Newspaper Page Text
LOCAL AND GENERAL.
Get your poi from the Hawaiian
Fruit and Taro Company.
Kamehameha School boys wil
enjoy a vacation of several weeks
The new government has declared
martial law for the time
The saloons are now allowed to
remain open until 9 p.m. until further
Within twenty days all government
employes must take an oath
The officers and men of the U.
S. S, Boston are now quartered at
the Hamilton House on King
The Provisional Government of
the Hawaiian Islands is the new
title under which this government
will sail on to prosperity.
Until further notice, Arion Hall
has been assigned for the use of
the Supreme Court and Circuit
Court of" the First Judicial Circuit.
Associate Justice Dole of the
Supreme Court resigned his position
Tuesday to accept the executive
of the new provisional government.
Copies of the new Columbian
stamps arrived with the Alameda's
mail. A description of the new
issue of stamps has appeared in
C. F. Peterson left on the Clau-dine
Thursday as amanuensis for
the Washington Commission. He
received but an hour's notice of
Nine native boys robbed a Chinaman
at Naalehu, Hawaii,
last week. They took $4.50 irom
him. The boys were arrested and
sent to Hilo to await trial.
A gentleman at Ulupalakua,
Maui, writes under date of January
20th : "Dame rumor says there is
a revolution in Honolulu. Such
rumors I always disbelieve."
Miss Andrews, a niece of Hon.
L. A. Thurston, was the only lady
passenger on the Claudine Thursday.
She had been here on a visit
and is now on her way home.
An official notice appears in
this issue relating to the enactment
of laws by the Executive and Advisory
Councils of the Provisional
Government of the Hawaiian Islands.-
The Government is organizing a
regular military company. It will
consist of 103 men who will be
quartered at the barracks. Four
volunteer companies are to be organized
All persons having business to
transact at the Government Building
may do so between the hours
of 9 a. m. and 4 p. m. daily by securing
passes on application to the
officer -of the day.
While martial law is continued,
citizens are not expected to be on
the streets after 9:30 o'clock at
night without' they have a pass.
Guards are now posted all over the
town to enforce the law..
Business about town was practically
suspended Tuesday as everybody
was awaiting the result.
When the news announcing the
new government was made public
there were general congratulations.
The Minister of the Interior,
Captain J. A. King, has notified
the Koad Board to put on a force
of 120 men to repair the streets in
this city. The men will be put to
work this morning on the Esplanade.
It is understood that in the immediate
future, the English editorial
columns of the Liberal will
be managed by Mr. C. W. Ash-ford,
and that the Liberal, under
the new management, will give the
Provisional Government an independent
The jury who acquitted John
' and Anna Costa on a charge of
murder was composed of B. H.
Scholtze, Wm. Conradt, J. Andrews,
J. Haddon, Alex. Valentine,
H. Leube, G. W. Lockington,
- W. H. Shipman, Alex. Edwards,
H. K. Field, W. K. Andrews and
M. Laffrey. ,
The new Government's volunteer
army is receiving additional recruits
in a Tapid manner. It is
divided into four companies which
are commanded .by Captains
Fisher, Potter, Zeigler and Gunn.
W. W. Hall is Commissary, J. H.
Soper is Commander-in-Chief.
Tuesday afternoon John Good
shot a native policeman in the
shoulder for attempting to stop an
express wagon which contained
arms and ammunition. The affair
happened at the corner of Fort and
King streets. The native received
a wound in one of his shoulders
which is not considered dangerous
by the physicians.
LOCAL AND GENERAL.
Tuesday was a most exciting
day for the public of Honolulu.
The Australia will be due from
San Francisco on next Wednesday
Fifteen tourists left for the Volcano
by the steamer W. G. Hall
Mr. Jas. B. Castle has been appointed
secretary of the Executive
and Advisory Councils of the Government.
A flag which floated from Washington
Place was taken down Friday
by order of the Government.
The Myrtle's new racing barge
will be down on the Australia. It
is described as being a beauty and
a sure winner.
On Saturday evening the band
serenaded the officers and men of
the U. S. S. Boston at their headquarters
on King street.
In addition to other new members
of the Advisory Council, Mr.
C. L. Carter has been re-elected in
place of F. J. Wilhelm, resigned.
The Hawaiian Band gave a concert
on the government building
grounds Thursday afternoon. It
drew a large and appeciative audience.
The coat-of-arms which formerly
appeared at the head of the "By
Authority" column has been
ordered out for good by the Government.
For several reasons Chief Engineer
Asch has decided not to hold
the annual parade of the Fire Department
which was to have been
held on Feb. 4.
The By Authority column in
this issue contains correspondence
from many representatives from foreign
powers recognizing the Provisional
Captain Davies of the Claudine
has been appointed Superintendent
for the Wilder S. S. Co., in place of
Captain J. A. King, who has accepted
a Cabinet position.
D. K. Fyfe, formerly jailer of
Oahu Prison, who was arrested
some days ago for vagrancy, left
the country yesterday on the bark
Mauna Ala. He shipped before
On the evening of January 25th
the planets Jupiter and Mars will
be in conjunction. This, by the
way, is the evening previous to the
expected arrival of the Claudine in
The seven native boys who were
arrested the other day for starting
a fire in Emma Square have been
committed before the Circuit Court
for trial. Their hail has been
placed at $150.
The Mutual Life Insurance Co.
has issued a handsomely illustrated
book to give the public an
idea of the immense business transacted
by the company. S. B.
Rose is the local agent.
The fences around the government
building were lined with
people Tuesday watching the proceedings.
There was no disturbance
of any kind, which speaks
well for the Honolulu public.
A bundle containing awa root,
rocks, wine-glasses and other 'articles,
was found in the bay Friday.
As some superstitious natives
have a shark god, it is probable
that a kahuna is responsible for
the strange find.
Messrs. Charles M. Cooke, W.
F. Allen, H. E. Cooper and Alexander
Young have been elected as
members of the Advisory Council
of the Provisional Government in
place of Messrs. W. C. Wilder, W.
R. Castle, Lorrin A. Thurston and
F. J. Wilhelm, resigned.
Mr. W. A. Cowan has resinned
his position as Manager of the
Plantation. The plantation
hands showed their kind regards
for him by presenting him with a
gold watch charm last Friday
evening. Mr. Wm. Arnemann, of
Waianae, has succeeded Mr.Cowan.
A fact not generally known is
that several patients have been
successfully treated at the Queen's
Hospital for alcoholism. The
Keele' chloride-of-gold. treatment
is responsible for the cure. At
present one patient is at the hos
pital and he states that he has'
lost all appetite for liquor.
A few minutes before midnight
on Saturday an alarm was rung in
for a fire on Wylie street, a street
in the Nuuanu Valley, opposite
the residence of Mr. Henry Water-house.
The department responded
promptly and found a grass hut
in Ilame3 which were extinguished
in a fevr moments. The cause of
the fire is unknown.
HAWAIIAN iiAZET'1 TUaSDAi JANUARY 24 IS
THE NEW JUDICIARY SYSTEM
IN ACTIVE OPER-.
, ATION. ,
Initial Term of the. Fourth Circuit
Court at Hilo.
THE COSTA 3IUKDEK TIUAL COUKT
(From our special correspondent.)
Although the new Judiciary Act
came into effect on the first of January,
current, it was not until the fifth
of the month that the real inauguration
of the new system took place, on
which date the new Circuit Court for
the Fourth Circuit begun, at Hilo,
the initial term under the new conditions.
And although at the date of
the sailing of the Kiuau from that
port on the 19th instant, the labors of
the term had not been completed, yet
enough had transpired to fully demonstrate
the success of the new system
and to convince both the bar and the
public of its utility.
The term opened with a calendar'of
cases.few in number, but including
some of considerable importance,
among which the Costa murder case
takes first rank.
A few criminal cases of little moment
occupied during the first two
days the attention of the Hawaiian
jurors, who acquitted themselves and
the defendants with their usual alacrity.
The foreign jury followed, and
by a number of acquittals of defendants
charged with minor offenses,
aided in making of the early part of
the term a jail delivery, relieved,
however, by the conviction of a brace
of opium fiends.
THE COSTA CASE
was set early in the term for trial on
Monday, January Stli, but at thatdate
Mr. Wilder, Deputy Attorney-General,
having been unable to meet all
bis witnesses and prepare his casej obtained
a continuance for forty-eight
The circumstances of that celebrated
case were as follows:
The defendants, John and Anna
Costa, are husband and wife, the
former an Italian of about 5a years of
age, the latter a Norwegian aged 29.
Costa has been over thirty years a resident
of this Kingdom, (Ah: beg pardon,
this is no longer a Kingdom) is
a very small man, a watchmaker by
trade, and a farmer by occupation.
He has been instrumental in starting
several sucar nlanlinjr enterprises
which have since and in other
hands, proven immensely profitable,
among which may be
named the plantation of the Hilo
Sugar Co., or, as it is more commonly
called, the Wainaku plantation. He
has never before been charged with
any offense more serious than assaulting
a Japanese contract laborer; has
long since, owing to ill health, abandoned
his trade, except as an incident
of life, devoted to other pursuits; has
been successful chiefly in paving the
way for others to travel to lucrative
results, and, in a figurative way, lias
done a great deal of pulling against
Some ten years ago he married his
present wife, then recently out from
Norway, and two bright and pretty
little llaxen liaireu girls are among
the fruits of that union. During several
years last past, the Costas have
lived at a small settlement called
in North Kona, Hawaii, a
short distance south of the junction of
tho road from the beach at Keauhou
with the so-called "Upper Road"
which traverses the konas at a distance
of four or five miles from the
coast. There he had bought a home
stead of considerable extent, upon
which he had placed a quite extensive
residence and outbuildings, and where
he was conducting a dairy and stock
farm with considerable success,
though he had not yet secured release
In the Costa household, as a member
of the family, had been for a
couple of years past a sister of Mrs.
Costa, named Sophie Kitjtleson, aged
20 years. She was a more recent arrival
from Norway than her elder
sister, was a bright, pleasant, industrious
girl, and much prized in the
home by each member of the family,
so far as the evidence revealed the
facts. But, like many, if not all sisters,
Mrs. Costa and her sister bad
their occasional though minor differences
or "growls," the one with the
other, one of which occurring shortly
before the death of Sophie, constituted
almost the sole basis of the
prosecution in this cause.
un me morning oi uctouer last,
the Costas announced to their neighbors
that Sophie was dead, had died
suddenly, and solicited neighborly
assistance in their distress. The
neighbors came in, one by one, and
received in turn a statement of facts
from the Costas, in substanco as follows:
That Sophie had been out of temper
with ner sister for about a week, and
that, during the moat or all of that
time, she had not taken her meals
with the family, but had foraged for
herself in the kitchen and larder; that
several days before her death (which
occurred on a Monday night);
she had been suffering from a recurrence
of her monthly period, and that
on the Saturday before her death she
had, against the advice and urgent
protest of her sister, and, while still so
suffering, taken a bath in cold water.
That on the Monday following she
was complaining of illness, and that
in the evening of that day she retired
early to her room without taking any
supper, and answered gruffly, if at all.
all inquiries as to her condition. That
Costa and his wife and the two little
girls slept in a room off the parlor,
separated from Sophie's bedroom only
by a board partition. That Mrs. Costa
was ill during the night,- was awake
a good deal, awakened ner nusbanu
several times to prepare mustard plasters
for her use ; that during one of
those waking spells, before midnight,
she saw Sophie pass in the parlor by
her open bedroom door, and heard her
go out through the backdoor; that
after a long time, during which she
became anxious over Sophie's prolonged
absence, tho latter returned,
went to her room, and was heard apparently
going to bed ; that thereafter
Sophie was heard vomiting and
purging quite violently ; thatshesoon
after rapped on the partition of Airs.
Costa's room, and called for "Papa,
papa," to which Costa responded by
going to her door and asking what
she wanted; that Sophie requested
Costa to light her lamp, which he did,
and saw that she was then sitting
upon the side of her bed in her night-clothes,
apparently very ill, but that
she refused all assistance, denied feeling
very badly, and said she would be
all right in the morning,and asked him
to shut the door on going out; that
Coafa reported this to his wife (who
was suffering from an attack of heart
trouble), and who then sent one of
the little girls a great pet and favor-.
ite with Sophie to ask the latter if
they should call Dr. Lindley, who
lived next door, and that Sophie refused
such medical attention, and
said, in effect, that there was nothing
the matter with her; that nothing
further was seen or heard of her (except
more vomiting) until about 7
o'clock the following morning, when
the same little girl was sent to call
her aunt to breakfast. She reported
that "Auntie wouldn't answer," and
Costa went to the door of the bedroom,
saw her lying upon the bed, failed
to obtain an answer to call to her,
shook to awaken her, felt that she was
cold, and reported to his -wife and
little girls tbatsho seemed to be dead.
Then followed the summoning of the
neighbors, as above stated.
Mrs. Costa was apparently overcome
by the death of her sister, and her
grief was deep and genuine, to all appearances.
She did not enter the
room of death until some of her female
neighbors had arrived and preceded
Upon the arrival of the first male
neighbor Costa took him to the room
and putting aside the mosquito net
viewed the corpse. Its position was
somewhat contorted, it was partially
nude and quite rigid, the bed clothes
were in great aisoruer,anu a receptacle
about half filled with what appeared
to be vomit, together with several
patches of a similar substance on the
floor, bespoke the severe gastric disturbance
of the deceased. Costa removed
and disposed of the material
in the receptacle, and the floor was
subsequently washed by some of the
women who came to the scene. The
corpse was with difficulty straightened
out owing to its great rigidity,
one of those officiating being a Mex
lean of long experience in a Mexican
hospital, and who also had been an
occasional servant of the Costas for
several years and was well acquainted
with the family and their manner of
life. This man observed while laying
out the body a number of dark
spots on the girl's left near the
shoulder, which he described as
earing to him like vaccination scars,
E ut noticed no other indications of
violence nor any other marks, and
the man who aided him In that task
observed not even tho marks mentioned.
The two women who washed
and dressed the corpse observed no
marks. But when the body was removed
to the parlor about 9 o'clock
that morning, it was noticed that
livid marks appeared upon her face,
arms and throat. The testimony as
to those appearances was quite
conflicting, but the most intelligent
witnesses indicated that the appearance
of the features and skin was
changing so rapidly as to make the
conditions at any given moment of
little value, except .for purposes of
THE TIIEOHV OF THE l'KOSECUTION.
The Crown formulated the"
ing theory: That for some unknown
reason the Costas had determined to
destroy their sister, and had selected
that night as the time, and poison as
the means of carrying out their designs.
In support of this theory they introduced
evidence of the facts above
recited and some others. Among the
latter were the incidents of the two
sisters having mutually accused each
other in a neighbor's bouse of hair-pulling
propensities, at which time
they exhibited their respective
mementos of such propensities in divers
livid marks and bruises upon the
arms, face, etc. It was testified to by
some of the witnesses that the marks
upou Sophie's throat and arms on the
day succeeding her death resembled
tbe marksof a hand made in an attempt
to.choke or strangle her, and
in fiercely grasping her arms, etc.
From all of which the prosecution
evolved tho further theory that though
poison was tbe agent of destruction
first applied, the culprits became
alarmed at the girl's vomiting, and'
fearing her recovery from the poison
and the exposure of their attempt
upon uie me or tueir sister, tney resorted
to the brutal violence of strangulation
to finish the project.
But opposed to that theory was the
somewhat significant item that it
rested upon an assumption of fact,
pure and simple, and that, witii the
single exception of the mutual accusations
of the sisters, as before stated,
the evidence of the witnesses for tho
prosecution showed the relations of
the Costas and their sister to have
been pleasant, affectionate and cordial.
"The motive -was still lacking,
and people do not, as a rule, kill their
sisters without a motive.
occupied four days. The jury was obtained
with less than the expected
trouble, the defendants using only
three of the twenty-four challenges at
their disposal. About a dozen excuses
for cause were "made, some jurors
beinjrnreiudiced asrainst caoital
evidence, and some having formed
opinions on the merits of the case.
The end of the first day saw the prosecution
fairly embarked upon its
and thence until the afternoon
of the fourth day they claimed the
par of court and jury.
Besides the facts outlined above,
the Crown called Dr. It. B. Williams
of Hilo to prove the facts developed
upon his autopsy held upon tbe body
of the deceased, five days after its
burial. It should be here explained
that by the first opportunity after
hearing of the death SheriffHitchcock
had gone from Hilo to investigate the
tragedy, accompanied by Dr. Williams.
Thedoctor being called on as
an expert to testify as to cause of
death from post mortem observations,
considerable skirmishing between
counsel ensued as to his status and
qualifications as an expert, he having
testified to his entire lack of experience
in post mortem appearances at a
distance of more than a tevr hours
after death, and that he had never
seen a body as long after death
and burial as the caso in
hand. However, the objections
to the doctor's testiihony were
overruled, and he detailed the
results of his examination, including
the opinion that the immediate cause
of death was strangulation. It Is but
just to say that tbo doctor's reasons-for
his opinion were not very clear.
They purported to rest upon separate
sets of appearances, so to speak, vix.,
the internal and the externcl. The
latter were first observed by him, but
were not sufficient to lead him to
a conclusion. They consisted, according
to his evidence, of a series of livid
marks upon the face, neck, throat,
chest and limbs, some parts being
greatly discolored, and some parts re
vealing what tho doctor took for
thumb and finger marks. But he acknowledged
that those conditions
were not decisive, and that he was inexperienced
in the signification of
post mortem appearances so long after
Proceeding to Internal conditions,
the doctor found the lungs congested
and the auricle of the heart filled with
dark blood, apparently venous blood
returned from its circuit of tho system,
and all other organs cither normal
or unexamined. But the conditions
noted were, as acknowledged by
tho expert, entirely consistent with
any of several other causes, including
arsenic poisoning, suppression of the
menses, or the common disease of
congestion of the lungs. Therefore
tho doctor found no decisive features
either external or internal, to warrant
an opinion as to the cause of
death, but oetween the two he reached
and stated a very positive opinion
that strangulation was the cause,
much adverse comment was made by
defendant's counsel upon his entire
neglect to examine the brain, the
tongue, the larynx or the trachea, in
any of which more decisive evidence
could be expected than in the viscera,
but the doctor's opinion was unshaken.
Dr. Williams removed the stomach
from the body, placed in a bottle of
alcohol, unsealed, and delivered it to
the sheriff. The latter officer placed
it in his bedroom at tbe house of the
Deputy Sheriff of tho dlstalct, on a
Sunday eveniug, and never looked at
it again till the following Wednesday
or Thursday, when he gave orders to
have it sent to Kailua en route to
Honolulu. During the whole of each
intervening day the sheriff was absent
from that house and knew nothing
of what was done, if anything,
with that bottle and its contents.
Consequently defendants' counsel objected
to the introduction of evidence
as to its contents upon its delivery to
Dr. Lyons at J Oahu College for analysis.
The objection was overruled,
and Dr. Lyons in a very Interesting
manner described his having- applied
practically all the known chemical
tests to the contents of the stomach,
and having separated therefrom about
six grains of ordinary arsenic, much
more than sufficient to cause death.
It otherwise appeared that Costa
kept at least half a dozen varieties of
very active poison in a cupboard In a
small, office to which deceased had unrestricted
THE CLOSE OF THE TRIAL.
When the Crown rested its case oil
Saturday afternoon, tho defendants'
counsel announced that he should call
no witnesses, and was ready to go to
the jury when the prosecuting attorney
should made his' address.
That was a surprise
lor the prosecution, for they not only
hoped that defendants would help out
their very weak case, but had overlooked
the provision of the now Jury
Practice Act which gives defendant's
counsel the last speech to the jury in
case he shall call no witnesses. Judge
Lyman ruled in favor of the defendants'
claim upon that point, and the
addresses of counsel followed; Mr.
Wilder, for the Crown, spoke twenty
minutes, and Mr. Ashford, for the defense,
spoke two hours and a half.
The jury, after les3 than half an
hour's absence, returned a unanimous
verdict of "Not Guilty," which was
greeted by a storm of applause in the
Court room, and tho celebrated Costa
murder was finished, and the innocence
of the defendants thoroughly
A JAPANESE MASTER.
He Becomes as Immigration
Agent on His Own Account.
The twenty-six Japanese brought
up from Honolulu by the schooner
Aloha were landed yesterday, with
two exceptions. A Japanese named
Masa and a woman who claimed
to be his wife were ordered into
custo'dy pending an investigation
by the Immigration Commision.
It ie claimed that Maea went from
here to the Hawaiian Islands two
monins ago ana succeeded in inducing
twenty-three male and two
female Japanese to take passage
on the schooner for this city, with
the understanding that he would
see them landed hero upon the payment
of $10 apiece.
The importation of Japanese from
Hawaii is rousing some anxiety.
meir numoers arc increasing and.
it is evident that many of them are
being brought in in violation of the
immigration laws. The Japanese
form a far more desirable
than the Chinese" and than
most of the Hungarian, Russian
and like immigration that is coming
into the Atlantic porta from
Europe. But this country is not
needing laborers from outsjde, and
the workingmen of this coast are
suspicious. They have fought and
won one fight to keep out laborers
with whom they could not compete,
and they do not want another.
S. F. Examiner, Jan. 4th.
' Daily Advertiser, 50c. a month,
Society and Japanese
The seminary here is rejoicing in
a 'piano, the gift: of Misa
Knight, a near relative of Mrs. and
Dr. Hyde, of Honolulu. The hearts
of teachers and scholars are greatly
rejoiced at this opportune- and valuable
The acquisition of a piano has long
been a dream of the faculty, and
many have been the plans suggested
for its fulfillment; but now, when
tbe shadow of hard times is upon
Hawaii, and the prospects seemed
the darkest, this princely gift has
come like a welcome burst of sunshine
and Miss Knight's name is
inscribed forever upon the hearts of
the Hawaiian girls of North Kohala.
We expect a grand concert at the
Seminary before long, when the public
will be able to judge of the many
charms of this magnificent instrument.
We are having just now splendid
weather for the cane harvest, and the
roads are firm and good. The rains
are pretty well confined to the hills,
the lowlands getting an occasional
sprinkle on nights and Sundays, so
work is going ahead famously.
Hawi is only waiting for their
sugar-boiler, who will be along- on
the next steamer.
The schooner Kauikeaonli lost a
boat-load of staff at Kohala landing-.
It is poor economy on the part of
shipowners to fit out their vessels
with unsuitable boats. Besides the
actual loss of property, there is the
possible delay to business, not to
mention personal inconvenience that
often results. Some of the stuff has
been recovered by divers.
We had a delightful gathering at
Pokea Bauch in honor of Mrs. Jas.
Hind tbe sister of our charming
There was a poi sapper served in
the good old fashion, witb such sundry
additions as made it a royal
feast. Then came the Jancing that
whirled away tbe hours till midnight
brought another elaborate supper,
after which the music of the dance
again thrilled us with the poetry of
motion, and again the mazes of the
dance were threaded, till at last we
felt we must reluctantly say goodbye
to our hospitable friends and the
guest of the evening.
On Tuesday a Japanese laborer
got into the fly-wheel of one of the
engines at Kohala Mill and was instantly
killed. Just how he got caught
is uncertain. A jury was impanelled,
and returned a verdict of accidental
Kohala, January 20th.
(FROM AS OCCASIONAL
There was a slight earthquake on
the night of Thursday, the 12th.
Some of our people here have a decided
objection to seeing irresponsible
parties inside of the post office,
helping themselves to mail matter,
during the time of distribution.
It should be stopped.
An item in the last nnmber of the
Friend needs correction. It is stated
that ' 'The King's Daughters' gave a
dramatic, muaica! and social enter
tainment at Kohala, December 14th,
realizing eighty dollars toward the
erection of a new hall." The truth
is the two performances given only
netted about S7o, which is to be devoted
to charitable work.
THE BOAT RACE.
Strong Wind Interferes rith
The postponed boat-race between
two crews of the Healani Boat Club
tdok place last Friday about 5:30
o'clock in the harbor. Tho bovs
rowed well, but they were handicapped
by a strong wind which
swept over the bay. The Griffin
boat, which won the race, was
rrianned bv E. Giffard (bow), H.
E. Walker S. Widdifield, Charles
Walker and W. Bush (coxswain).
The second boat was the " Seeley,"
in which were H. Jaeger (bow), C.
Holt, E. Holt, J. Spencer and J.
One start was made, with tbe
Seeley boat in the lead for quite a
distance, but the boys were fouled
by the Gnihn, after which a new
start was ordered by W. H. C.
Greig, who acted as judge.
The second start was a good one,
and the race was interesting to the
finish, when the Griffin came in
about fifteen lengths ahead. The
time was 18 minutes and 13 seconds
over the spar buoy course.
The following officer Of Maile
Lodge No. 4, K. df P., at Hbnokaa,
Hawaii, were installed ou Saturday
night, January 14, 1893 :
P. C, K. T. Blokard.
C. C, Armstrong Smith
V. GVFred. S. Clinton.
I. Albert le la Nux.
K. of It. and S., Evan . ltep.
M. of E.f it. V. Hfllmep.
it. at A., Harry Johnson.
I.G., C.B. Greenfield) M. ft
O. G., Joseph Burfclnahaw.
Letterheads, billheads, receipt
books, shipping receipts ind commercial
printing at tho Gazette