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City are served the full Leased Wire Service of the United Press Associations. J** **, I w% I 1 ?.•• One bullet slew a million and a lalf men, and set civilization at (aught. A bullet fired by a half I razed Serbian Btudeat, Gabriel Princip, In the streets of Sarajevo on tune 28, 1914, has penetiated every pome in Europe. One of the most peculiar things of he situation is that the sender of he bullet does not know what he ac complished. As he sits tttday in his •loomy cell at the Bosnian capital, le is unaware of the hairfest of. wo® lie sowed when he plants® that tiny aden seed in the brain of Archduke rancis Ferdinand of AuatHa. He is beld incommunicado. Mb newspa pers reach him, and bis guards are forbidden to tell him of'mat Is hap pening outside. The f&ot that he kas under twenty when hi fired the phot saved him for a fate more, ter Jlble than death—imprisonment for. life under the most rigorous condl lions allowed by the Austrian penal pode. And only history will be able to jitsclose to the rest of the world, (the full tale of the result of his mad ness. The nations at war have prov jpn so far most relnctant to publish fheir loss. Of the ten countries en gaged in the great conflict, mm *v£' VOL. 121. NO. 26. .-v in *mur uiliioi *r lne Year Has Passed Since Germany Declared War on Russia and Set the World Aflame I: With Greatest Struggle in History. COST IS WAV UP IN THE 'en Nations Set Crazy When Serbian Youth Fired Bullet Into the Austrian Arch Duke and the End is Not Yet EFFECT OF GABRIEL PRINCIP'S BULLET Cost in Men killed Nation. wounded and missing. Germany 2.V00,.00o Russia .. 2,000,000.. Austria. *.... 1.500,000 France 1,500,000. British Empire 350,000 Serbia 85.000 Turkey 75,000 Belgium 60.000.,: Montenegro .... 25,000'" Italy o0,000" |By Bd Keen, United Press Staff Correspondent LONDON, August 1.—One year ago Oday, Germany declared war on Rus ila.'and the. world was set allame. one million and a balf men al «dy have bMa- sltln. perhaps thrfce that- number have been _^ned and the homes of Bhirope |lled with widows and orphans. And he end is not in sight. England Alone has finally come to realize the possible advantage of letting its sub pecta realize the tremendous char acter of their undertaking and its awful toll. England alone Is now is suing carefully prepared periodical statistics, showing her entire loss, and since the beginning of the war to Within a fortnight of publication. From these it is possible to arrive at an approximate estimate of tne casualties among other belligerents, ""he nature of the fighting has been Quch the same in the' various war pones and it is likely that the pro ortlon of'loss to the number of men [United Press Leased Wire Service. I I NEW YORK, July 31—The Imol phages of the Russian retreat from tl6 Vistula positions began this week, un Ptr conditions that indicate tta4t Grand Duke Nicholas already has saved the greater part of nis army and win probably extricate most, if not all of ne remainder. The final resistance of the Slavs Id 1 ^11 keeping with the power ot de fense the Russian armies have shown hroughout the war. The fall of Lublin, which gives tha "~*ong final command of the railway "Ing the Russian southern flan a, too late to catch the Slavs In a hftro ooatro) pi jJV^8$*T ON EUROPE TO DATE. Cost in Money direct war expenditures. $4,000,000,000 2,800,000,000 2,500,000,000 2,500,000,000 3,300,000,000 140,000,000 120,000,000 165,000,000 25,000,00o B0,000,000 on the firing lines does not vary to any considerable degree. The latest British report shows the total num ber of killed, wounded and. missing (including prisoners) both soldiers and sailors, to be 3S0.MS. Of these Hie killed were 68,813," woanded 'TM. 494, and the "mlssliWir That was twelve days .• Following out this proportion and basing results on the numbers of men actually engaged at the vatlous fighting fronts, the total European war losses may ..be estimated at 7. 760,000. According to the British rate, this would mean approximately 1,600,000 killed, iflOOflOO wounded and 1,500,000 mMsipg., This is a neutral, conservative esti mate. Some British military writers have estimated the German losses as high as four million but thlsls most cer tainly exaggerated. That would mean that Germany htfd lost practic ally one-half of her forces and recent events fall to indicate that she is using only half an army. Nor can PrittCft), form any possible idea of the cost, of his dead in dol lars. The estimates given above, of the direct army and navy expendi tures of the various belligerents, to talling more than fifteen billion of dollars, are also conservative, being based on official statements from ««w« to time by cabinet officials and compilations made by experts on. war finance. But this is only part of the real war bill. Edgar Crammond. England's acknowledged authority on war finance, today estimated that the- war to date, including value of property destroyed, capitalized value of loss of life and loss of production, etc.. Is not less than forty-five bit lions. .. It was an expensive bullet—ana its course appears still far from spent. Whether or not the world believes Serbia's disavowal of the alleged plot that caused Princip to fire the fatal bullet, the heroic sacrifice and gal lantry of Serbian arm for the allies stand out an everlasting tribute to the little nation ot King Peter. Less than a month after princip pulled the trigger. the Austrian* (Continued on page 2.) What the War Moves Mean By J. W. T. Mason, Former European Man ager of the United Press. the routes leading to Brest Litvosk, HO miles east of Warsaw, which forms the centre of the new Slav bat tle front. The capture of Warsaw, therefore, will not mean the destruc tion of the Russian army. Unquestionably Russia's offensive power hag been shattered but how inn» it will remain impotent depends on the strength of the new defensive line which the Austro-Germans now must form in Poland. Whether the Germans can with saw ty send enough troops from the east to the west to Justify a major offens ive this summer in Flanders is ques tionable. Opinion la England is con (Coattsoad on p*K *.} .•••"*:!•• :"'VA [United Press Leased Wire Service.]. PETROORAD, July 31.—in pursy ance of the Grand Duke Nicholas' pr ley of strategic retreat and aband ment of present untenable posit? ff, Ultimately Including Warsaw, th Jfcr office tonight announced the wit mas* al of Russian forces along that ^*tlon of the Lublin railway betw' j. Nova Alexandria and Relovltx. ,• jplln already believed to be In t' "ands of the Germans. West of Kovno In the Bsltie cam paign, where the German invaders are following the path taken by Napol eon In 1812, they have been repulsed and driven back, several remaining i Russian hands, as prisoners. The en emy was repulsed also at Baiousk. "Between the Vistula and the Bug we retreated to positions previously prepared, without Interference," the fficlil statement say a "South of the bub river, the enemy was driven from positions p-eviously taken, auffei*ng heavy loose*." DETERMINED TO WIN. ROME, July 31.—Russians regard the military aituatlon optlmstlcally In the faoe of their defeat In Poland, ac cording t® Russian Ambassador De glera, who Is quoted In an Interview In the Tribune. The Russian ambassador concluded his statement with, the declaration that Russia Is firmly decided to win at any coat. WAR8AW WILL FALL. IZa riflces of life and ammunition by the Germana count, Warsaw will probably be In German hands tomorrow. The Russian war office was silent tonight on the fate of the Polish capital. But previous announcements have Indicat ed the culmination of another master ly strategic retreat by the Grand Duke Nicholas. Warsaw has been stripped of supplies, of food, of munitions, )f guns, of metal—and. of soldiers. Only a email force, which Russia the retrdat'engineered by th« Slavs Three ef four gigantic defensive po sitions'of the famous Polish quad rilateral will momentarily fall into German posseeelon—Warsaw, Novo Q/eorglevak and Ivangorod. The Rus sians sre now rallying at the fou-th pillar of the quadrilateral, Brest Lit ovsk, 110 miles due east of Warsaw. The extensive Pripet marshes, to the rear of Brest Litovsk will prevent the Germans outflanking the new Russian battle front from the south and furth er attacks spainst the Russians after they have consolidated their new po sitions must occur to the northward. This In general Is the route of disaster Napoleon took on his march to Mos cow. Ruselsns are confident the Ger mans will be unable to better Napol eon's strategy and they therefore 'eel certain the Grand Duke Nicholaa' army Is permsnently safe. A new offensive, will come when the ammunition' Is ready, and If larje bodies of teutons are transferred from the esst to the west, Russia's re awakening may occur much sooner than the world expecte. The Germane will have hollow vlc tortes so far aa spolla go, If they take Warsaw, Novo Georglevsk snd Ivan gorod. All three poeitiona have been swept clean. Growing crops tnrough out the region have been burned. For tiflcatlons have bf'en dismantled and the guns shipped to Brest L'tovsk. Ths same policy of abandonment for atrateglc reasons gsve Lublin to the Austrian army operating to tho south. In the north, the Russlann lines still hold firm. Denies the Report. WASHINGTON, July 31.—Secre tary Daniels denied today and again tonight that he had sent letters as re ported, to naval and military veter ans in Brooklyn or elsewhere asking If they would be ready for active* service again In case of war. tfBy Ed L. Keen, United Press Staff Correspondent.] LONDON, July 31.—An Interview with the ship's doctor of th« steam ship Iberian seems to put a different construction on the sinking of that vessel by a QMrman submarine. The doctor is P. 8. Burns. "I was walking on the deck," he said, "when without warning, a shot flew over the bridge. Six men were killed on the forward deck. "The aiibmarlne commander ahout ed through his megaphone for us to abandon the ship. "Drawing up to ths submarine In email boats, we asked for and receiv ed bandages for the mSn who had been injured by the bits of shell. I did the best I could for the poor fellows dur ing the six hours before we were picked up, but two of them—there war* eight—died before we were res etted. On* of them waa Mark Wiley, •T Bootan, united 8$a*s»" 'V'v PEACE COUNCIL COULD NOT AGREE Vote Taken on Resolution Condemning Shipment of Arms From America. DELEGATE'S SENSATION Claimed to Have Seen Documents Wherein Germany Agreed to Quit if England Would Agree. [United Press Leased Wire Service] WASHINGTON, July 31.—"1 as Bure you on my word of honof," said" Delegate William Reichert of *he Friends of Peace, Chicago, to Labor's National Peace Council conference here tonight, "that I have seen the documents proving that on, June 4, the German government, through Herr Del Brueck, made proposals to Miss Jane Addams, to be submitted to President Wilson, that Germany will relinquish all conqnered terri tory and withdraw all of her armieo and Poland from Belgium, France and end this war, if England would KV the' gauarantee the freedom of the seas I have seen the documentary evl- dence proving that Jane Ad .dams presented these proposals to Sir EM ward Grey, who, on behalf of the British government, said that ar rangement was eminently satisfac tory to England, but that the propos als would have to come through a high official, not through a person 1 private life like Miss Addams. "I have seen documentary evidence that President Wilson, upon recelv from both Germany and Englancf BO to act, declined to be a party to the plan. "I have seen Sir Edward Grey's letter. I have seen Mr. Wilson's let ter. Mr. Wilson, did ask Miss Ad dams to put her proposals in writing. But Mr. Wilson also declined tn act as medltor. "I am In a position to state that the time when this settlement might have been made is passed. No long er will Germany make such a pro posal. It is now, too late. "Any man of ordinary IntelligeQca would realise that the German gov ernment did not care to face seven belligerents all about her, regardless of how well she may have been pre pared. But Germany has met them and now the conflict must continue, for the time being', at least. Nevertheless, there is a strong likelihood that Labor's National Peace Council will try to bring the European belligerents and President Wilson together on a mediation pro gram, former Congressman H. R. Fowler, counsel for the organization announced tonight. "We are going to get in touch with belligerents ourselves Opposition of National Grange dele gates to resolutions condemning the shipment of arms and ammuniiton from the United States caused ad journment late tonight without a vote on the question. "We think this proposed action will start war instead of stopping it,"' said Granger, Joseph A. Peckham, of Newport, R. I. "We came here undrer the misap. (Continued on page ...-• v?..-.., "X-fat KEOKUK, IOWA, SUNDAY, AUGUST 1, 191o [United Press Leased Wire Service.] BERLIN, (via The Hague), July 31. —Germany Is preparing a celebration of the anniversary of her declaration of war against Russia by rejoicing In the fall of Warsaw and the complete victory of her eastern generals. Tho actual entrance of Gorman troops In to the Polish capital Is a matter which rests with the general staff, but thla can be accomplished at any time the necessary arrangements are com pleted. Immediately after the Germans take possession, the German military gov ernor will be appointed arid Germany will start reforming the municipal rule of the Polish city. Given a few months of unnlterrupt ed occupation and Germans believe Warsaw will ncv©p return to Slavonio allegiance, with Its notorious corrup tion and Inefficiency. With the whole of Poland soon to be In German pos session, the Germane are dlacuoslng the eventual dispositions of the entire province. Rueela can have It back as her reward for separate peace, but If the 8lava continue fighting to the end, Germany may demand that Poland be made Into a aeparate buffer stste to serve as a future German protection against Russia. All preparations have been made, it Is believed here for the triumphal entry into the city by the kaiser, the kalserln, the crown princess and pos sibly the crown prince also. Field Marshal Von Hlndenberg, next to the kaiser will have the leading part In thla entry, despite the reluctance on his part to appear in a spectacular role. Ail military authorities believe no matter, how long the war lasts Ger many will be able to hold the Vlatula line and Warsaw againat any conceiv able Slav attempt to conquer loot territory. While Germany rejoices In th« suc cess of her genersls, no disposition is shown to discount-the bravery of the Russian troops* despite their rcmr?' apd see ifr we can get an official expression of their desire that the United States medi ate." he said. "When we obtain this statement we shall present It to President Wil son With the recommendation that he act upon it." Fowler also said the council and affiliated bodies which he claims rep resents eight million voters, will propose to the federal reserve board that It be allowed to produce the men it says are using federal reserve bank funds to prolong the war, to gether with the evidence to convict them. 2 A [United Press Leased Wire Service.] ROME, July 31.—The first gold med al for individual bravery awarded by King Vlcty Emanuel, for which all Italian soldiers have been striving, waa awarded today to Corporal Bob bino, of Salerno. In the battle of Carso, raging thia week, Bobbino waa attacked by nine Austriana while separated from his comrades. He met their attack vic iously and succseded in killing seven of them and capturing the remaining rpoor leadership and poor iqWpment. NEARING WARSAW BERLIN, (via Amsterdam), July 31. —Furious fighting all along the east ern front Is msTkino the victorious sweep of the Austro-Gertnali forces In to Poland. The official war office statement tonight announced further gains, but declared the Russians were resisting stubboringly. "Northwest of Lomeea, northwest of Goworowo and east of Rospart our attack Is progressing," the statement declared. "On the right bank of "the Vistula General Von Wovrsch hss ad vanced eastward toward Ivangorod along the Warsaw railway, encounter ing etubborn resistance from the ene my. Their counter attacks have been unsuccessful along the Nova Alexan dria line and the heights of the Vis tula to the north. LublTn was occu pied Friday night. "South of Cholm the enemy Is des perately resisting Geneari Mackensen's pursuit. "The enemy everywhere is being at tacked." OFFICIAL STATEMENT. BERLIN, (via Amsterdsm), July 31. —The English were driven from houses recently occupied esst of Ypres Friday morning, according to the German official statement today, storming parties from the German line achieving success despite resist ance. On the west border of Hooge an English vantage point waa cap tured. Counter attacks by the enemy south of the Ypres railway were re pulsed. Th© French attacked near 8ouchez, but were repulsed. On the Vosges mountain region the atruggle along the Barrenkopf and Linghopf line Is subsiding, a portion of the German position remaining In the hands of the enemy. Schratz, Mennele and Barrenkopf, however, are still held by the Germane. "GOD IS WITH US." AMSTERDAM, Aug. 1.—The kaiser issued the following war anniversary manifesto: "Before God and history my con science is clear. I have not willed war. Full of gratitude, we can say to day, God is with us." [United Press Leased Wire Service.] VIENNA, (via Amsterdam), July 31. —The Austrian advance In Poland continues, despite desperate resistance by the Ruesian^. Victorious troops of the archduke's army have passed be yond Lublin, occupied Friday night, and are pursuing the retreating 8lave. "On Friday the archduke'a army oo cuptod Lublin," said the war office statement tonight. "Our left wing In pursuit of the Russians crossed the river Bystra and the river Wieprz. "German troops are approaching l-Cho^m- from the eoutiiweat.'* v- A YEAR OF WAR It was expected the United States will deny that danger from enemy warships forced the Prinz Eltel Fried rich to sink the Frye that It will stand by the 1828 Prussian-American treaty's requirement that contraband must be "delivered out of the hold" of a neutral vessel without damage to the vessel Itself, and that It will re ject the prize court's decision, with er financially satisfactory or not, on the ground that no prize court can in terpret a treaty. The Frye Incident, however, was considered a diplomatic matter which cannot lead to a break in relations. The administration was faced by the new problem of the sinking by a German submarine of the Leyland lin er Iberian on which an American muleteer named Wiley lost his life from "shock and superficial wounJs." The case was not deemed likely to lead to a controversy, however. In as much as ajl accounts agreed that the submarine gave the Iberian due no tice to heave to for a search, and only shelled and finally sank the Ifn er, when it tried to escape. Message to America*. LONDON. July 31—The United [Press asked leaders of government. I politics and diplomacy for a "message jto America" to be printed on August 1—the anniversary of the day a year ago when Germany precipitated the American military experts admlttta the Carranzistas had had the better of the recent fight. General Obregnn, Carranza's chief lieutenant, had taken San Luis Potosl and Zacatecas. He had driven a wedge into General Vil la's lines. On the ground that he is rapidly establishing control over Mexico, Car rama Intimated tonight through his ^•'i^).'" v'- i' Till IS urn or With Russia Slipping Out of the Ring, England and France Will Experience Difficulty^ in Holding Their Ground. MESSAGE TO AMERICA FROM ENGLAND [By Charles P. Stewart, United Press Staff Correspondent.] WASHINGTON, July 31.—Sugges tions that the United States should weigh the possibility of a German dic tation of peace In Europe were heard here tonight. They came from army men, who did not disguise their belief that Rus sia is threatened with defeat. If the czar's forces should be disposed o(. It was pointed out, it may not be long before the British and French will ex perience difficulty in holding their own. German Note on the Frye'Case Has Been For warded and is Expected to be Received Here by Tomorrow. Not a hint was heard that the United States would yield in any of its demand on the kaiser. All that was Intimated was that the situation calls for serious consideration by the Washington administration. For the xtgoment, officials are concerned -main ly with the news that Germany has forwarded its message on the Wm. P. Frye case. It was looked for here about Monday. Its main points, it was believed will be these: 1—Announcement of a prize court decision concerning damages for the loss of the Frye hull and incidental losses to the owners. 2—Contention that Germany had a right to sink the Frye because of dan ger to the raider which did the sink ing. 3—Expression of the German opin ion that the prize court decision closes the incident. ••\." W THE WEATflEB Probably Showers Sunday and -Monday. Not much change in temperature. S|f TWELVE PAGES. 4 -3-Sis clash of the entente against the al liance by her declaration of war against Russia. The responses fol low: [Copyright, 1915, by the United Press.] [Copyrighted in Great Britain.] BY THE] RIGHT HON. H. H. AS- QUITH. [Premier of the British Cabinet.] "I have been asked to send a mes sage to the United States of America at the end of the Ant year of the war. The reasons why we are fighting are known In America. The world has judged and will judge not our words but our actions. The question today Is not of our hopes or our cal culations, bnt of our duties. Our duty —which we shall fulfill—is to continue to the end in the coarse which we have chosen and *to do all which achieve and .cherish a and peace.'" BY VISCOUNT JAM ESS BRtTClS.^ [Former Ambassador to the United States.] "In reply to your question, there is just one thing I feel moved to say, because It is well that neutral nations should understand why the British people are so completely united in their resolution to prosecute this war with their utmost energy. It is oa cause, they see the German govern ment violating every principle of humanity In making the war against innocent civilians. This as shown in the treatment of Belgium, in the dropping of bombs upon country vil lages, and in the sinking of the Lusl tania, Is a return to the savage meth ods of past ageg that is nothing less than a challenge to the civilized man kind. Our people feel that in fighting against It we are fighting not only for justice, faith of treaties, and t'»e rights of small nations, but for hu manity Itself." Note on its Way. [By Carl W. Ackerman, United Press Staff Correspondent] BERLIN, July 31. (Via The Hague. .—The German note now on the way ito Washington with reference to the sinking of the American ship William P. Frye, by the German auxiliary cruiser Prinz Eltel Friedrich last February, offers financial reparation for the loss of the vessel and the car go. I am informed on reliable author ity. On the same authority, however, it is said that the German ofBce makes I one reservation in this offer, the na ture of which is not disclosed and will not be until the note itself is made, public. General Tracy is III. The War in Mexico NEW YORK, July 31.—CJeneral Benj. Franklin Tracy, S8, vb» was secretary of navy under President Harrlon, is seriously ill at his home Lj East 16th street today. Latest Developments Among Our Revolution ary Neighbors of the South. [United Press Leased Wire Service WASHINGTON. July 31.—Carran zistas occupied Mexico City again to night, the Carranza agency here be lieved. At any rate, the first chief had given such an order, it was stated. His action was said to have been hastened by famine in the capital and the Washington administration im patience. Washington lawyer, Judge C. A. Douglas, that he will soon ask recog nition from the U. S. government. The administration still had two demands unanswered: A call on Carranza, Villa and Zapata that the Vera Cruz-Mexico City rail road be reopened for the shipment of food to the capital. An explanation of the Zapatista at tack on Allen Mallory, American, near Puesbla several days ago. Efforts were also being made through the Brazilian minister to se cure the release of Editor Paul Hud son, of the Mexico City Herald, his newspaper staff and family held pr*": oners by the Zapatistas and threaten ed with courtmartial, though it was 1m. possible to learn on what chargja. 4i.