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The daily Gate City. [volume] (Keokuk, Iowa) 1855-1916, December 08, 1908, Image 2

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A
IV
PAGE TWO
ANNUAL
MESSAGE
IS READ.
Congress Hears ttie
President's Views.
TRUST LAW ASSAILED.
5^
Amendment of the Sherman Act
t., Is Advocated.
LAWS FOR LABOR URGED.
Declarations of Public In
terest In the Document.,
Washington, Dec. 8. The annnal
message of the president read in both
houses of congress, is in full as follows:
iTo the Senate and House of Repre
sentatives:
Finances.
The flua'neia! standing of tne nation
at the present time Is excellent, and
the financial management of the na
tion's Interests by the government dur
ing the last seven years has shown the
most satisfactory results. But our cur
rency system Is imperfect. «nd it Is
earnestly to be hoped that the cur
rency commission will be able to pro
pose a thoroughly good system which
will do away with the existing defects.
During the period from July 1, 1901,
to Sept. 30, 1008, there was an increase
In the amount of money in circulation
of $902,991,399. The Increase in the
per capita during this period was $7.06.
Within this time there were several
occasions when It was necessary for
the treasury department to come to
the relief of the money market by
purchases or redemptions of T'nited
State* bonds, by increasing deposits In
national banks, by stimulating addi
tional issues of national bank notes
and by facilitating importations from
abroad of gold. Our Imperfect cur
rency system has made these proceed
ings necessary, and they were effective
Untll the monetary disturbance in the
fall of 1907 Immensely Increased the
difficulty of ordinary methods of re
lief. By the middle of November the
available working balance in the treas
ury had lxen reduced to approximate
ly $5,000,000. Clearing house associa
tions throughout the country had been
obliged to resort to the expedient of
Issuing clearing house certificates, to
te used as money. In this emergency
It was determined to invite subscrip
tions for $30,OOQ.XK) Panama canal
bonds and S100.000.000 3 per cent cer
tificates of indebtedness authorized by
the act of June 13. 1S9S. It was pro
posed to redeposlt in the national
banks the proceeds of these Issues and
to permit their use as a basis for addi
tional circulation notes of national
1'flnks. The moral effect of this pro
cedure was so great that It was ne?e»
«ory to issue only $24,031,080 of the
Tanaina canal bonds and ?15.436.500 of
the certificates of Indebtedness I
During the period from July 1. 1901.
to Sept. 30. 1908. the balance between
the net ordinary receipts and the net
ordinary expenses of the government,
•boweil a surplus In the four rears
1002, 1903. 1900 an«l 1907 and a deficit
Is the years 1904, 1905, 1908 and a frac
tional part of the fiscal year 1909 The
Bet result was
a
surplus of $99,283
413.64. The financial operations of the
government (luring this period, based
tipon these differences between receipts
*nd expenditures, resnlted !n a net re
duction of the loterest bearing debt of
the United States from $987,141,040 to
$897,2.r3t990 notwithstanding that there
had been two sales of Panama canal
honds amounting In the aggregate to
$54,031,980 and an Issue of 3 per cent
certificates of indebtedness under the
*ct of June 13. lSftS. amounting to $15,
43fl,r00. Refunding operations of the
treasury department under the act of
March 14, 1900, resulted In the conver
sion Into 2 per cent consols of 1930 of
$200,309,400
bonds bearing higher rates
Of Interest. A decrease of $8,087,9.00
In the annual interest charge resulted
from these operations.
In short, during the seven years and
three months there has been a net sur
plus of nearly one hundred millions of
receipts over expenditures, a reduction
of the interest: bearing debt by ninety
millions, In spite of (he extraordinary
expense of the Panama canal and a
saving of nearly nine millions on the
annual Interest charge. This is an ex
ceedlngl.v satisfactory showing, espe
clally In view nf the fact that during
this period the nation has never hesi
tated to undertake anv expenditure
that It regarded as necessarv. There
huve been no new taxes and no In
creases of taxes. On the contrary,
some taxes have been taken olT. There
has been a reduction of taxation.
1
Corporations.
As regards the great corporations en-
t.- 5 7
is he a O S
•••'•. •-•-s
ttere .6.11 te l,„ rticl.j
shall expressly permit combinations,
which are In the Interest of the public,
but shall at the same time give to|
some agency of the national govern
ment full power of control and super
vision over them. One of the chief
features of this control should be se
curing entire publicity in all matters)
Judicial, but by executive, action to,
prevent or put a stop to every form of I
Improper favoritism or other wrong-
be put completely under the lntemate
commerce commission and removed
from the domain of the anti-trust law
The power of the commission should
could exercise complete supervision
and control over the issue of securities
as well as over the raising and lower-
this power should be summary. The
power to investigate the financial op
erations and accounts of the railways
has been one of the most valuable fea
tures in recent legislation. Power to
make combinations and traffic agree
ments should be explicitly conferred
upon the railroads, the permission of
the commission being first gained and
callous disregard of the rights and
clally tuv- railroads. can onl.v re e.7T I tliere should be a re:_,iuui put ui.v-:t
what I have already again and again] Individual initiative and Individual ca
?aid in my messages to the congress pacity and an ampie nwurd for the
believ-e tbat under the interstate great directing Intelligences alone com
?lause of the constitution the United
States has complete and [aramount
right to control nil agencies of inter-
state commerce, and I believe that the the worst enemy of liberty and the
fectiveness so as both to secure justice propertv have most to fear from the
from and to do justice to. the great wrongdoers of great wealth, and the
corporations which are the most im
mm.
porta nt factors in modern- business. I
[j believe that it Is worse than folly to
attempt to prohibit all combinations,
as is done by the Sherman anti-trust
law, because such a law can be en
forced only imperfectly and unequal-!
ly, and its enforcement works almost
as much hardship as good. I strongly
advocate that Instead of au unwise
effort to prohibit all combinations:
l"
terestof the public the representatives!
of the public- should have complete!
course this power should also be exer-
cised so as to see that no injustice is
done to the railroads. The share-'
holders, the emplovees and the ship-
them that no swindling stock specula-!
tlon should le allowed and that there!
essary for the succesfeful building and I
one another To give any one of them J10'
mu*t be made ns low as Is compatible-
with giving prorw-r returns to all the'
emplovees of the railroad from thei
highest to the lowest, and proper re-! *U8t
turns to the shareholders, but tiiey 1 ?,ere ,nl?n
must not for Instance 1^ reduced In
in the wages of the employees or the
GREAT CORPORATIONS.
Interest of the People
It is ve.--
OT.„„,ic
our Deonle through their r»rr*«»ntn
tlves. Should act In this matter It is
thp rr
nnirv
entire In re on the I
ercise of the nece-sarv governmental
power In a wav which "would do Injus-
tlce and wrong to til
man n#
men of business the Just reward 0/
their Initiative and business sagacity
are advocating policies that would be
fraught with the gravest barm to tbe
whole country. To permit every law
less capitalist, every law defying cor
poration, to take any action, no mat«
ter how iniquitous, in the effort to se
cure an improper profit and to build
up privilege would be ruinous to the
republic and would mark the abandon
ment of the effort to secure In the lu
livo!Ih«oda n« a'w-'ngeworker*
of tin? soil
en. ttt I special privilege and defiant of both I
to supervise nnd control the actions of ®fc'on('
petent to manage the great business
operations of today. It is well to keep
In mind that exactly as the anarchist
men who are championing popular
rights have most to fear from the
demagogues who in the name of popu
lar rights would do wrong to and op
press honest business men. honest men
of wealth, for the success of either
type of wrongdoer necessarily invites
a violent reaction against the cause the
wrongdoer nominally upholds. In
point of danger to the nation there is
beware of nud
doing. comings to which that group is it
The railways of the country should!
self raost
thc
tbe
TTieb'-°«'liver
Mb. srs." «i»
U» great talent to .wirtle His Mlo*
'xr
a
hand, the preacher of class
hatred, the man who. whether from
ignorance or from willingness to sac-! Tr*Z
rna,C'mtePrmTeb?L"|2w,V.'0noktT ™™n" I combination, enpwed In Intentate «*.» »M-
SenTseD upon^ wWch^'our ^roSrUy
tna'n'-v rests-
liable. Too often we see
effort to hold to account under the
!aw the
be made thoroughgoing, so that it management of great corporations. °, ,7t
whether
haved in a way that revolts the con-
Ing of rates. As regards rates, at least the plain, decent people.! lutocracy-and, second, the men
Such an attitude cannot be condemned
too severely, for men of propertv
heartify to join ^n the effort to do!
away with the abuses of wealth. On I
the other hand, those who advocate
proper control on behalf of the public
through the state of these CToat cor- I
the combination or^agrwrne^t'" being Porations and of 'the wealth engaged °0t
6 a In aT on
must
the-v
power to see that the railroads do their! poratlon. unless they permit ample
duty by the public, and as a matter of Profit, and cordially encourage capable '"J
men
wltb
ever keep in mind that unless
do
l^nesty. they are striking at the!
root of
the
our national well being, for In
Jong run. under the mere pressure
wllole
ro'sn
ratller han
should le no Improper Issuance of se-1 the state so drastic and so foolish, con-j
curities. The gtiiding intelligences nec-1 ee^ed In a spirit of such unreasonable
and
successful management of railroads Prevent business operations from be
should receive ample remuneration, 'n£ profitable and therefore to bring
but no man should be allowed to make!
1
and kindred stock gambling perform
antes There must be no defrauding! nfturniiUFii*.
of investors, oppression of the farmers
and business men who ship freight or I
narrow hostility to weiltli. as to
111,11
money in connection with railroads' mnnity and ultimately upon the en
out of fraudulent overcapitalization
upon the entire business com-
"re body of citizens.
uUiERNMlIiT
needs of the einploj'ees. In addition: Will Not Mean Weakening of thei do not for a moment belle\e that
to this, the interests of the sliarehold-1 Rifrhtc
nf
8tatPS'
8°"S
Both the preachers' of^an^unrestricted TT 5°nl
individualism and the preachers of an
oppression which would deny to able
+li» c+„+., ,5
ers, of the emploj'ees and of the ship-1 short and easy method. The solutiou
pers should all be guarded as against opposition to government con-1
of bpse
undue and improper consideration is most effective effort In the shape I dles must lie outside the domain of
to do Injustice to the other*. Kates °f
a" apPeal
t0 ,he 01,1
rights. Of course there are 1
many PmCfre
unrestrcted
Individualism In
as there were
such fashion as to necessitate a cut in(lir'dual to own another individual
Telegraph and telephone companies''
Tlle4,e
tare busines-, shou'd
engaged In Intersta
be put under the Jurisdiction of the In
terstate commerce commission.
f3'nierly
w'10
tbat in 11)0
mt'n
abolition of the proper and legitimate ^rpat weight. liowe\er. The effective great interstate corporations, including
profits of honest shareholders fight against adequate government 1
contro1 and
and
Should Be Wisely Regulated In the I public welfare and law of the legislation hereinafter referred to I
Ian'1
tu,
aml
,Jeil"nf-iation
tl0n the wn,ral
power to
dea'
organ,2wl
hard to kit u-hPfh^r mr»*fr Hi mac™ policy set forrh in such twin demincin- creation of, power by the central
f°r ,h°
t0
1
,h°
nafi^nal
!"na"
property
was rounded
or
gaged in interstate business Is chiefly special privileges. There should be
done under cover, and especially un-1 short time franchises for all corpora
der cover of an appeal 0 states' I Hons engaged in public business, in
rights. It is not at all Infrequent to clutllng the corporations which get
read in the sane speech a denuncin-: power from water rights. There should
tion of predatory wealth fostered by be national as well as state gunrdlan-
rormotion of the the
ibJ a."« a.ot.
the
Wlt''
(0r"m"rf p-
i"t^K,il,e
... .... .! Kfanted absolutely and nlerinrilv to propose to abandon nnv
a"tIHer .°f_C0°tr°i
As regards the great corporations en- Mnln« such power- (lie national gov- I be reached, cannot be held to account
Caged In interstate business, and espo- int. nst of all of us that
trnment.
.-orty
or ftfty S
The Daily GaU City
arise ,u tbe
national government aloue can exer-i reactionary the worst ?nemy of order kinds of state regulation, often incon-j an account of its exercise to the peo
else this right with wisdom and ef- so the men who defeud the rights of!
8lstent
effort for all adequate control
rca
buslne88'
Let each group of men
JL believe In this movement of asserting
guard against the short-
1
business community in a spirit of f*tS
unt)eajthy
wealthy men who in their ,art'
railroads, street railways or
other industrial"enterprfses?' have" be-
n°UDCe
botb the power ot the
and tbe exercise of the
Wbich
a!?ue
roa^s-
'lose
iu the least object to
In
scrupulous justice to the cor- ^,e,COn f0'
busl"^s
1
mport^t
P"bh?
business so lon^r as they act such thoroughsoing control over
the geueral
^ould probably go back to the! ™iulstratl0».
of an unrestricted individualism
CONTROL
»iiiwui
P'jl)!ic-
per, all bare ,„,ere»„ ,hn, mn.t be «»•»-. .be peoie «r wenlib and ad- '^atoentl 'laS^
guarded. It is to the interest of all of
be punished as relentlessly as if prac-
ticed on a snmil scale.
tbo
8hIP
nt 1 ,, ^o*1" amounts to absolutelv nothing, government. The power alreadv ex-
first half is
ha,r Tl,e
('h,ef
the great corporations or from !he ex "°"nd °omP*nlnS rea-i be used or left idle, and meanwhile!?"™,1
governments cannot exercise that' administration of political power is
power over corporations doing busi
ness in most or all of them, first, be
cause they absolutely lack the author
ity to deal with interstate busiucs.s in
any form and. second, because of the
inevitable conflict of authoritv sure to
effort to enforce different
with
one another and some-
and
yet to render likely continual bursts of
action by state legislatures, which
cannot achieve the nurnose souzht for
Tr rau.»
recogaize tfae unwisd tl iolnt
Ze
duSnr
ave
dlspla-\ed, dunnf bcfor„
to bta ambition, per-' X* m..?"! oir wm m^Tnd „.T
and exercising a genuine control in the
public interest over these great corpo-
rations have to-contend against two:
class consciousness deplore hand, one bent on progress, thc other
lD_ P,rfTentllJp.
a
ma,viauall3ts
who,Se"uinel.v
reSTu'atod
1
Wb°'
movements
should recognize that they jeopardize) einent of repression rather than of
the rights of propertv Xn they fail'
regulatio»
Pr°Per solution
br8t'
the
the eitreme
among business men
believe in utterly un-
buslness-tbat is, in the reign
bejns bUnd t0 the
of
«°nomic
of the day, believe In a
^orations and who de-
u'e lo
dlstl'ibutlon
submit to a control by I
of
tbe real
pub"c
problem will be solved by any
wi"
come ouly by pressing various con-
£i"eat corporations makes 1 current remedies. Some of these reme-
doctrine of
n"
government. Some must be out-
Bld?
'be domain
"?f!1 lvll' now believe In government. ISnt ...
business,
many sin- alone can enact and which Is abso- I
believed in slavery— lately vital In order to secure the at-i
""restricted right of 'an talnment of our purpose. Many laws!
nre
a
needed. There should be regula-
'lo "jr ''J' themselves have tion by tbe national government of the
simple method of account keeping,
supervision of individual, publicity, supervision of the Issue of
^PPC'0"? of corporate, wealth en- securities, abolitic
of mines and forests. The labor
of centraliza- should concurrently be enacted into
government of thei 'aw. °ut
i,,terstate thIs lncroase 1,1
and the
ed all of what business there was. no more believe In that empiricism
Interstate commerce Is now chiefly ^hlch .demands absolutely unrestraln
conducted by railroads, arid the great
cd
dustrial world the spirit of democratic proposal to make the national all Individual Initiative and would ruin 1 government should legislate In thor
fair dealing, on the other hand, to J?,?™'11®"1. T™!-!,-0"--"!^!" .W"h_ ^"P^fss that onghgoing nnd farrenching fashion.
corporations over which the pow- £areIy
Koyern!'"*nt was tbe absolute er ought to be exercised will not re- far"1
power power available, the national power,
scattered among a variety of men who
work in secret, whose very names are
unknown to the commou people. It is
uot in peril from any man who derives
authority from the people, who exer
cises it in sight of the people and who
Is from time to time compelled to give
pie.
times oppressive In themselves. Such
divided authority cannot regulate com
merce with wisdom and effect. The
central government la the only power
which without oppression can never-,
theless thoroughly and adequately Iteeded In flftliy XiIUCI
control and supervise the large cor-' to Improve Condition of Workers,
porations. To abandon the effort for I ~.
national control means to abandon the1
LABOR MATTERS.
There, ar* m,auj"
mat
A
truth is that" we who resistance to every effort for the re-
form of abuse8 and £or the
ment of
societ-v
condltlous
atlsm'
who' 1.h.ougb nomIn^'"
the,
railroads
federal power
can
realI'
control
the rail-
w'10
believe in efficient
not irtr\n 1 n/\t««nl «U.. -il.... I.
nationaI
administration. On ^"lzagt^n
fav®r
both, with the
t}
ab,0Ut. the'r
as t0 ilisure tbelr
luterest auU uot
against the interest of
not object
w"e
adruinlstration.
and
b'^
ery lncroasc In
of the federal
tion which the federal government
make 11
must,
abolition of rebates and of
fillou'd
commerce was be frank and admit openly tbat they hardly even a sketch in outline, of the
effort
ships of individuals who then conduct- tlcular kind of Increase of power. We our present Industrial system become
Individualism than we do in that
corporation has supplanted the mass empiricism which clamors for a dead- must have their rights secured for
in*.
to and
one sovereignty capable of exer-1 ble, is unseen, is Irresponsible, cannot
Partnerships or Individuals wclalism. which would destroy them by state action, but Jhe national
through legls
is impalpa-
ad««'nistrators.
eI)aratestate Democracy is in peril wherever the
'?1
fs Meeting la-
auJ the status of the wageworker
t0 which 1 sUould like to draw
J™1
youi
attention, but au exhaustive discussion
of the
ProbltM" all its aspects is not
Brcat tal or ™s ln
co««r.
I Slem toeMs ^o» the «Uo»
»s °p»»
tion of the nation. Nevertheless there
are certa!u
considerations which I wish
_ou
beMUSP hnn_ fhn,
"adjust-
t0
modern industrial
represents not true conserv-
but an
1
Incitement to the wild-
est radicalism, for wise radicalism
and wise conservatism go hand in
bent on seeing that no change is made
unless In the right direction. I believe
in a steady effort, or perhaps It would
be more accurate to say In steady ef
forts in many different directions, to
bring about a condition of affairs un
der which the men who work with
band or with brain, the laborers, the
superintendents, the men who produce
for
the,
a. n?arket fof
tbe artItle8
control, on the other hand, do and instruments by which all work la­
tombmations, ^r^d
on
and
°^n
do believe in the
the wealth in profits to J*"
0,vnors
Jind in securing to the
*bc 'u"
We believe that
with concentration iu administration
there can come both the advantage of
the same -time a better service to the
commonwealth. We believe that the
administration should be for the benefit!
of the many and that greed and rascal-1
ity practiced on large scale should
al'
banks now
our
Produced,
shall own a far greater share than at
present of the wealth they produce
and be enabled to Invest it in the tools I
^s ^r
p°sslb'e
S
bope
d^^ no
com ff rt
provi^so that there shall be ownershin bv
W0
I rkln«8
wageworkeJ S railway miU and fac-!
the '°B_ f.
sl™ply
l^at wl®h e*
mean9
the
fn"»er
own
n^ th^
p^°p(jrt^
'°f
:them
!1_
tbe
Se?
nbsentee
landlorc.8
bj tenants nor jet so
that the
eoncen
fa"ner
becomes like a
European peasant.
Again, the depositors In our savings
number over one-tenth of
entIre
a larger ownership and of a more capitalists, who, through the savings
equitable distribution of profits and at I
ba.nks-
population. These are all
loan their
Is-
to
money to the workers
many cases to themselves—
carrJ
on their various Industries.
The more we
the more we
ot
increase their number
'ntroduce the principles
c°-operation
into our Industry. Ev-
tbe number of small
stockholders lu corporations Is a good
thing for the same reasons, and where
the employees are the stockholders the
result is particularly good. Very much
of this movement must be outside of
anything that can be accomplished by
legislation, but legislation can do a
1 good deal. Postal savings banks will
{'as-v
for tIie
there Is legisla- savings In absolute safety. The
resula,
be
man"
this centralized! To accomplish this means, of course. 'a^ors 'n nccumulntlng.a fortune long
Of course the a certain increase In the use of, not |?f. ,.that
*y the ists. It does not have [0 be Seated.
reason among The only question is whether It shali ®^°U'd
fo«unes
sev-1 malnjdle. Let those who object to ^elr entirety.
Protection For Wageworksrc. I
The above Is the merest sketch. I
of the "only
tn 1 fpforms
and plennrily to propose to abandon any effort to con- reforms for which we should work
tbe central government and was exer- trol the great business corporations But there Is one matter with which
cised completely as re-ards the only and to exercise supervision over the I the congress should deal at tills ses
Instruments of interstate commerce accumulation and distribution of sion. There should no longer be anv
known In those days-the waterways, wealth, for such supervision and con- paltering with the question of taklne
the highroads—as well us the partner- trol can only come through this par- care of the wageworkers who uudei
Is TmpaTpa
Poorest to keep
of thc
uatl""al
be such ,hat
p®„f w[tb
flnancea must be
highways
theJ'
sha11
6erve
all
^Qllal justice. Corporate
supervised so as to
make It far safer than at present for
the man of small means to invest his
money in stocks. There must be pro
hibition of child labor, diminution of
woman labor, shortening of hours of
nil mechanical labor. Stock watering
prohibited and stock gam-
bllng, so far as Is possible, discouraged.
There should be a progressive Inher
itance rax en large fortunes. Indus
trial education should be encouraged.
As far as possible we should lighten
the burden of taxation on the small
We
sll0"ld
1 hard work aDd
tllcse
fo"UIU'
wliere
1
aD"V
1
Put a premium upon
business energy,
qualities cease to be the main
reaches a point
would be seriously affected by
'n'lpri^ance tax such as I propose,
,s
era,Dent1^ r1^
that the nation
tlle ,prms
upo"
wh,cl1 tlle
are Inherited. They
do
1 good-
and
they
t0'
•1,080
often do
who
Inherit them In
frit* n«A
... .1
killed, crippled or worn out as part of
the regular
Iih
ness. The majority of wageworkers
1
1
idents of a given busi-
concerned
tended through voluntary association
and contributory schemes or through
tbe agency of savings bnnks. as under
the recent Massachusetts plan. To
strengthen these practical measures
should be our itnmediiuj duty, it
4.
Thc terms of the act are also a
hardship In prohibiting payment in
cases where the accident Is in any
way due to fhe negligence of tbe em
ployee. It Is Inevitable that dally fa
miliarity with danger will lead men to
take chnnces that can be construed
into negligence. So well is this recog-
SMU
TUESDAY, DEC. 8,
Ik
S not at present necessary to coLsldet
the larger and more general govern
mental schemes that most European
governments have found themselves
obliged to adopt.
Our present system, or, rather, no
system, works dreadful wrong and is
of benefit to only one class of people
—the lawyers. When a workman lp
Injured what he needs is not an ex
pensive and doubtful lawsuit, but the
certainty of relief through Immediate
administrative action. The number of
accidents which result in the death or
crippling of wageworkers In the Union
at large Is simply appalling. In a very
few years It runs up a total far In ex
cess of the aggregate of the dead and
wounded In any modern. war. Xo
academic theory About, "freedom of
contract" or "constitutional liberty to
contract" should be permitted to In
terfere with this and similar move
ments. Progress In civilization has
everywhere meant a limitation and
regulation of contract. I call your
especial attention to the bulletin of the
bureau of labor which gives a state
ment of tbe methods of treating tbe
unemployed In European countries, as
this Is a subject which In Germany,
for instance, is treated In connection
with making provision for wornout
and crippled workmen.
Pending a thoroughgoing Investiga
tion and action there Is certain legis
lation which should be enacted at
once. The law passed nt the last ses
sion of the congress granting com
pensation to certain classes of em
ployees of the government should be
extended to Include all employees of
the government and should be made
more liberal In Its terms. There Is no
good ground for the distinction made
in the law between those engaged In
hazardous occupations and those not
•o engaged. If a man is Injured or
killed in any line of work it was
hazardous in his case. Whether 1 per
cent or 10 per cent of those following
a given occupation actually suffer In
jury or death ought not to have any
bearing on the question of their re
ceiving compensation. It is a grim logic
which says to an Injured employee or
to the dependents of one killed that he
or they nre entitled to no compensa
tion because very few people other
than he have been Injured or killed In
that occupation. Perhaps one of the
most striking omissions in the law is
that It does not embrace peace officers
and others whose lives may be sacri
ficed in enforcing the laws of the
United States. The terms of the act on the judiciary these same labor lead
providing compensation should be! era formulated their demands, specify
made more liberal than in the present ing the bill that contained them, re
act. A year's compensation Is not
adequate for a wage earner's family
In the event of his death by accident nothing. They insisted on a provision
in tbe course of bis employment And
In the event of death occurring, say,
ten or eleven months after the acci
dent the family would only receive as
compensation tbe equivalent of one or
two months' earnings. In this respect
the generosity of the United 8tatcs
toward Its employees compares most
unfavorably with that of every coun
try In Europe—even the poorest.
nlzed that In practically all countries
in the civilized world, except the Unit- property. The demand was made that
ed States, only a great degree of negll- there should be trial by Jury In con-
gence acts as a bar to securing com
pensation. Probably In no other re
spect is otir legislation, both state and
natlonal. so far behind practically the which, if carried out, would mean the
entire civilized world as in the matter enthronement of class privilege In
of liability and compensation for ac-J its crudest and most brutal form and
cldents In^Industry. It Is humiliating| the destruction of one of the most es
thnt at Kuropean international con- sentinl functions of the judiciary In all
grosses on accidents the United States
should be singled out as the most be
lated among the nations In respect to
employers' liability legislation. This
government Is itself a large employer
of labor, and In Its dealings with'its' fi^t "placrthey^ought "to "tench tte
"f S
"Pt
St,andard ,nl
,W°"
P,?Ce worker-
tries in EuroPr\h?Tws of °the
United States in this respect and the
laws of European countries have been
summarized In a recent bulletin of the
bureau of labor, and no American who
reads this summary can fall to be
struck by the great contrast between
our practices and theirs—n contrast
not In any sense to our credit.
The congress should without further
delay pass a model employers' liability
law for the District of Columbia. The1
employers' liability net recently de
any doubt on the subject the law I
should be re-enacted, with special ref-!
erence to the District of Columbia
This net. however, applies only to em-
ployees of common carriers, in all
other occupations the liability law of!
the District Is the old common law.'
The severity nnd Injustice of the com
mon law In this matter have been In
some degree or another modified I
the majority of our states, and tin
only Jurisdiction under the exclusive
control of the congress should be
nhend and not behind the states of the
ou
ln
th'''
1
respect. A comprehen­
sive employers' liability law should bo
passed for the District of Columbia.
renew my recommendation made
in a previous message that half holi
days be granted during the summer to
wageworkers ln government em
ploy.
H'
?'80
r,cn*"
IS*
1908
tlcable be extended tn
being can-led on by the
The present law should h„
nmeBt
embrace contracts I
works which the present ~,PUblll!
the act Beems 'to /J0*10*
01
The Courts.
I most earnestly
Ur*e
noon •»,
gress the duty of increasing
1
C0J'
inadequate salaries now .*VpnC )ottllJ
Judges. On the whole, thei
8 nl°°Uf
of public servants wl10 do
work nor
Inadequate compared to Xir
Beginning with the supreme conrT'* I
Judges should have their salnn
Med. It is not befitting £,H
the nation that Its most honoreTil
servants should be paid sumsto si
compared to what they wo.im!
1
private life that the^SS
public service by them implies an
ceedingly heavy pecuniary^rtflcV
It is earnestly to be desired that
Borne method should be devised for ,il
Ing aw^v with the long delays which
now obtain In the administration ?, I
Justice and which operate with necul
iar severity against persons of
8m!„
means and favor only the very crlml
nals whom it is most desirable to nun. I
ish. These long delays in the flM|!
decisions of cases make in the aiere
gate a crying evil, and a remedv
Bbouid
be devised. Much of this Intolerable
delay is due to improper regard paid to
technicalities which are a mere hln
drance to justice. In some noted re
cent cases this overregard for teehnl
call ties has resulted in a striking denial
of justice and flagrant wrong to the
body politic.
REFORM OF THE COURTS,
ll7ot Possible When Judiciary Ii
Attacked Indiscriminately.
At the last election certain leaden!
of organized labor mnde a violent and I
sweeping attack upon the entire ju
diciary of the country, an attack
couched In such terms as to Include!
the most upright, honest and broad
minded judges no less than those of I
narrower mind and more restricted I
outlook. It was the kind of attack ad
mirably litted to prevent auy success
ful atvempt to reform abuses of the
Judiciary, because it gave the cham
pions of the unjust Judge their eagerly
desired opportunity (o shift their
gronnd Into a championship of just
Judges who were nujustly assailed.
Last year before the house committee
fusing all compromise, stating they
wished the principle of that bill or
that In a labor dispute no injunction
should Issue except to protect a prop
erty right und specifically provided
that the right to carry on business
should not be construed ns a property
right, and In a second provision their
bill made legal in a labor dispute any
act or agreement by or between two
or more persons that would not have
been unlawful If done by a single per
son. In other words, this bill legal
ized blacklisting and boycotting In er
ery form, legalizing, for Instance, those
forms of the secondary boycott whlcb
the anthracite coal strike commission
•o uureservedly condemned, while the
right to carry on a business was ex
plicitly taken out from under that pro
tection which the law throws over
tempt cases, thereby most seriously Im
pairing the authority of the courts.
All this represented a course of policy
civilized lands.
The violence of the crusade for this
legislation and its complete failure il
lustrate two truths which it is essen
tial our people should learn, lu tie
worklngman, the laborer, the wage-
^a. by demanding what is
tmPr°Per
°nd
,mP°ss,ble
be
A
clared unconstitutional on account of I "0™inalir11Lunder.tfkon',
apparently Including In Its provisions
employees engaged in Intrastate com
merce as well as those engaged In In
terstate commerce has been held by
the local courts to be still In effect so
far as Its provisions npplv to the DIs
trict of Columbia. There 'should be no
ambiguity on this point. If there Is
P|aJ"8
would Inevitably lu the
lnt°
the bands of his foes. Such a crude
and vicious attack upon the courts,
even if it were temporarily
successful,
end
cause a
violent reaction nnd would band the
great mass of citizens together, forelns
them to stand by all the judges, com
petent and Incompetent nllke, rather
than to see the wheels of justice
Movement of this kind can
ultl,n»t®,y
result la
a^e
nothing but dam-
t0 tbo8c in whose beha
This Is a
most healthy truth, which
it
Is wise
for all our people to learn. Any
move
ment based on that class hatred which
at times assumes the name of
"class
consciousness" Is certain ultimately to
aU
and'
if 11
temPorar"y
do
fnrreac,1inS
succeeds,
nnme for the odloU9 vice of
8*lflslines8
18
ln an
eraP1°J'er's
1 mont ln
ization
my recommendation
princlp,e of t!lp
e'sbt
011
hour dav
should as rapidly and as far as prdi
to
damage.
scloosness"
"Class
con-
where it Is merely
another
tlaS!'
equally noxious
whether
association or
wor1t,I1gman's
In
association. Tbe
PrJmnrl|y
'rt"" zens, but as individuals of a certain
class in society. Such an
move
Question was one lu wbicli
th®®PPeal
t0 vote
wns made to all worklngmcn
not 09
American clti-
appeal, In
the first place, revolts the more hlgl'
minded and farslghted among the per
sons to whom it Is addressed and, In
the Becond place, tends to
arouse
strong antagonism among
all
other
classes of citizens, whom it therefor'-'
tends to unite against the very
organ­
whose behalf It is
Issued.
The result is therefore unfortunai'
from every standpoint. This healthy
truth, by the way, will be learned by
the Socialists If they ever succeed

establishing ln this country an Impor
tant national party based on socu
rlasfl consciousness and selfish class Is*
(Continued on Page 5.)

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