Newspaper Page Text
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Transmission of 'Cable Messages
$!h ' -.
' ' AcrDss the Atlantic.
a - v
W0BDS1WJUTTEN" EY.IWA.VE LINES.
How the Work is Done Chat About the Men.
Wonderful Skill in Sending an! Receiving
Dispatches Locating a Break in the Line.
How Repairs are Made to the Catles.
Thomas A. Edison, who in his time
has been one of the fastest telegraphers
in the world, admits that he is totally
unable to receive a cable message from
across the Atlantic ocean. "While the
ordinary Morse land dispatch is represented
by makes and breaks of the
current ," he said, recently, "the cable
message is represented by a waving
line. This line runs up and down unequally.
It is the length or value of
the curves that enables the operator to
detect the message. I have often
A B c d
At l&nt ic
watched the operators at work, and I
think it is wonderful that they are able
to select the message at all. The line
as it runs up and down is crossed and
recrossed by other lines coming from
earth currents and the thousands and
one sources from which a stray current
gets in. It is simply impossible
for me to pick out the real message.
Yet those fellows do it every time and
with comparative ease."
. IT DIFFERS FROM ORDINARY
Now, not only is this complimentary
to the skill of the cable operators, but
it calls attention to a department of the
public service and a class of workers
of which most perion.3 know little or
nothing says the Washington Star. The
cable station is after all the most wonderful
institution in the whole telegraphic
system. The method of its
operation is totally different from that
of the land telegraph office. The quantities
are less exact; a greater mental
force is required of the operator.
Moreover, the mechanism of the system
is more picturesque.
There is more human interest in
transmitting characters 5,000 miles
under the sea and eventually setting
them down in black and white than
there is in clicking a series of dots
and dashes over a land wire. For this
is what cabling across the ocean
amounts to. When the operator in the
New York cable station gives an impulse
to this key, he knows that he is
practically writing with an elongated
pen which reaches out undisturbed
through miles of alternate tempest and
caim ana sets aown on a binp oi piei
letters ana woras wnicu uae an uie
peculiarities of his own chirography..
Nor is this at all overdrawn. Opera-
tors at each'end of the line recognize
each other by the characteristic shapes
of the curved lines which they cause to
be traced on the long strips of paper
at the receiver's desk.
It is common event nowadays for
arbitrage brokers on the New York
cotton exchange to send a cablegram
to the Liverpool cotton exchange or-.
dering a sale of "future" cotton, have
the sale made and receive a receipt
announcing the conclusion of the transaction
in two minutes from the time
the first message was handed to the
clerk. The significance of this will be
realized when it is pointed out that
there is a class of brokers who depend
for business solely on the half minute
or so of telegraphic time which exists
between here and Europe. If cotton
is quoted at the same price on the New
York and Liverpool or other exchanges,
but should subsequently drop half a
point, arbitrage brokers with connections
abroad are sure to cable their
agents to sell out before the official
change in the quotation is sent across
the sea. The aim Is to save the difference
in price between the two quotations.
Many brokers make all their profits
in this way, and the tendency of it has
been to quicken the business methods
of the exchanges. So much has this
become the fact that a delay of one-half
minute in the sending of a cablegram
is sure to cause loud and threatening,
protest from the brokers. One
firm, in fact, instituted a suit for damages
against a leading cable company
because of a delay of ten minutes in
sending; suit was eventually withdrawn
but the incident serves to show at
what a break-neck pace business is
now done in our exchanges quite a
contrast to the relays of couriers
which were used to carry the news of
the battle of Waterloo to Rothschilds.
DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS.
The reason a waving line printed on
a strip of paper is used in cabling instead
of the Morse code of dots and
dashes is because of the peculiar con-
struction of the cable Itself and of a I
certain eccentricity of the electric cur-1
rent when it is acting under long distances
of water. Electricity invaria
HAWAIIAN GAZETTE: TUESDAY, OCTOBER 6. 1896. SEMI-WEEKLY.
bly seeks to escape irom its conductor
to the earth. Mother Earth will, in
fact, absorb it all if given the chance,
The cable is, therefore, insulated, but
this desire to return to earth is strong
er than the resisting power of the insulation;
therefore, While the latter
holds the current partially intact, the
gutta percha or other covering of the
cable Is filled with innumerable stray
lateral currents all seeking to escape
to the surrounding water. - .
AVita such a state of affairs it would
be simply impossible to operate a
cesion of makes and breaks in the current;
the residual would, if short, fill
up the gaps. The difficulty is overcome
by operating two keys on the
sounder instead of one, as in ordinary
telegraphy. One key is attached to the
positive pole of the battery, the other
key is attached to the negative pole.
Thus by depressing either key an impulse
is created in different directions
over the line. As a short cut to brevity
it may change constantly and the
current travels in either direction,
backward or forward, at the will of the
operator. This is reduced to a practical
basis in an ingenious manner.
On the receiver's desk in the cable
station will be found a large double
magnet. Suspended between the poles
of this magnet is a small elongated
coil of wire. The coil hangs suspend
ed in the air by means of a delicate
fibrous thread. The current from the !
cable is made to pass around the coil,
which, as it is hanging .between the
poles of the magnet, will turn backward
or forward in response to the
particular key depressed by the operator
at the other end of the line; for it
JZ. F G I
V.' '. '
is cL sp e c
7 el e g r .
J K M.
AND SPECIMEN OF ATLANTIC
is the peculiarity of an electrified coil
of wire to so act when suspended between
PRODUCING THE WAVING LINE.
Connected to one end of the coil of
wire is another thread of fibrous material.
This thread runs to a fine glass
tube, which is not larger than one-hundredth
of an inch in diameter. Ink
flows through this small tube. As the
tube is movable it is obvious that the
action of the coil of wire moving
backward and forward wil also cause
the ink tube to move backward and forward.
At least the coil pulls the tube
in one direction and a small spring
returns it to its place. The end of the
tube rests lightly on a long strip of
paper, which is kept moving along constantly
by an ordinary clockwork
mechanism. Thus it will be seen that
the depression of the transmitting keys
results in a waving line on paper at
the other end of the cable system.
The ink tube or siphon is so small
that great difficulty is experienced in
including the ink to flow from it. The
desired object is finally gained by
means of electricity. A static current
is sent through the ink in the tube and
is made to pass through the strip of
paper to the negative pole of the battery
beneath. Static electricity, as it
has a great electromotive force, will
easily pass through paper, therefore
theie is a continual succession of
sparks flowing through and carrying
the small column of ink along with it
as far as the surface of the paper where
it is deposited in a waving line. This
is the line which Edison cannot read,
but which is as plain as day to the
ordinary cable operators. The latter
sit and watch tuis tape all day ong
lt travels siowiy in front of them a
distance of three feet nr mniv liPfnr. it
runs off the end nf the taiii Into a
basket. The words are generally un
intelligible to the operator, for it is
seldom that other than cipher dispatches
are sent over the wire.
When no current or message is passing,
the sensitive coil of wire attached
to me sipnon remains at rest ana a
straight line is traced down the center
of the paper; for, of course, the, tape
keeps moving along constantly, mes
sage or not. This line is known as
tkd zero line and all variations from it
determine what the man at the other ,
end of the line is saying. Sometimes, '
however, earth currents leak through '
to the core of the cable and send the
siphon careening backward and forward
in an alarming manner. Then if
a message comes through at the same '
time the wild actions of the siphon
become unintelligible indeed. In such i
a case the operator' is compelled to i
study the form of the line made by the
earth current and then to note the dif- I
ference between it and the true i
sage. In short, he makes his earth
current line his zero mark and deter-
mines his message accordingly.
it is in this connection that we must
look for the true reason why we are
unable to telephone across the Atlan
tic. It Is this electrification of the
gutta percha that prevents it There is
no real insulating substance.. Some
substances insulate more than others,
uui an are suDject to eietrincation
When an electric impulse is sent I
across the ocean the whole of the cable, "
covering and all, must be electrified
before the current flows through and '
operates the receiving device. It is
what is known as the tail end of the .
cnurge inai reany carries tne message.
This interferes with the sound wave.
In telegraphing there are only ten or
twelve sound waves a second. In telephoning
there are two or three thousand
in the same time. It is obviously
impossible then to telephone across
the seas under existing circumstances.
One of the peculiar phenomenons of
cabling is the ability of one operator
to recnenize the "hanriwHHni" nf rha
oneratnr at the nrhpr pnri nr ta n
far nway in England or France. Jt-Js
a fact nevertheless that it is done, and
many strange friendships are .formed
between men who have never seen
each other and who may never have
been ten miles away from their apart
There is an old story of a man wh"
refused to believe in a telegram sent io
a friend because it "was not his handwriting."
This could not apply to
As soon as the sinhon begins to
lmake its wavine line on the tape? the
operator, or rather the recorder of the
same, knows who is at the other end ,
f the wire. The "writing" of differ-' C
ent operators is as recognizable at a
distance of 3,000 miles as it would be
if they were nearer at hand, 'ine
peculiarities of the man are detected ,
on the tape, and without any attempt '
at slang a man is known by his curves.
Some operators "white a plain hand," t
others send a message that is equivalent
to what in ordinary life would be The
called very bad manuscript. If an '
operator gets into a rage and violently '
bangs his keys the fact is known to the
men at the other end of the line, and !
he is prudently laughed at, in another
hemisphere. In the old days, long j
tance fights used often to occur, but ',
talk on any private matter between
operators is now strictly prohibited by !
the various cable companies.
e HOW A BREAK IS LOCATED. the
Sometimes a cable will break at the
bottom of the sea, or some other fault
will prevent messages being sent
through. Although the line extends
through miles of drift and over leagues
of ocean bed, the system has been re- i"g
duced to such a nicety that the
tion of the fault is only a matter of lit-
I men :,of .
tle calculation. It is generally located
as follows: It is known that the re
sistance which the wire offers to the
current averages a specified quantity
to the mile. When a break or a fault
occurs the resistance of a cable is
measured in the cable station. This
can be readily done, because the circuit
will generally complete itself
through the earth. When the resist
ance has been measured, it is easy to
find out where the break is by dividing
the whole amount by the average re
sistance per mile. It may then be
found that the break is two, three, four
or rive hundred miles off shore, as the
case may happen to be. A cable-re
pairing steamer, with a full corps of
electricians on board, immediately
starts for the spot where the break is
supposed to be. This is an easy mat
ter, for when cables are laid the lati
tude and longitude of the
ship is taken as each mile of the cable
is paid out. If the break, as determin
ed by the resistance, is, say, 500 miles
off shore the captain of the repair boat
directs his vessel to the particular in
junction of latitude and longitude
which was encourtered when the 500
mile mark of the cable was first laid.
Having arrived at what he conceives in
to be the proper vicinity, he steers his
vessel into a course at right angles to
the course held by the cable. He then
throws an iron overboard and pro
ceeds to grapple for the cable. ,
DIFFERENCE IN THE PULL. It
He knows when he has caught the
cable by the difference in the pull
from the pull which is felt when a rock of
is truck. A rock when caught by the
came will finally let go with a jerk,
but the cable when caught will exert
a long, steady and obstinate pull as it
is hauled to the surface. There is also
a patent grappling iron which cuts
through the cable covering and electrically
ring a bell. Having picked up
the cable, the chief electrician on board
the boat cuts through the covering, if
it has not already been cut through, by
tne grappling iron, ana, attaching a of
transmitter to the core, sends a signal
through the cable. If he gets an answer
from this end of the line he knows
of course that the break must be
beyond him, or vice versa, if the an
swer comes from the European end.
As he now knows in which direction
from the vessel the break must be. he
proceeds to measure the resistance of
the "broken" end, in order to see exactly
what its distance is from the
If it is not far, say, four or five miles,
the captain of the vessel nroceeds to
underrun the cable until the delinquent
spot is reached, when it is an easy matter
to repair the break or to put in a
new section of cable. If the break is
found to be a number of miles away,
lne Parl wnicn nas Deen picked up is
attacned to a buoy, and the vessel
steams away to what further observa I
tion has determined to be the required I
spot. The cable Is nicker! lin
and a signal is sent through. j f
If the answer is from Europe instead i B
of from this end of the line, it fnllnwc . Y
that the break must be somewhere be-' f
tween the parts of the cable which have
been picked up. The precise spot can J
then be easilv determinprt nnri ronniro L
can be made. Somptlmw thp k
verv sxneditinn ht in ctm," ' '
fntir. .n H. li.
uiio ui me jeur it nas onen Deen a V
month before the break has been found. ! 4
It has also happened that in erannHnsr1 T
for a cable the repair boat has picked
up by mistake the cable of another A
iino una uapijcueu mree or
four times, but the courtesy of thei
cable companies to each other has al-'
ways excused it. i
The British aristocracy includes 14 -000
JUDGE S. L AUSTIN
''Resolutions ' Presented bv Mem-
3.3. Rar YocterHau
RESPECT FOR LATE JIR. XAWAHI.
- . -
-Deceased Barrister and Jurist Eulogised
by Judges and Attorneys Their Worth
as Citizens and Professional Men-Resolutions
Placed Upon the Records of the Court.
The Supreme Court and Bar Association
met in joint session at 10 o'clock
yesterday in taking official action upon
death of Judge S. L. Austin of
Hawaii and J. K. Nawahi of Honolulu.
At the meeting of the Bar Association
held on Saturday, committees were
appointed to draft suitable resolutions,
and these were presented at the meet-
yesieraay. uaruner iv. wnaer, tne
cnairman or the Austin committee,
presented the following:
"Whereas, It has pleased Almighty
God to take from among us the Honorable
Stafford L. Austin, Judge of the
Circuit Court for the Third and Fourth
Judicial Circuits; be it
"Resolved, That in the death of Judge
(Austin the community has lost an hon-
orea citizen ana tne juaiciary or tne
Republic a conscientious, humane and
"Resolved, That we sincerely mourn
his loss, and that we extend to his family
our sympathy in their bereavement.
"Resolved, That we move that these
resolutions"be spread upon the records
GARDNER K. WILDER,
E. P. DOLE,
J. MAHAIAI KANEAUKA,
Attorney General Smith seconded the
resolutions in a few remarks commendatory
of the deceased.
James K. Kaulia, chairman of the
Nawahi committee offered the following:
"Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty
to remove from our midst the
Honorable J. K. Nawahi, a member of
the Hawaiian Bar;
"Resolved, That in the death of Mr.
Nawahi the Bar and Hawaii nei has
lost one of its most esteemed members
and truest friends.
"Resolved, That we hereby express to
the family of the deceased our sincere
sympathy in their sorrow. .
"Resolved, That the court be requested
to spread these resolutions upon its
JAMES K. KAULIA,
W. S. EDINGS,
;These were also seconded by the Attorney
General and remarks followed
by Chief Justice Judd and members of
CABLES OF THE WORLD.
No Atlantic cable runs directly to
New York City at the present time.
Most of the lines land
the neighborhood of Nova Scotia or
Newfoundland. The messages are retransmitted
by a coast line to the metropolis.
The interval of time required
the retransmission is not one second,
for the operators read the messages
letter by letter as they arrive
and send them over the coast cables instantly.
The new French cable to be
laid next year will, however, have its
terminus directly in New York City.
is expected that the competition thus
engendered will greatly enhance the
general service. The coming congressional
agitation over the installation
a Pacific cable will also revive interest
in a scheme which must quicken the
general process of civilization. Th
Japanese commercial awakening will
certainly receive a further impetus
when this cable is laid. The whole
East, in fact, will be benefited, and incidentally
our foreign commerce. Already
there are over 1,000 cables lying
under the sea and the various water
courses of the world. They aggregate
over one and a quarter million miles
cable line. A large fleet of steamers
and an army of men are kept busy
laying and repairing them, so that altogether
the cable industry is a large
business in itself, even aside from the
messages which are sent over the cable
The W. G. Hall leaves on her regular
route this morning at 10 o'clock.
LAND AND SEA MAY LIE i
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To introduce to you our immense facilities
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llltolia Michigan Ate. Chicago, U.S.A.
Highest Honors World' Fair,
dold Medal, Midwinter Fair.
A Pure Crape Cream of Tartar Powdtr.
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Acents. Honolulu. II. I.
PRESENTATION TO BISHOP.
Plav at St. Louis Collcse and
Watch and Chain Presented.
The pupils and friends of St. Louis
College met Saturday night at the music
hall and presented for the entertainment
of Bishop Ropert the drama
The Proscribed Heir. Before the per
formance began the college orchestra
rendered some delightful music
During an interval the bishop was
presented with a handsome gold watch ..
MOPS, BROOMS, PADLOCKS, CROW -with
and chain appropriately engraved and 1
the photograph of the Bishop on ' BARS, CARRIAGE SPRINGS,
dial. This was in appreciation of the . SCALES, SAND PAPER,
kindness of the veneraoie prelate in
providing the students and scholars
with an amusement hall and theatre.
Those who believe chronic diarrhoea
to be incurable should read what Mr.
P. E. Grisham, of Gaars Mills, La., has
IU EU uu iuo auujcv.i Uli,.. J. UU.g
been a sufferer from chronic diarrhoea
ever since the war and have tried all
kinds of medicines for it. At last I
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medicine can always be depended upon
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and never fails to effect a cure. 25 and
50 cent sizes for sale by all druggists
and dealers. Benson, Smith & Co.,
agents for the Hawaiian Islands.
Commissioner Marsden visited
yesterday to investigate the coffee
plantations. He found the trees
flourishing and promising a good crop.
He will visit Maunawili, where it Is
said the beetles have destroyed the
Cannot steal your door
mats if you use our Hartman
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wear out, and are handy to
have in the house, especially
in rainy weather; which last
remark reminds us that we
have a line of Rain Gauges
which will be of service to
you at this time of the year.
Do you ever eat
Perhaps you do and don't
know it. You see it's sometimes
made into croquettes.
We handle a splendid Aleat
and Vegetable Chopper, which
operates by a crank and
walking - beam attachment,
the knives chopping and revolving
the food so as to
mince it properly.
You can own a Shoe Stand
without being a bootblack.
We have a serviceable, useful
article that screws to the
wall and has compartments
for brushes and blacking,
with foot-rest projection.
Does you daughter like
pets? Yesl Then she undoubtedly
would prefer a
canary, in one of our Brass
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a chafing dish. We have
three sizes of cages, and sell
them from 2.0 to $4.0, as
well as painted wire cages
from $1.2 j to $2. Get one,
and your canary will say the
same as .we do, that they,
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Ill owoiifl raw ft
it a 1 1 1,
Have Just Receiver from New York
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Among them you will find:
CUT and GALVANIZED tfAILS and
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COPPER RIVETS and BURRS.
HAY CUTTERS. HAY FORKS
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HANDLED AXES and HATCHETS
IRON and BRASS SCREWS tit)
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unni;p onnps ,i unn?p vau ?
WHEEL BARROWS, TRUCKS.
3000 YDS. SAIL DUCK.
IRON WASHERS, IRON NUTS.
CASES BENZINE, TURPENTINE
j GALvd PIPE. V.in. to 2in..
MANILA and SISAL ROPE All sizes,
IRON and STEEL WIRE ROPE,
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2000 lbs. COTTON FISH LINES,
I rApn MATCHER BLOCK MATCHEb
GUNS and AMMUNITION of all kinds.
Success later Filters:
The best in the market, and a thousand
other things that people
All to be seen at
E. 0. HALL & SON'S,
Cor. King and Fort Sta.
The demand for colors, both
water and oil Is the surest Indication
of a refined taste among
the ladles of the Islands. We
are In a position to supply the
A full supply of colors,
brushes, oils, varnish and
Picture framing, satisfactory
picture framing. Is due Iareely
to the taste displayed In the
selection of moukilngs that
will harmonize with the picture.
We have the taste and
mouldings. Let us give you a
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