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Pioneer press. [volume] (Martinsburg, W. Va.) 1882-19??, August 22, 1914, Image 1

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The Pioneer Press.
KSTA B 1.1 SI I ED 1S82, Vi ART INS BURG-, W \',v? SATCKDW, AUGUST 22. 1914. VOL. 33 NO. 25
mh mi
Of the F-liosc of the S-jn Tomorrow
In Europe, Asia and Part of
WASHINGTON7 1). C., Aug. 20
The eel pse of the sun tomorrow
total n part of Europe and Asia and
a part eclipse in northwestern Amer
ica? has been attracting wide-spread
?".Mont on among astronomers and
: f '??: : ist y, h: i now :< :s feared that -
ti." Knropean war will seriously in
te?'t.orr> wth, i>v< m if it does not en
tirely prevent the obscVvat'ons whbdi
the scientists had planned to make
of the plienornenon.
The eclipse will he observable
along a I'ne extend'ng from Alsteno.
of the west coast of Norway, through
llernosand, 011 the Swedish eoa.-t,
Riga on the Baltic, Minsk and Kiev
in central Russ'a, and leaving Eu
rope at Eheidosia on Ihe Crimean
Many scientific expeditions In 1
heen planned to observe the eclipse. ,
The most of these expeditions were
designed to take their observations
from points in Russia, where the du
r?ition of totality will be longest. Uu
(ier existing conditions it will of
course be imposs'ble for the scientis'.:
of other lands to visit. Russia at thf
present time. At the resent tiin ; :
will be almost equally impossible J or
the scientists to change the base of
their operations to the Scandinavia.)
peninsula, for the reason that weeks
of preparations are necessary to s-?'
up their instruments and make other
necessary preparations. The diflieu!
ty of reaching Norway and Swede:1
at. the present t'me is so great that
it is unlikely that any expeditions ic
those countr es will be undertaken
In view of the existing c'rcumstances
it is probable that 110 noteworthy ob
servations will be made of tlie eclipse
with the possible exception of thoro
11 ? at may be nr re by the U;:ssi:p
astronomers themesel ves.
iiefore the outbreak of the wa
nearly all civilized countries wen
preparing expeditious for llic stir.r
of the eclipse, and a number of pri
vate expeditions were also being lit
ted out. As previously stated the
most of them had chosen Russia for
their goal. Among other German
cities, Hamburg was fitting out i".
expedition, while a second one. su j
sidized by the Prussian Stat, was be
ing planned by Professor Miethe of
the Chariot .ten burg Technical School.
In England steamboat parties vfer ?
being made up to view the eelips-?
from Alsteno and Riga, and from the
faet of the eclipse coming in the hol
iday season it. was expected that
great numbers of* sightseers woul 1
avail themselves of the opportunity,
which will not recur in Europe .ill
Professor C. G. Abbott, head of tne
astronomical branch of the Smith
sonian Institution, and a recognized
authority on solar phenomena, gives
the following account of the eclipse
and the scientific results sought from
such events.
Tommorw the moon will pass ex
actly between the earth and the sun,
and there will be a total nolar eclipse.
It will not be observed In America,
except as a small partial eclipse at
sunrise in the norther states and
Canda, but in Persia, Russia and
Scandinavia the full ?ffect will bo
Although the moon looks about the
same size as the sun, it is very much
smaller and nearer. The sun is KS3,
000 miles in diameter and 93,000 OuO
miles away, while the moon is 2,1*53
miles in diameter and 23!>,000 miles
away. On account of the moon's small
size compared with the sun the shad
ow cast by the moon is a cone, and
the point of this cone just barely
reaches the earth.
In tomorrow's eclipse the diameter
of the cone at the earth's surface is
only about 85 miles, so that the
eclipse is visible as total only in a
belt about 85 miles wide, stretCiiin4
.. ?*
\ vJ L
Passes Bill Taking From It Exclusive
Jurisdiction In Many
WASHINGTON*. Au.sf. l!?.- No long
er will the Customs Court be the
final arbiter of all customs controver
sies if a b 11 slipped through the Sen
ate \<>.st<>niay afternoon during a lull
in the trust debate is approved by
the House and signed by the Presi
dent. Cudcr the terms of this hill
I ho powers of the Customs Court are
clipped severely and to such an ex
tent that some Senators' expressed
the opinion that the Customs Court
i ? destined to follow the Commerce
Court out of existence.
According to the b 11 as passed tiio
Customs Court's decisions will be sub
ject to review by the Supreme Court
in cases which involve treaties or
constitutionality, and in all cases
arising under the new tariff law. The
court s lell as filial arbiter on all
cases arising cut of the old tariff law
and out. of the reciprocity law. There
I are few such.
j Appeal to the Supreme Court is
allowed in cases where treaties or
constitutionality is not involved, by
a statement filed by the Attornev
".eneral to the effect that in his opin
I on the questions coming before tin
20iirt are of such grave importance
J hat they should be decided finally
;y the Supreme Court.
It wj\s po:ntod out in senatoria'
circles last night, after the first sur
; pr'se at the action on the bill had
,.T.ssed away, that the Customs Court
| ">as been reversing cases the govern
| 3d down opinions which cost ih<>
| ment liad won, having recently hand
government about $3,000,000.
Local Dealers Fear the European
War Will Greatly Increase
Their Cost
Potatoes bid fair to lead the va'i
in Mie high cost of living parade th'.i
winter. Local dealers fear that tin*
European war will put potatoes be
y.md the highest price mark on rec
or.l this fall and winter. So far no
increase in potatoes has developed
i from this source, but with the crop
1 cut short in many sections of this
j country and the likelihood that no po
; tatoes will be imported from tho
' present outcrop, the outlook for po
tatoes is indeed dismal. Germany
! is one of the greatest potato import
ers in the world to this country, and
it Is hardly probable that the liar
rassed empire will send any of her
potatoes to this country this fall.
over the countries already named. \?
a partial eclipse it will be se^n over
a very wide area, including nonh
easlern America, Greenland, Europe,
half of Asia and half of Africa. With
in this region only a part of the
sun's disk will be hidden by the
Wherever the solar eclipse is seen
as total, the sky will become neatly
as dark as full moonlight, and a few
of the brighter stars and planet:? may
be seen. Sometimes the moon and
sun occupy such positions thit, al?
thtng]' the moon passe.* directly be
tween the eath and the sun, shad
o\v cone does not quite reac.i the
earth. Such solar ecllps >s :ire calb-d
"annualr" and are nowhere total
eclipses. In the mo?t favorably rase
a total eflipso may last sevoa nrn
uies at a station, but km^Ii occasion?
are very rare. There will be tela,
re'ipses visible in the United States
, in 1018, 1928 and 102i>.
Acknowledges Receiving of the Un.t
ed Stales Good Olfices?No
Word From Russia.
Genuan\ ha; acknowledged retvijU
01 the President's proffer of good of
fices in mod ation' or arbitration. All
the warring fount ries except Russia
l.ave now replied.
The Secretary of State, eons'stent
w.tli his refusal to discuss the replies
from any of the powers, would not
go into details as to Germany's ac
knowledgement, but it is understood
iike the others received to be only
;?.( knowledgoment.
Difficulties of communication wiih
He rliii are taken as the cause for
the delay in Emperor William's reply.
It is known that the offer lias boon
received at the St. Petersburg foreign
(Jliec. but because Russian ollieia.s
: av they have been unable to get it
to Kmperor Nicholas, acknowledg
ment has been delayed.
The reply of the French premier
) the President's offer of medidation
aotu nderst.ood to be final at the
t tate Department, nor as indicat ing
indisposition 0:1 the part of the
French government to consider the
? iv.poral. It is construed only as a
polite acknowledgment of the offer
? iul about what was to be expected
t this time.
The administration did not expect,
hat mediation would be considered ri
he first heat of conflict, and before
any great or decisive battles had been
fought. The offer was made simp'y
to remind the participants in the
war that the United States stands
ready to act without, discrimination
in the effort to bring about, peace
when he ime is ripe.
This view was set forth clearly by
the Secretary of State i2^ recent
comment upon the President's mod
iation offer:
"It may be some time before the
nations engage in the European war
will be willing to listen to any sug
gestion of mediation," he said, "but
the President, in tendering the good
offices of the government at this time,
has measured up to the responsibili
ties of the nation and to the expecta
tions of the American people. The
United States stands for peace?for
its preesrvation as long as it can
possibly be preserved?and, in case
of war, it stands for ther estoration
of peace at the earliest possible mo
ment. When the anger of the belli
gerent nations has sufficiently abated,
they will find the President wait'ng
to render such assistance as bay be
within his power in the direction of
accommodation and concilation. He
has sent the dove out of the ark *.n
search of dry land. God speed its
return with an olive leaf."
While none of tin; replies receive!
from any of the European govern
ments specifically rejects 1he tender
of good offices made by the United
States, some acknowledgements .ire
accompanied by statements of the ie
plying nations' position in the con
fliet. Department otlicials wore i n -
clined to regard the answers as iioii
1 committal. ami believed later, esp?i
J chilly if an\ of the principals in thy
| the war showed an inclination to treat
for peace.
v'ltL! I La) I uUmmluurJi <
Orchards Almost F'ee From Pest
Where Cedars Have Been
A meeting of the State Crop Tost
Commission was held here vestcrda
with Dean 10. Dwight Sanderson, >f
| the West Virginia College* of Agri
| culture, chairman, and State Knlo.ii
1 olog'st W. I'i. Uninsey, secretary, and
S. II. Pulton, of Sleepy Creek, pres
; cut. Stale Commissioner of Agrical
j ; ure Howard K. Williams, of Charles
ton, was unable to attend. Local Or
chard Inspector Uodd \v.<s with (he
part y.
The purpose of the meeting was ?o
investigate in regard to Cedar Rust
in Berkeley county, and the party
visited, a number of local orchard
sections. The consensus of opini m
is that much good has been accom
plished to the fruit industry by the
cutting of cedars in the early spring,
as where they have been removed
even a reasonable distance from the
apple orchards, there is almost an
entire absence of Cedar Rust infec
tion. which is very noticeable in cer
tain other orchards exposed to cedar
groves, known to be infested wiih
On one large orchard Cedar Itnst
is to he found in damaging amount,
which is directly traceable to cedar
trees that are badly infected with
('edar Rust, which are half a mile
away from the apple orchards, led.
the prevailing winds are in tin* di
rection of the orchard.
The work of cutting and destroying
infected cedars was stopped with the
advance of spring, but will be resumed
again next winter.
To Purchase Occan-Going Vessels and
Solve the Trans-Oceanic Trouble.
WASHINGTON, Aug. 1 !?. The pur
chase ocean-going vessels by the
1'nited States, as the best method of
solving the trans-oceanic transporta
tion trouble, has been agreed to by
the president and congressmen at
a conference today. The bill will be
immediately drawn to meet the sit
uation. It is understood that $25,
000 one will be provided to purchase
the ships.
How To Pronounce Them
(The accented syllable is printer] in bhir-1'.;
Kesemael (Flemish)
I labinville
La Fere
Sha h-lon
] lo i
La Fair
M ulhaus^n
Mfiirth" of-MoselW:
m change
Monon villcrs
M mt mcdy
f-?t. Trond
Tliion ville
M ul -how-son
M frt-ay-Mo-selle
Mor anzh
M o-n in-vee-ay
M on-meed-co
Nali moor
San Tron
T y-on-veel
! State of V.rginia Had $2^,500.000 In
vested In Twenty or More of
KM'IIMONI), \'a., August lit That.
iIm? Siai?' hi Virginia had .$L'-l,r?oo,on ?
i 1 '?1 v' 5?* i in some twenty or inorc rail
roads ;ii i lie tinn* I lie state was di
j vided and iliat West Virginia had re
J ceived no credit for any part of this
, in fixing its part of tho state debt
: l!i" testimony of ('. \V. 11 ill man.
( before Special Master Lit t leliehl.
| 11 i 11111:111 is tin* chief accountant who
with nine assistants and the legal
I help oi Kohert I(Iregory, has spent
several weeks going over the records
i in Richmond, auditing the hooks and
j verifying the claims of West Virginia.
Ilis testimony, based entirely on
I pnhlic resords, and verified as to
? every tatemcnt hy reference l.?
volume ami pane, shows that the old
stale ol \ irginia mad*- loans to some
railroads and hough! slock in olheis
lo encourage development.; thai tho
slate was financially interested in
one ol these t wo ways in ahonl
twenty railroads ami that a portion
ol stale debt was incurred in order
to assist these roads.
'I'liev were all in what is now Vir
ginia although the pari that, is now
West Virginia helped tr> pay for them,
and received ercdit for no part, of tho
invest meni when tho Supreme Court
fixed its share of the debt.
The testimony today shows that tho
auditing of tho books not. only sub
stantiates the claim of West Virginia
I hat it should have credit for $20,800,
uno of railroad slocks and loans, huh
it actually increased the amount orig
inally claimed by about. $.'*,700,000.
It is believed the testimony of ac
countant llillmaii will bo completed
tomorrow. This places Mi the rec
ord of evidence that is relied upon to
cut down YVesI Virginia's part of tho
debt from more than $7,000,000 to lesa
than $2,000,000.
It is understood that Virginia will
demand that Hie value of the stocks,
bonds and other holdings of Virginia
be ascertained as of June 20, 180.',
I he dale when West Virginia was ad
mitted to tie! union, instead of Janu
ary 1, J HOI, the date fixed by the Su
preme Court, for the assumption by
West Virginia of part of the indebt
ed ness.
As the Civil War has smashed ill
values by 1X0:1, it would be disastrous
lo West Virginia if tho court, should
agree to start tho debt at one time*
and the credits at another and coin
sel for West Virginia do not believo
Iht; court will do so.
As anticipated counsel for Virginia
today made a motion that the special
master fix June 20, 1X02, when West
Virginia was admitted to the union c-C
the states as the time for valuing tho
assets of Virginia.
This motion was stoutly resisted]
j b> West Virginia. John II Holt, an I
C I*). Hogg, addressed the master.
Mr. Holt made an ospoeiallly strong:
speech showing that the Supremo
Court had fixed January 1, 1X0' as tho
date of which the debt should be an
ccrtained and contending that it
would not be fair in any case where a
partnership was dissolved to fix tho
liabilities as one date and the assets
as of another. He held that as .Jan.
1, 1X01, had been fixed as the date for
ascertaining the debt it should also
he fixed as the date for ascertaining
the, assets. If June 20, 1 X02 is select
ed as the date for valuing the assets
it will add several million dollars to
West. Virginia's liability.
At the conclusion of the arguments
| Speeial Master Litllefield ruled that
he would hear evidence as to the val
ue of Virginia's assets both as oC
January 1, 1X01, and of Juno 20,
1X02. He s ad he would determine
J later whether he would recommend
that either date be adopted or wheth
er he would make an alternative re
port. The presentation of testimony;
| was then concluded.

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