitan, not to our disadvantage,
but to tbe gain oi mackicd. 'What constitutes
our real glory is cot simply what it is possible
for us to become, bat what we have already done,
AH tbe cations of tbe earth are more or less
strongly represented on our soil, acd we are still
attracting their oppressed acd laboring millions
by an irresistible magnetic power. Still let tbem
come, to tbe welcoming or all, to the exclusion
or cone ; or, if preference be shown to any, let it
bs to the class of races most needing to be raised
in the scale of civilization acd Christianity. Here
there is an abundance or rood ; here scope for in
dustry, enterprise, and invention to any extent ;
here almost every' variety of climate, from the
arctic to tbe tropical ; here are millions upon
millions of acres to be cultivated ; here inexhaus
tible mineral riches to be extracted ; here me
chanics! and manufacturing possibilities beyond
computation ; here the means of popular enlight
enment on the broadest foundation ; and here tbe
freest institutions to be found in the world.
What a change has been effected in the condi
tion of the millions who hare sought these shores
in quest or rood for the body, light for the mind,
and equal rights, before tbe laws ! They hare
thus saved a vast amount of foreign missionary
labor acd expense, acd enabled our nation to be
tbe educational school of the world.
True, such a continual influx of foreign destitu
tion acd ignorance presents a formidable aspect,
and occasionally gives rise to serious apprehen
sions, even in thoughtful minds, lest the bcrden
be heavier than we can bear, and tbe strain great
er than our constitutional safeguards can resist ;
but it affords cs alike tbe opportunity and tbe in
centive to make our educational facilities equal to
every emergency, and is a constant appeal to our
moral and philanthropic activities in behalf of
those who ceed all possible assistance. Let us
have faith in universal liberty acd impartial jus
tice, come what may. Let cs be true to the .
princplee we profess in respect to tbe rights and
c-ir?f of hsmu catcre, asd we need cot fear the
resdt. 'We have nothing to fear bat our own !
cowardice, selfiibness, and recreancy to duty.
Giving ourselves nobly to the task of making of
this nation one people in all that relates to vir
tuous liberty, acd abolishing all caste distinctions,
we (ball cot only be safely carried through every
trial, but abundantly favored of heaven.
To the craven plea that tbe Chinese are idola.
ters, end therefore must not be allowed to settle
among os to the peril of Christianity, no other
reply need be made than that it presents an ex
cellent reason for extending to them the largest
measure of hospitality that is, if it is tbe mis
sion of Christianity to overthrow idolatry ; for
cannot the work be far better dome on oar own
than on a distant shore I What shall be mid of
the religions kith of those who raise this outcry ?
What is it better than sounding bras or a tinkling
cymbal? Why seed taksioaaries to tbe esds of
tie earth to convert idoklon, if lie chance are
that it is the former, who will become proselytes
to the latter.
Whether tha Chinese are idolaters or not they
are not lo bo denied their share or liberty and
equality under tho Constitution or tbe United
States on that account. They must take their
chance with the rest, where free thought and
free inquiry and freo speech and the right or con
science are accorded to all. One thing is certain,
they cannot be converted by persecution, but by
persuasion. They are said to bo remarkably do
cile, imitative, teachable ; and, ir we deal fairly
acd justly with them, we may reasonably hope to
seo them gradually assimilating to our own views
of religious raittt and practice. Thus for their in-
offensive behaviour has put their Inducers to the
blush. Let them lie Hilly protected.
Sleep An An Inwlitutlon.
One of tlic pleasantest places .in the
world in which sleep can visit us is a sum
mer, meadow, when the grass is iu flower.
You nestle down among the tall, pliant
green stalks, with a canopy of great white
oxdaisies noddmg over your head. You
laaly watch the big " bumble" bee, in his
velvet suit of black and oranjre, bustlinj-
abotit from clover-top to clover-top a
fretful lover, or a testy honey-merchant,
whichever hemay be, for he will reply to
no questions, rreseutly he will come
bouncing at you, as if you were an inter
loper whom he at once hated and despised ;
and then lie will make ofFin a sudden rage,
as hot and hery as Blue Beard. Very
soon all sorts of quaint-shaped creatures
will one by one appear, and climb up into
the golden dishes of the buttercup flowers,
or on to the bending-grasses to look at vou ;
little demure beetles will nod their heads
and move their antennae suspiciously;
then will follow dainty ladybirds iu their
gny shells, and stealthy timid insects, who
will keep down low in the grass, and peep
out at the intruder into their dominion,
and pugnacious red ants, who fear no
thing. A grasshopper is safe lo vault over
j you acrobatically. A moment after, a
white butterfly will career near you, re
connoitering for the hidden fairies ; and
little blue dragon-flies, with bodies like
mere threads of sapphire, will skim past
with their gauzv wiugs,
fussily as they betake themselves to their
fashionable watering place in the nearest
meadow, that pond crusted with grceu
weed not unlike mint sauce. On tho fresh
dewy lawn, nil in a grey bloom, thrushes
arc pulling and hauling at reluctant
worms, who, refusing to come up out of
the hold, resist and wriggle like detected
stowaways.- Dishwashers, most graceful
and coquettish of birds, are pacing about,
flirtiug their tails over the grass just un
der the big Portugal laurel ; and every now
and then Scudding after flics, who, intent
on ascertaining if their heads are screwed
on firmly for the day, do not observe their
pursuers till they are swallowed by them.
By-and-bye the house begins to awake,
some one shuffles unwillingly down-stairs,
a broom drops with ostentatious clatter.
The next thing is the jolting open of a
window-shutter; soon after that the kitch
en fire begins to crackle, while some one
moves chairs about and sings a snatch of
some country melody. Presently there is
a clatter of youtig voices, a cry and clamor
of children; a bell riugs sharply and
chidingly. The house is getting up ; then
there comes the splash of a bath being
filled, and the next moment comes a rap
at your door, and a rough country voice
says in pure Doric:
"If you please, zur, it is past zeven,
and here's some warm water."
Eastern travelers, who have spent any
time in the Desert, say that on their return
to civilization and four-postbeds, there is,
for a period, a feeling of constraint and
oppression at night that renders sleep
almost impossible. They miss the starry
canopy and the great airy roof of night's
black palace. I can well believe this for
have myself felt a similar transition.
Some years ago I rode for ten days or so
through a part of Greece: every day's
bivouac was an immortal spot. Thebes or
Thermopyla;, Leuctra orPIatea, Delphi or
Lepanto. I was literally riding through
Thncvdides and Plutarch. Sometimes I
spent the night at the houses ol priests or
old officers of the "War of Independence;
oftcner I slept out iu the open air. I and
The Iron Crowi' ef FramttM.
In March, 1811, Frederick William HI,
of Prussia, father of tho present sove
reign, instituted tho Order of tho Iron
wondering who
on earth you are and what you want. ; mJ" dragoman, our two horses, and my
Swallows will ilnrtlir;tlinfnrvMlfli,ri1i soonjec, who drove tne baggage horse
" , . ,
which is the poetrv of motion. Gusts of
wild-rose leaves will scitter over you from
the neighboring hedges. All at once, as
you lie half asleep, you will remember
what it is you like. Why, of course, you
are like Bottom, the transformed weaver
of Athens, waited on by the fairies. The
lark above, almost out of sight in the warm
blue air, is, no doubt, Titania herself,
singing to you before she descends at twi
light and changes her shape, and trans
forms the creatures that surround vou in
to Peas-blossom, Cobweb and the rest.
They will dance around you, and then,
kneeling, offer you refreshments, dew iu
aconi-cups and honey in rose-leaves. They
will but gradually the air gets stiller, a
balmy calmness benumbs you, a sumptu-
-j ous repose you are asleep. Probably if
you are a family man, the clamor of many
children will awake you, and a romping
cluster of urchins falling on you, will drag
you in to tea ; or if you are newly married
even a pleaanter form of awakening may
arouse you, and two soft little red lips
may press yours, and tell the " lazy, lazy
fellow," in half a dozen kisses, that supper
is ready.
I have often thought how pleasant it
would be to go to sleep in the centre of a
corn-field a corn-field where acres of
goldern spears were swaying to and fro
iu the wind, and every breeze ploughed
momentary furrows that close the instant
tbe breath bad passed. Ti.at delicious
simmering sound would promote slumber;
so also would that ceaseless crackling as
of a fire running through straw, which
shows that the grain is ripe, and that the
dry husks are already parting. The lan
guid poppies would be pleasant drooping
over one's head, and fair wonld flutter the
delicious blue of the corn-flower. But
then mother earth is hard, and moreover
Farmer Giles might strongly object.
I once slept in a tree that was deli
cions. I was a boy then, fond of reading.
and to get time to myself I used to climb
up a big sycamore at the end of our gar
den with my book, Pope's Odyssey, or the
Arabian Xights, to find a green tent where
I could enjoy ray dream-world all alone.
With the delight of Jack-of-the-Bean-Stalk,
I nsed to climb and climb till I could find,
out a snug combination of boughs, where
I could either sit or sleep. The thrushes
sang to me as I lay there listening to the
rustling of the sunny, transparent leaves,
or, with book half clrsed, wondering how
Aladdin would ever escape from the cave
in which the cruel magician, his proud
uncle, had just immured him. Then throw
ing my arm round a bongh, with a deli
cious fear and a full knowledge that I
might break my neck if Uet go my hold,
I nsed to snatch a moment or two of sleep.
I had precedent for it, too, for some Ethi
opian nation, I bad heard of from Herodo
tus, nsed to live in trees.
There is something supremely delight
ful in the first night of a country visit.
Everything is so quiet. One's ignorance
of the place rouses the imagination, and
sends it wondering. The sheets are to
(such a horse. I wondered sometimes he
did not ccme to pieces on those bridle
tracks of white marble round the roots of
Parnassus), shifted as best we could. A
day's journey or so from Delphi we were
benighted in a wood close to the Gulf of
Corinth : it was a- wood of tamarish and
myrtle, myrtle twelve and fourteen feet
high, the leaves green and glossy.
Wo rode on and on through the wood
(within sound of the mel-mcholy music of
the sea washing upon the deserted shore),
like travelers in a fairy story, until, led by
the faint ray of the first star, we became
aware of a little water-mill, at the dust'
door of which sat a stolid old Greek,
white with age, Cut still more with flour,
who received us with the immovable,
wonderless gravity of the Turk. He slew
grimly a thin and muscular fowl which
he roughly aroused from his first sleep;
he roasted the bird with gravity; he boil
ed ns water; he brought us bread, then,
with the servile shyness of a serf, he sat
apart under a myrtle tree, getting our
coffee ready, affecting to take no notice,
but watching everything as I supped on
the edge of mv camii-bed. A meditative
pipe followed, and then I went to bed in
the open air under tlic shade of a hospita
ble sycamore. There I lay looking up at
the sky. The mountains of the Morca
were to the right of me, " the sentinel
stars kept their watch in the sky," and
gentle influences came to me from heaven.
A cloud was my counterpane, clouds were
my bed-curtains, the roof of my bed
chamber was star-spangled, the Pleiades
tucked me up. I consigned myself to the
protection of God and then fell asleep,
with a passing thought an to whether
there were any wolves htill left in that
part of Greece. I never slept so soundly,
or awoke so refreshed. I was sorry the
next night to exchange that spacious and
inexpensive bed-chamber for a dirty room
at feverish ilissolonghi. All the Year
white, the air so pure ; you open the lat
tice to swell the honeysuckle, and a moth
puts out the candle. In the morning the
birds greet you with a pleasant welcome;
as yon paddle across the floor with bare
feet, and look out and find the window
surrounded with white and crimson roses,
a breath of paradise wafts in, rendering
even early shaving an exquisite enjoy
ment. Brave cbaaUclecr with doIit din,
Eeattcra the rear of darkaeta thin.
The pompoBg turkey-cock oa an adjacent
farmyard breaks into hysterical laoghter
in his pharisaical pride at having got Bp
earlier than his master. The geese gabble
The Mitksillzcsc The mention of this weapon
being frequently made In tbe wardpalcbrt of tha
day, It will be uf Interest to our reader to know
wbat sort of a thing it Ii. We give a aburt descrip
tion ol tbe gun taken from La Propagation Indna-
In a socket, al tbe upward-curved rear end of this
frame, fit tbe team of a revolving ttrel cjllnder.
ThU has four ceta of cliambtia fur tbe cartridge.
Each Kt conelstt of five chambers, corresponding
to the five bvrrctt of Ibe gun. Theae chambers
when brought in succcrtloo ti tbe lower part of tlii
cjllnder, are aligned with the (ear ends of tbe bores
of tbe barrel, and when at the top, are In line with
tbe surface of a loading table, which baa grovea In
It o that Ibe cartridges may be eatlly pushed Into
the cbamoert.
ine Darren, suuiiea in a nonzonui plane, are
five In number, and are not parallel but a little fur
ther apart at Ibe muzzle than at tbe breech. The
object of this Is to irlve a ecatterlng lire. There la
system of moccanUm which we have not the
pace lo explain In detail, by which tbe barrela may
be adjusted In any desired plane, or placed at differ
ent an;lcw!tn each other, wlialn certain limits.
Tbe change of angle la for tho purpose of enabling
the gunners to sweep a wider or narrower area.
When tbe chambers are brought Into line wltb tbe
barrels, a acrle of needles or strikers arc driven in
to the rear of the chamber! and agatuat tbe fulmi
nate of tbo cartridges, tbca discharging tbe piece,
by meaca of a bir which works automatically.
When It Is dlslred to transport tbe gun from one
place to another, Ibe four lees of the support are
brought Into a horizontal position, parallel with the
barrels, and two men can carry tbe apparatus with
ease. Hence it can be transported wbitberlt would
be Impossible to take a wheeled carriage.
Tbe special advantages claimed for tbe mltraltleusa
are tta eate of loading and firing and transportation,
Ita power of throwing cootlnuoua valleys in diver
gent directions, and tbefacillly ol -varjingtlic direc
tion of tbe Hoe of fire. In tbe method of loading,
however, other device seem to be Ita superior. If ia
no otber reaped.
Evrar French soldier eame a piece of canraaa
about five feet long by foar broad, and a stick;
wbea two of theae pieces of eaavau are joined to
gether tbey form a shelter; whes tlx are balK nf
they coeatitate a tent eloted at both cads. The
French soldier Is tbas for bis hoete sccosffi64a! lea,
Independent of baggag e aataui.
Cross, for peculiar military or civil dis
tinction in the war then carried on against
Bonaparte. Just at that time Prussia,
long depressed, had taken a place in the
van, and her troops were part of the great
German Army of Liberation. The so
called "Confederation of the Rhine," of
which Bonaparte had been the head, had
been dissolved. Frederick's motto was
" Honor and our Country," and this was
also adopted by Alexander of Russia.
Frederick William had invited his sub
jects to pour their gold and silver orna
ments into the public treasury, whence
they would receive iron ones, fashioned in
the same forms to preserve in their fami
lies indicating past wealth and present
patriotism and the call had been nobly
responded to. Bracelets, necklaces, rings,
broaches, crosses, solitaires, earrings of
gold, and jewels were taken to the treas
ury, and then exchanged for similar bi
joux, beautifully worked in bronze, and
inscribed, "I gave gold for iron, 1813."
From that time until the war was ended,
golden ornaments were never worn, and
hence arose the beautiful Berlin bronze
omaments, so well known and so highly
prized throughout Europe, as well as the
order of the Iron Cross of Prussia.
The present King of Prussia has reviv
ed this, the most honorable national deco
ration, conferred only for services and
high merit during tho war of liberation
in 1813 and 1 315. No otiier rank will be
handicapped for the chase of this reward
of courage exhibited on the field of battle,
or in shielding the household gods at
home, but that of merit. The soldier of
Prussia has now before him two classes
and a grand cross. The first-class ribbon
is to be worn the instant he wins it, on
the left breast, where his heart beats, the
second-class in the button-hole, where of
all places should bo supported the flower
of valor ; the third; a double-sized medal,
to dangle round his neck as a cross round
the throat of a crusader. But to possess
the second he must make good his title to
the first. Tho Grand Cross will be no
thing less than signal victory accomplish
ed, the conquest of an important position
or place, or the brave defense of a for
tress. The iron cross was the glory of
glories during the wars of liberation.
Even when you had won it, it yet remain
ed to be won ; for the number of these
precious badges were limited, and its re
cipient had not only lo distinguish himself
against the foe, but to wait till one of his
fortunate fellow-countrymen possessing it
died. Ho might, however, have handled
it down to his son as an heir-loom. Here,
then, a bit of cast iron, whose inlriusic va
lue would be magnificently paid for by a
few cents, becomes more valuable, to a
brave man, than the S:tncy diamond or
the Ivohiuoor could possibly be, for it is
the perpetual testimony of valor, honor,
love of freedom, and the fatherland.
Louis Xapoleon may distribute baskets
full of the insignia of his uncle's celebra
ted order, but what is their value compar
ed with that of the simple iron cross of
Prussia, iu itself a trophy and a history 1
It has been revived, KingAVilliamdeclar
est to his German friends and subjects,
" in consideration of the serious situation
in which the country is now placed, and
in memory of the heroic actions of our
fathers duriug the War of Liberation."
IIIaraarck'M Policy.
Tbe Fnt'eian army ia steadily marching to
wards Paris, and will not probably meet with ae
rious obstacles until it has reached the fortifica
tions or the French Capital. A telegram atated
a day or two ago, that Jules Favre. In bis capac
ity r.f Minister or Foreign Affairs, hail tent a
special messenger to the King or Prussia. Thti
leaders or the French Republic are desirous of
knowing what terms King William aeeki to im
pose on tbe country which ho has invaded, lis
expected interview has probably not yet taken
place, but it is reported that Count Bismarck de
mands the cession of Lorraine and Alsace to
Germany, the surrender of tbe French fleet no
in the Baltic, and the payment of an immense
sum as an indemnity for war expenses. These
demands are exorbitant, but in all the recent
statements which refer to peace, no mention it
made or tbe installation or a Bourbon Pnnce on
the throne of France. It it not impossible that
tbe shrewd Chancellor uf the North German
Confederation considers a weak Republic at tbe
border of tbe German Kmpire preferable to a
protracted war. Popular at King William is at
the present time among the people of tt? Father
land, he is by no means aecurc from falling in tbe
estimation of bit. people. Had Bismarck coerced
tbe South German States into a nnion with tbe
North when the Auatro-Prussian war was over in
18CC. Bavaria. Wnrtemberg and tbe other minor
Stales, would not hare been as t.evoleiln their
allegiance to Prussia as tbey bare proved to be
in tbit war. But Bismarck humored tbe pride
or these petty government, and bit diplomacy
baa proved of great benest to all Germany. Re
may now be willing to tolerate a Sepubbc ia
France, asd hope perhaps that this form of gov.
emmunt will not be of long darattca. its-publics
bare never yet bees bailt oa a S0I4I basis ia
France, sad if KUmarsk preposs ta estabuah a
royal lb-rose In Paris, he can tneoip'ieh that ch-
ect inoru easily by a series of aiplamstic move
ments tbas by coercion. He may believe him
self able to effect bis purpose before repabBesj
France shall le able, morally or physically, to in
fluence tbe subjects of tbe other Karopean Pow
ers. 11 open resistssce is oaerea oy sung tvii
Ham to tbe political views of the Frtech people,
tbe spirit of revolution will tooa neite Itself felt,
even among IBS ueraaas inessseirs, sesoag
whom are many repablieeas. The King wcs!4
be praised for his msgaanieiky by seek an act ;
aad this is whet BtMsarck probacy shakes. He
parssed a similar cows in 18$, sad it Is not
likely that he will Bee force bow.wWs the ssme
object can gradually be' rsaessw by diplomatic
jsdfrsaewt, tattwewaneofsetaM ciaeataiHoa -wae
aked by a pro4eor: "Pray. Jar. ., Sow wosw
yo discovers fool t" "By the asaatks be woeld
sale," ssM Xr. X.

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