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£v«l» *—a* PLAIN DEALER CRESCO, HOWARD CO., IOWA. If.*. JfKi D, Editor." Xalored ht the Creaco inm office as srconU etawi until umlU-r. The Campaign Plain Denlw, The Importance of the present campaign Is of such magnitude to Labor and Its interests that wo have decided from time to tlrno an need be, to issue a campaign edition, which will bo mailed to all our subscribers without extra charge. In return we Mk them to aid in extending the circulation and thereby the useful* of the PLAIN DEALER. W. R. & P. J. MFTAP, Publishers. Vie Opponition Paper* and the re cent Legal Tender Decision. It seems to bo the obvious iutent of the money lords through a pur chased press to immortalize debt, and perpetuato amouied aristocracy retting upon an interest bearing, untaxed debt as its basis. The Chi cago Daily Herald, has made Itself conspicuous In denouncing every mau as a crank or a lunatic, who affirmed the absolute right of the power to issue money to be in Oongress, and that it could const l tutionlly impress its sovereignty up on any substance it saw fit, as a le gal tender ia the payment of debt, public and private. Tho Supreme .court has repeatedly affirmed this, And now that it has again in a roost «raphatIo and decided opiuion of a nearly unanimous court affirmed its former rulings upon the question. the Herald advises that the consti tutionality of such legislation be conceded, but that it* ejrj»ediwit*|f be constantly ansailed. The Herald and the press of the country taking the same position seek to perpetuate the national banking system which can ouly be maintained by giving immortality to .some form of bonded indebtedness. The questiou of expediency then is whether it is better to have a monied system which is a perpetual interest •drain upon the people, or oue that la free from such taxation, while furnishing a totter and cheaper cur rency to the people. The report of the Controller of the .currency made to Congress last De cember, shows that the money sys tem which the Herald thinks it ex •podieut to make immortal, ha* cost *he people in-ietorest alone w* its debt basis to Xoveatbor 1, Ike turn of #356,789,363. The same re port shows that the banks during the tame time have paid as tax on their circulation, $55,385,524, thus leaving the real burden this bastard currency has cost the people out fight* over and above the cost of greenbacks, the sum of $2^5,744,^03, And this is but a tithe of the cost of •this pernicious system of legalise And chartered extortion andgovcrts soent-licensed theft. The news paper press of the domo eratic party, which seeks to make war upon this sovereign and exclu sive power of Congress, instead of basing its hostility upon the ground of "expediency,* appeal* 10 pr*\ju 4ke. Papers Uke tha Dubuque Herald aud the Washington iW, assume that mouthy ivust have in trinsic value, and that the democrat ic party of the past has been in harmony in thought tu*d avtiou with these ideas. The purpose 4 this article is to examine into these al leged antecedents of tho democratic party, for the double purpose of dis abusing the winds of the people, en this question, and to prevent prej iMiice without investigation, from surrendering the exclusive prerog ative and duty oC Congress to th« corporatioas. VSMr ONCJS IX OKE SCNPRET* TEARS. Only ouce iu oue hundred years did Cougress pass a law makiu money of intrinsic value—the only uk-w%v iLir federal government, and from this law aa appeal was 4 fn made to the people that resulted In choosing a Congress and ndmlnlstrit tion overwhelmingly in fuvor of Its lepeal tho next year, and at no time since has It been re-anacted. We refer to the law of 1840, passed tho last year of Van llurcn's administra tion. That law divorced the gov ernment from all banks of Issue, and also excluded treasury notes from the treasury, only allowing culu to be received Into the treas ury. That law repudiated In 1840, was repealed in 1841. Iu 1846 the democrats again came Into power and with both branches of Congress and the executive for sixteen years thereafter, they never re-enacted the law of 1840. On the contrary, that party enacted the sub-treasury law which went Into force In 1840. This law excluded all money Issued by bank corporations from tho Treas ury, but added treasury notes to coin, making them equal before the law for all debts due the United States. That act was giving force to democratic conviction as expres sed by Mr. Jefferson in his letters to Mr. Epps in 1813 of Madison in his messages of 1814,1815 and 1810, of Jackson ia his messages of 1829, 1880,1831, and 1832. ami of Tyler in his messages of 1841,1842 and 1843. We believe that three-fourths of the members of the deinoetatle party are opposed to the national banks, and to all banks of issue, and are in favor of the restoration of the law of 1840, making gold, silver and Vnited States Treasury notes equal before the law, in ail payments to the government, and the only money recognized by the government. This law of 1840, was recognised by democrats as the perfection of finan cial wisdom, and by those republi cans like Tltad Stevens, who sought in 1802, to make the treasury aote full legal tender for all government dues. Hut the rebellion had closed out democratic ascendency in Con* gross aud turned that body over to Wail street, whMi with the excep tion clause on the greenback, wiped out the democratic law oi 1840. The small minority of democrats who adhere to the policy that repealed the law of 1840, and In its place gave u* that of 1802, should go to the iu* publicans where they Kdoug. MoNKY FOR ONE HrXMUCD YKAW& The questiou before the American people to-day Is not whether our money shall be paper or coin. For more than one hundred years the money of this government has been paper, so that question is decided. The contest now is whether this paper money shall be issued by the government, be made a full legal u-mier.and of uniform value through out the Vuited States, or whether it shall le issued by corporations, and falsely and fraudulently profess to be it***) upon coin, with perhaps only ate dollar in coin to twenty or more 0f paper. Jefferson and Juek sen and Calhoun insisted that all money should be issued by the gov ernment «eul that paper thus issued, made a legal tender and based upou the credit and revenues of the gov ernment wvuKI bo the best aud safest incncy of the eouutry. Long before the tevolution. Pennsylvania. Massachusetts, New York, Virginia mid North Carolina had a paper cur rency of their own. which was made a full legal tender in ail private pay ment and for all taxes and duties due the colounial government. This made it tho money of account, it was not based upon coin was not a "promise to pay." but a promise to roeieve for ail debts due the stale, and was thus kept and maintained at pat with it£ face. And so with the sixty millions of demand notes issued at the commencement of our civil war. At first they were pay. able in coin on demand, but the promise to pay did uot prevcut them from depreciating in the hands of the iKKuple. They were then made a full k*jal tender for all purposes which quality kept them at all times at par with their face value. When £uld compared with the trea ry i uotcs stabbed in the back witk two (,rV':T*• exceptions—Import duties and Inter est on the publto debt—was worth 12.85, these full legal tender treasury notes commanded precisely the same premium over the emasculated greenback. TltK OOHTINENTAL MONET. Tlie Continental Congress had BO revenue because it had no powar te levy taxes. It was all outgo and no Income. Hence continental money was promises to pay Spanish Milled dollars by a Congress not in posses* sion of such a dollar and without means to obtain them. The United States treasury notes after the adop tion of the constitution, were promis es to receive for revenue with mil lions to collect. Congress chartered the bank of North America In 1781, making its uotvs a full legal tender for all debts due the Vnited States. Ten years later the Secretary of the Treasury iu his report, said tho country could not depend on coin, and th%t |10, 000,000 of it could uot be obtained In tho entire eouutry. Thus we see that up to,this time the country could uot have been "hard money. In 1801, tho democratlo party came Into power with the eleoUon of Jef ferson as President, and up to the close of his administration, besides the bank of North America, there hnd been established in the different states seventy-five banks, and all by the democrats who were In power everywhere then. 8o wa fall to find democrats up to this time a hard money party. And in 1811, when the charter of the first bank expired, would have been a good time if the party was what the Herald claims a hard money party, te manifest It Mr. Jefferson, then In private Ufe, protested against these banks and insisted that the government alone was authorised to Issue money* but then as now, there were Just enough democrats with the opponents of government money to aurrander this prerogative of sovereignty to a cor. poration. Mr. Jefferson urged the issue of Treasury notes to carry on the war of 1812, and $57,010,000 were so issued, though the bankers and brokers and the leading papers op posed It. Again after the bank sus pension in 1814, 125,000,000 more treasury notes were issued as a per manent paper money and remained in circulation until the passage of a law compelling their surrender. President Jackson, In 1832 vetoed the re-charter of the bank of the United States, but iastead of sug gesting coin, which he knew it im possible to obtain, ha urged upon Congress the right of the United States to issue all the paper money as well as all tho coin of the country. He urged that the paper money of Congress should be based upon the "credit and revenues of the nation." From 1837 to 1848, over $100,000,000 treasury uotcs, ail full legal tender for debts due the United 8tates, had been Issued. The only act of Con gress that would aanetion the hard money notions of our hard money democrats was tho bill engineered through Congress by 8enator Ben ton in 1838-9, and approved by Presi dent Van ttuien. This was the first effort of the democratic party to say by law that treasury notes issued by the government and paid out for ser vices or supplies should not be a legal tender to the government. And on this issue the Whigs defeated Van Ilurcn iu 1840, and in 1841 re pealed that law. In 1844 the demoorata elected James K. Polk, and in 1816 re-en acted the law that made treasury notes a legal tender for all debts due the government. And this remain ed the law until the republican party ia 1802, stabbed the treasury aote in the back by two exceptions, at the dictation of the bankers aad brokers of the country. The Mexican war was prosecuted as was aur civil war, on the treasury notaa of Congress. Thus the Herald aad all democrats who desire the (acts can aee that the democratic party has but once in its history prior to 1882, opposed the Issue of treasury notes and making .mrP*J* &&hiUk. -'. :*TX Jk Pjjfijgtf. them a full legal tender for all the pnrposes of the government. The only question in regard to tho issue of paper money now, Is, shalf the government or the corporations is sue it? Upon one side or the other of this question the Herald must place Itself. Which shall it be?. Studying the Questions. Some time since the editor of the PLAIN DEALER submitted some inter rogatories to the Dubuque Hemld, which Its editor at the time dare not answer, fllnce then it has been studying the finance question us several incoherent urticles have re cently appeared in the Herald. That paper insists upon intrinsic value as an element pertaining to money, yet It seems to be satisfied with national bank issues. Tho questions which we propounded ore based upon its financial theory of money, yet it fears to answer. They were us fol lows: 1. If money must have intrinsic value, is It right to issue any whose intrinsic value is ices than its face value? 2. If you have not gold enough to redeem your paper, is it not a crime to Issue paper money based on gold 3. If you hove gold enough, is it not wiser to issue that Instead of pa per, so that no redemption will be needed 4. If the promise and means to pay are sufficient to keep paper at par, would not making it a full legal tender coupled with a promise to re ceive It at its face value for all taxes and public dues do the same thing? 5. If the intrinsic value of taxes is that of all materials necessary to carry on the government, would not that be a good basis on whb'h to is sue national paper money or trens uty notes? 6. What is the intrinsic value of gold independent of fancy, fashion and legislation? In reply to the first question, the Herald asks us to "prove that mosey must have aa intrinsic value." We dont believe it hence decline the task. Besides that is the task the Herald has undertaken since declin ing to reply. Our position is tl»t money must have a legal value, which is given it by law, aud that as money it has no other. The Hwakl says "the secoud and third questions are easily disposed of," but that is all the disposition it has made of them. To the fourth question the Herald asks: "At par with what?" We had supposed money was at par when taken and received at the sum denominated on its face—when it would liquidate a debt, as a legal tender, at its face value. Such is the ruling of nearly all the state courts, and also of the federal court. The fifth question the Herall thinks "Incoherent and absurd." We re apectfully refer the Herald to the money articles of such democrat^ as Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jack son, of whom, perhap* it had heard, though its asking what is meant by "the intrinsic value of taxes," shows it is not very familiar with their teachings. The sixth question it considers comical, but nothing yet invented is as comical, or shows more ignoranc of a question it at tempts to discuss, than its reply. As the Herald seems to have formed some opinious on this subject of late, perhaps It can reply to these ques tions more to its satisfaction now. While cleaning a well at Eagle, Wis consin, a brilliant was brought to light which was sold to a Milwaukee jeweler for $1. Experts in Chicago pronounce the stone a diamond, and the jeweler has since purchased tho laud ia the vicinity of the well In order to develop the mine. The annual report of the Tennessee State school superintendent shows the schools of that state to be in a gener ally prosperous condition. The scho lastic population of tho year was 418,82*2 white Mid 142.024 colored number of schools, 4,727 white, 1,384 colored total, €.111, sixty'-nine of which were under the control of city boards. White pupils enrolled 261.297, colored 66,984 total, 327.2S1 average daily attend ance. white 144,300, colored 31.498 to tal, 175,804. Number of wuite male teachers employed, 8.762 female, 1,518 colored male, 1031 colored lemale, 422 total, Prevention of Floods. ft to urged by several newspapers that, to prevent further losses from the floods which annually fill the valleys of the great rivers, all towns and dwell ings should be moved to sites above the line of the highest flood. That this is impracticable will at once occur to any one who gives the matter a mo ment of thought. Almost all the im portant manufacturing and all tho commercial places of note are situated npon the margin of navigable waters, snd will doubtless always be. All tho losses caused by floods this year will not equal the increase in expenses which would follow the removal of shops, store-houses, farm buildlngs,and dwellings from the river banks and the lowlands bordering them. At best such removal would be of comparatively little worth, since it would cost enorm ously to effect and more to sustain. The valuable bottom-lands would still be overflowed and vast areas in the South inundated each year, to the great injury if not tho utter ruin of those owning property there. More effective and wide-reaching means must be adopted to avoid sucn misery nnd destruction along the Ohio. The occurrence of these floods shows more forcibly than does almost any thing else tho necessity of placing in the national government power to con trol, so far as it is possible for human ingenuity to govern, all causes affect ing the welfare of the people. It should be in the power of tho nation to protect the millions who live in the valleys of America's great rivers from the disas trous effects of the blundering and the rcekless greed of those who have by ax and tiro in tho northern hills destroyed the safeguards of the south. Hereto fore the study has been how to prevent the overflow of the broad lowlands of the Ohio and Mississippi by building weak barriers of loose soil, to be each year in part rebuilt at an enormous outlay of money. With the best levee system ever used in the south the coun try thus protected was threatened with desolation by each succeeding flood. The preventive measures should have been applied at tho headwaters of the tributaries of tho great rivers. Tho unchecked eagerness of the farmer ana the lumberman resulted in stripping much of the land of every vestige of fofest, and floods and drouths are the inevitable results. There is yet timo to recover much of tho ground which has been bared of its woods, and there is a hope that this may yet bo done. If the timber wiiich the settler destroyed in the states cast of Illinois were stand ing to-day as it stood forty years ago it would have a cash value greater than that of the acres which it once covered. As a proiectiou to property* in the val lcv of tne Mississippi its influence would: be of ini'ululaLlu value. It has been shown repeatedly that growing trees of tue more valuable sorts pays far bet ter than docs the growing of grain, ev*ni where crops can be grown at a inin.imiin cost, and trees have been planted on thousands of acres in the plains country, while the destruction ot noule forests has been carried on al most as rapidly, if possible, in tho Mid dle and Kasteru states. Wiil not the nation be justitiod in tho undertaking what the guardians of the commercial interets of in that New York are trying to do Mute—prevent struction of timbor? tho further de We are told that there is no driving of the flock in Spain. When the shep herd wishes to remove his sheep, ne calls a tamo wether, accustomed to feed from his hands, and the favorite^ however distant, obeys bis call, while the rest, follow. One or more of tho dogs, with large collars, armed with spikes, in order to protect them from the wolves, precede the flock others skirl it on either side, and some bring up the rear. If a sheep be ill or lame,, or lag behind, unobserved by the shep herd. the dog stays with it and de fend? it until some one returns in* search of it. In Wurtcmberg girls under sixteen years of age are not allowed to dance rouad dances. Why lie Was Promoted. It Is related of an ex-member of Con gress from the West, who died last month, that in 1863 he received a call iu Washington from a Captain in a vol unteer regiment who wanted to expose some crooked things about a certain po*~k contract. Tike member received him very coldly, aud made light of his grave charges, but hardly had the Cap tain returned to his regiment when he was promoted to Colonel and assigned to another. At the close of the war ho happened to meet the Congressman, and in his gratitude he called out: "That promotion came from you, and I thank you with all my heart. •*On, you don't owe me anything.'* ••But didn't you secure my promo* Hon?" ••Certainly." "And shouldn't I be grateful?" ••Not by a jugful! As Captain, de tailed in the Quartermaster's depart ment, you were threatening to expose a shortage in my pork contract, by which I made $60,000. 1 had you pro moted to get you out of the way. No thanks, no thanks good day"—Wall Stn* Ntw.