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F' Iowa State Bystander BYSTANDER PUR CO, Puolisfters. OE8 MOINES. IOWA MASTERS OF SELF-OEFENSE Okm of tlw JapaMM at JuJwtMi la a SOTr ty* *1 Marvel to the Visitor From Western Countries. la feb book oh "The Fighting Spirit *"mt Japan." S3. J. Harrison in ot Jtajutsu: The word jujutsu, to om the elder nomenclature, Is written with two Ideographs, the first 'In' fev aaeaning to obey, submit to, weak, sol& pliable, and the second meaning Jk *arf or 'science.' The use or the first character Is Intended to Imply that *JuJutsu' relies for its triumphs not r- apon brute strength, but upon skill and finesse, the ability to win by ap pearing to yield. Thus In 'jujutsu' the opponent undermost may have the other at his mercy, though to the novice he may ap»ear to be defeated, •jrajutsu* la the art which every samurai (noble or warrior) under the feudal regime was compelled to learn and It was often a point of honor «mmi| the higher-minded ones, If at by a vulgar opponent, whether with or without a weapon, to try first to overcome him by meana of Jujutsu before drawing their own aword. Now adays, however, jujutsu Is no longer monopoly of the military class and the various 'dojo* or schools in the large cities render It poasible for any a respectable person to practice it." Mr. Harrison tells of an expert who was sitting in a restaurant when he "fell foul of a coolie and promptly threw him downstairs. The coolie re turned to the fray with 14 comrades, but the expert calmly sat at the head of the stairs and as fast as the coolies came up In single file, owing to the narrowness of the passage, he simply choked them in detail and burled them down again. In the excitement of the moment he was rather more rough than was strictly necessary, and so broke one man's neck. The rest fled In terror, carrying off their dead and wounded. The 'Judo* expert was ar rested, but as he was easily able to prove that he had been one man against 15 he was, of course, acquitted. Nevertheless, the kodokwan temporar ily suspended him for his conduct, which was deemed unduly violent." Violence above what the combat calls for Is generally condemned In jujutsu. Mr. Harrison quotes a native exponent, who says: "The employ ment of violent physical strength In jujutsu la not desirable, but Is some times admissible. The pupil, however, who has not completely mastered his art must avoid the reckless use of »rce, which tends to hamper the free movements of the body and limbs, and, therefore, to prevent him from learning the mystery of the art." Cliff Dwellings In Utah. Cliff dwellings more than 1,000 yeais old and buildings of even greater age have been discovered in Utah, accord fag to D. B. Miller, assistant super visor of the general land office, who been at the head of a surveying party In that state for the last ten months. •"The cliff dwellings we found In Utah undoubtedly are many hundreds of sears old," said Mr. Miller. "They were undoubtedly built by the Monte zuma Indians. These Indians also built on the Mesa lands, and many in teresting structures were found be neath the surface of the lands. In Utah are three natural bridges that are more wonderful than the natural bridge of Virginia. All are wider and two considerably higher than the Vir ginia bridge. One of these bridges has a span of more than 200 feet and the arch Is more than 100 feet from the ground. It seems almost to have been made by man. White persons rarely have visited these wonders of nature." Forewarned. A popular Cleveland doctor tells this story of a bright boy, his own, who bad reached the mature age of nine after an early career marked by many wild and mischievous pranks. His restless nature had made him somewhat of a torment to his teacher at times, and one afternoon not long ago she kept him after the others were dismissed ctad had a serious talk with him. Perhaps ahe was a little afraid that her admonitions were falling on stony ground. Anyway, she finally said: "I certainly will have to ask your father to come and see me." "Don't you do it," aaid the boy. The teacher thought she had made au impression. "Yes," she repeated, "I must send for your father." "You better not," aaid the boy. "Why not?" inquired the teacher. "'Cause he charges $2 a visit," sale the scamp. Natural Query. 1 am going to start in tomorrow to do my own cooking." "And how much life insurance does v* your husband carry?" It Sounded 80. Sh- Mr. Todhunter—What'a the baby screaming about now? je. 11 Mra. Todhunter—She wants the yWinoon. |j& Mr. Torhunter—Oh, is that all? She Vwas making such a racket I thought ®*fp|rtie' wanted the ballot.—Puck. ap1 1 Improving Slowly. ifff "I guess we are coming along." -I "Yes?" "We had a murder trial the other "''day that wasn't called a 'travesty pa justice.'" Tempering the Blow. Assistant Editor—We'll have to send that young lady's manuscript baek. Her story Is too pathetic for our pages. Editor—Sprinkle a few dops of war tar over It sh«ll think they are tear drops. Exaggerated Ego. "Pllmblock seems to have a high opinion of himself* w*' "Tea, Indeed. Why, every time Plim tlock shaves himaelf he thinks bs'a Making history." r' 'Wt^ 11 SELL TIMBER Uncle Sam to Dispose of 267, 000,000 Feet in Idaho. Homsteaders Ckn Locate Claims on 18,240 Acres in the Kanlksu For set—Land to go to Settlers- Fix Minimum Rates. Washington.—Fears that 267,000,000 board feet of timber in the Priest river valley of the Kanlksu national forest of Idaho may fall into the banda of speculators have led the United States department of sericulture to turn tim ber salesman. Announcement that this timber is to be sold before the land la reported In a pamphlet recent ly Issued by the government The pamphlet says that the government takes this method of thwarting lum ber speculators who might wish to hold the land for their own purposes, thereby holding back the agrlcutural development of that territory. Fully 18,340 acres are to be denuded of timber under government super vision. After the area has been cleared and the slash burned the land will be opened to homesteading under the pro visions of the homestead law. The de partment of agriculture makes the fol lowing explanation: "If the forest service did not sell off the timber before opening the land to entry the value of the present stand of timber would cause the land to be held speculatively, instead of being cleared for farms. But the land will be better employed in growing farm crops than In growing timber, hence the forest service is preparing to put It Into the hands of bona fide seitlers under a procedure which will insure agricultural development". The federal government expecte to receive about $650,000 for the timber, David F. Houston, Secretary of Agri culture. of which $225,000 will go to the bene fit of the state for public schools and road Improvement. Bids are to be in the office of the district forester at Missoula, Mont., by April 1, 1918, to gether with a description of the meanB the company proposes to use for log ging and development. A detailed statement of require ments issued by the government sets forth that the minimum rates will be readjusted by the forester on May 1. 1917 and 1920. The forest consists of white pine, larch, cedar, Douglas fir. More than one-half of the timber is white pine and one-fourth is larch. The government makes the follow ing statement regarding the prices to be charged lumbermen: "The minimum prices allow a profit of 12 per cent, on every thousand feet of timber sold over and above Interest on capital and the overhead costB. It will be remembered that the* manufac ture of lumber is a business which, because of the risks involved, requires a high return in order to induce opera tors to undertake a logging enter prise." HIS VIEWPOINT. Representative "Johnnie" Koenig of Baltimore, Md., was a bricklayer be fore he decided to enter politics and come to congress. He has fought his way up literally with his two hands, and he has little patience with the ex aggerated niceties that are the pleas urea of those fortunate men who do not have to work. In this class of undesirable niceties Koenig puts golf. He is the most ardent of baseball rooters, but the Scotch game he holds in utter con tempt. A friend of hlq, who is an ardent golfer, was recently trying to convert him over to the links. "Come out with me to the club some day," he urged, "and I'll show you where you're wrong. I'll show 'you that golf is the greatest game there Is." "Huh!" snorted Koenig. "No' you won't. I know about that golf---or, rather, that dude shinny—already It ain't a game at all. It's nothing but a poor excuse for a long walk!" SUGAR AND WATER, Whenever Samuel W. Smith, repre sentative from Michigan, goes into the reetaurant under tb housg of repre sentatives, on the ground floor of the cabinet, he starts his meal with a glass of water into which he has dropped a lump of sugar. Still Doubtful. "People used to wear stocks on their feet Now they wear stocks around their necks." "Quite so, and I haven't made up my mind yet as to whether the modern way is any improvement Over the old." Case In Point, "Some people are so inconsistent" "Yes 7" "I know a who had his rooms flnlahed in quiet tones and then bought a phonograra •n ^v -i V&'.-l1-'* .^MARKB OF GENIUS. Representative Brantley of Georgia likes a good story, and tells the fol lowing one on Carter Glass ot Vir ginia: "Soon after I was elected to con gress 1 was seated beside an old mem ber, and he was pointing out the celebrities in the house to me. 'See that msn over there,' he aaid, pointing to Carter Glass. "Well, he Is one of the smartest men in the bouse.' 'What has he done remarkable to prove It?' I asked. '"Look at him,' said my friend. "'I am looking at him,' I replied "but his record is not recorded in bis face, and I am no mind reader.' 'You are not as smart aa I thought you. if you see it that way,' he replied. •See how ugly he Is? Do you mean to tell me that you think a mac so homely could have been elected to con gress unless he possessed transcendent ability? fie must have been wonder fully smart to do it!'" And. It la said, Mr. Glass enJoyB the Joke on himaelf aa much as Mr. Brant ley does In telling it ANCIENT BONE FOUND. The discovery of the bone of a camel on the banks of the Old Crow river, in Alaska, has led scientists to the conclusion that at the same time that the/part of the continent of North America now occupied by the United States was too cold for hdman habita tion, the Alaskan peninsula bad al most a tropical climate. This is ac cording to J. W. Oidley, who lectured the other night before the Biological society of Washington at the Cosmos club. The camel bone was found last year by Copley Amory of the National mu seum, and Mr. Gidley argued that its presence in Alaska Bhowed a tropical climate and showed further that at the time the bones were laid down—be tween 150,000 and 200,000 years ago— Alaska and Asia were connected by a land bridge across which the camels had journeyed from the American con tinent to Asia, where they now are found. NAVY HAS OXYGEN HELMETS. The navy department has ordered a small number of oxygen helmets to be supplied to the submarines and to all of the battleships which use crude oil as fuel. In the case of the submarines it Is believed the helmets may be- effi cacious when poisonous gases are ac cidentally generated within the hulls, as happened to one of the submarines two years ago with disastrous results. The great oil tanks In the battle ships have been found to contain dead ly oil fumes after they have been emptied of their contents and it is in tended that the helmets shall serve as protection to the mechanics who are obliged to enter these tanks and com partments. Their use also Is contem plated In the rescue of firemen or boil er tenders overcome by bursting staam pipes. POTATO PEELERS DEFECTIVE. Unless Bome of the wizards who are Improving upon nature can turn out a spherical potato the navy must find a better potato peeling machine than the electric device now in use. The other day the department sent out an appeal to inventors to submit a device that will economically pare potatoes of ir regular form. The official statement declares that "it seems that the pres ent machines do a most effective and acceptable Job on a perfectly sound potato, but when the 'murphy' arrives long and slender or sawed off and hammered down the trouble begins." SPEAKS WELSH. Representative David J. Lewis of Maryland used to work in a coal mine, and is a fluent talker In the Welsh language. Had Fierce Fight With Bear. Attacked by a bear in the jungle, a government collector named Whitty had an exciting experience at Kowa Kole, near Gaya, India, the other day. Whitty was on a shooting excursion during his tour in the Nawadan sub division and Bhot at the bear, which he badly wounded. The bear then attacked Whitty, whose rifle was empty. In trying to get away he slip ped and fell, and his rifle falling on a rock waB smashed. The animal rushed at him and began clawing his legs and feet which were well protected by thick breeches and heavy boots. Whitty kicked out at it and caught it In the nose. It then for the time be ing turned off Into the Jungle, only to return to make a second attack on him. Seeing the bear coming back again the man obtained another gun from his native attendant who was a short, distance away and shot the bear in the head. Metropolitan Marvels. "So you're back from New Yorlt, Si?" "Yea, an' tired out" "Faat town, eh?" "Fast ain't no name tor It. I saw banks open all night t' 'commodate them as lose their money early in th' even', I s'pose an' lawyers' officer) open at three o'clock in th' mornin*— t' fix up them as are In a hurry fer divorce an' can't wait till daylight an' what else d' you think?" "What else? Well, I wouldn't be s'prlsed t' hear of anything!" "An' I saw a fun'ral goin' llckettj split, with an automobile hearse lead In' th' percesslon an' settln' the pace!" "Wall, SI, I s'poBe they have t' git •th' dead ones out o' th' way In a hurry t' give th' live ones room, eh?"— Judge. Proof. "Some people contend that dogs cap reason." "Of course, they can't. Don't a doj stick to a man who has been good tc him even when the man is down and out?" Fashion's Slave. Crawford-H3o your wife kept nag ging at you for money because sh« hadn't any decent clothes? Crabthaw—Yes, and as scion as sh« got It she lnvested ln Dutch necks ant A: J- 4* """i 1 & I 5 «W 'nr. *»e. James N. Baker, who the other day was elected secretary of the senate, was born August 18, 1861, at Low densville, S. C.. where he has re tained his legal residence. would build a cathedral with chapels for every religion 'In it and an arts school beside it. "You can build ever so miny houses," Bhe says, "and misery will enter there care will follow the in habitants, anger and strife and illness Franklin K. Lane, Becretary of the Interior, has had many honors con ferred upon him. The other day a delegation of Blackfoot Indians came along and made him a chief of their tribfe. The honor was unusual, unheralded and Hens Lay Black Eggs. Genuine black eggs are laid by a bla rk hen belonging to W. A. Sorrell of Hampton, Tenn., according to its owner. He declares they are as black aa the feathers on the fowl's back. He further asserts that he 1b willing to make affidavit that they are that color when laid. The hen la no dif ferent in size from the ordinary barn yard fowL It differs, however, In its gastronomic likes and dislikea. Mrs. Hen's penchant for black-shelled eggs nay be due to her Ethiopian craving "v-' -vv •v-.-jPftSS a vv MRS. ALBERT SIDNEY BURLESON WELL KNOWN Mrs. Burleson presents many harming phases of a atrong person ality, and. though ahe Is totally without ambition to become a lead er of social af faire, ahe will un consciously make her impress on the new adminis tration at Wash ington. On both aidea of her fam ily she belongs to the old aouth and has all the conservatism of that class. Being a highly educated woman, she Is also one of advanced Ideas and was among the very first of the daughters of the Lone Star state to become a convert to equal suffrage. She can present an academic argument on this subject which would make the most stubborn and well Informed opponent look up his hooka to. answer. She la thor oughly domestic, attends to her bome and her family herself, answers her own letters and is one of the most punctilious about her social obliga tions. It was predicted that the Wil son regime would preoent a less pre tentious social appearance than the last, and that those with whom the first lady would be surrounded dur ing the coming four years would be representative of the more serious aspects of life. In Mrs. Burleson this prediction is literally fulfilled. "I should like,' she said. Bhortly be fore March 4, "to see the old-fashion ed virtues revived, and I think that all this agitation will have that desir able result. Women are clamoring about the high price of living, with the result that they I are looking Into matters themselves and finding out where to locate the remedy. It means jolng to market for thousands who never dreamed of such a thing a few years ago, and it means awakening to the fact that economy demands strict personal attention. This sense of re sponsibility. is alone worth untold wealth In the material sense, and for the happiness of homes and the in creased prosperity of the Small house holder Is inestimable. In my list of old-fashioned virtues I include that of supervising the needs of the home SENATE'S NEW SECRETARY ACTIVE IN POLITICS He was educat ed at Wofford col lege, South Caro lina, and studied law in New York. In 1885 Mr. Baker was appointed offi cial stenographer for the Fifth Judi cial circuit court, but he declined the appointment. He became assistant librarian of the sen ate In 1893, and has served in that of fice until the present. Mr. Baker has been active In poli Carmen Sylva, the famous queen of Boumania, haB an interenting article in the London Fortnightly Re view on the sub ject "If I Were a Millionaire." Sit ting at the dinner table in her moun tain castle of Si nala, her majesty took part in a conversation upon the rich men of A a a asked what she would do if Bhe were a million aire, said she every morning, noi through a maid 01 even a housekeeper, bat by the wll« herself. This is possible unless one Is very much occupied with very grave things, an? It means to simpli fy life and add to the comfort ol every member of the family. I be Uete in the gentle art of needlework, and even In the exceedingly obsolete occupation of darning the family hosiery. "I find no atudy more entertaining than that of the varied life of the woman of today compared with that of her grandmother. I feel very grateful Indeed that the horixon baa expanded ao and that having attended faithfully to the home there la so much to inapire and encourage. There are the clubs, for Instance, especially the patriotic onea, where we breathe an atmosphere of history in its best aenae and where we can do a little mlaslonary work for those not BO well environed. The social side of pa triotic and literary clubs la one of the genuine pleaaures of my home city, as it is here. But these are mere diversions and I should deplore very much should any sort of club prevent a woman from attending to the real work of life which pertains to her home and her family. This opinion la voiced by all those who are urging a larger share of municipal responsibil ity for women. If I thought such priv ileges would make women restless or unfit for domestic relations, I should cease to sympathize. I believe it will have just an opposite effect and that after ten years of voting the result will be as encouraging as the experi ment of higher education for women has proven." FRANKLIN K. LANE IS NOW FULL-FLEDGED CHIEF To begin with, he was born in Can ada, but early in life he moved to California and, af ter running news papers and prac ticing law alter nately, he was nominated for gov ernor of the state. When he was de feated by a suspi ciously clofee mar in id RooseveU put him on the interstate ocmmerce commission. By common repute he is the man who put the "punch" in the commission and made the railroads sit up and take notice. Then President WHsm put him in charge of the interior department. Mrs. Burleson was educated partly by governesses In her home in Aus tin after going to New York for spe cial courses and finished her training by two years abroad. When her eld est daughter was studying in the Tex as university, and having for various reasons to spend part of the winter In Austin, she took a course of Eng lish and literature and she anticipate at some future time finishing this course and standing for a degree. Mr. and Mrs. Burleson are stanch advo cates of the higher intellectual train ing and it was by their counsel that their eldest daughter continued her studies instead of making her debut this season. tics, and has attended all the Demo cratic national conventions in the last twenty years. He has acted as a con fidential assistant to various Demo cratic senators and to chairmen of the Democratic minority in the past. Through his long experience he has become known as an expert in all matters relating to legislative history, procedure and research. Upward of two hours were consumed examining charges that Baker had speculated In cotton. Baker appeared before the caucus, admitted the charge, said he tried to Increase his income by that method, and lost, but had paid every dollar he lost through the Sully failure. One senator observed that if all men who ever speculated were brought before the caucus for exam ination it might be necessary to put every senator on the stand. In the end Baker was exonerated. WOULD BUILD CATHEDRAL FOR ALL RELIGIONS and death cannot be kept away. There is only one peaceful house on earth that is God's house." Carmen Sylva makes an interesting reference to Westminster abbey. "I spent one evening of my life alone In Westminster abbey," she says, "be side the organ and even before it, playing a few chords only, in the gath ering dust, when the statues began to look as if they were alive and moving, and I have felt better since." The cathedral her majesty would build would be of white marble, like that of Milan, inside and out not so ornamented, much quieter than Milan, but with columns that would give the feeling of a beech wood. ... If I were a quen In a fairy tale I should do all that. But the queenB In life have never a penny to bless themselves with, as so many poor people have to be helped that there Is never anything left for the poor queen Bhe has to be content with looking at other people's beauti ful creations." unexpected. The Indian braves pre sented him with a calumet pipe—the pipe of peace—and after mumbling several strange sentences over him he was declared to be a full-fledged chipf. A delegation of Crows made the In dian honor sort of a family affair by presenting Mr. Lane's daughter with a string ot beads and other evidences of their friendship. Wide Acquaintance. The Washington Poet tells this story of a dowager whose wealth and education were of exceedingly recent acquisition. According to her ac counts, the trip round the world that she had completed had been socially most successful. Some of her frlendB were question ing her about the places of Interests that she had visited. "Did you see the Dardanelles?" ask-, ed one. "And the Himalayas?" Inquired an other. "Why, certainly," replied the dow ager. "I dined with them both in Paris."—Youth's Companion. for watermelons—that 1b, ahe Is strong for the seeds. When the first black egg was found Mrs. Sorrell thought some one had assayed a joke on her credulity by slipping a sock-darning gourd in the nest, but tlie "nigger" hen continued to deposit her Ethi opian eggs. Furthermore, she is still on the Job. .. Sometimes a girl who marries a man to reform him succeeds so thor oughly that he wouldn't marry 'again if he lived to be as old as Methuselah. JV KILLED N A ?tory of the Murder pf Captain John Watson. Mas Slrtn In Philippines While Aalesp Lieut Edmunda, His Companion, Who Has Narrow Escape, Says Spear Cut Spinal Cord, The first detailed story of the kill ing of Capt. John Watson of the Eighth cavalry and the serious wound ing of Lieut Kinzie B. Edmunds by a wild moro at Sier lake on December 18, has Just reached here, writes a Manila correspondent of the New York Sun. The news Is contained in a let ter from Lieutenant Edmunds him self, to hia .friend, Capt A. A. King, at Fort McKlnley. The letter foliowa: "Hoapltal, Jolo, Jan. 17. "I suppose you would all like to hear what happened December 18, the night poor old Watson was killed, ao I'll write down exactly what happened as I saw it, and you may pasa it around If you wish. "F and troops c&mped the night of December 18-19 on the sea beach at Slet lake, about eighteen miles from Jolo. 1 was attached to troop and living with Watson. It was a bright moonlight night, and we had a reason ably heavy guard on. Everything looked safe, but evidently there was a hole that was not corked. Not hav ing made camp until three o'clock, we were tired. After a swim, went to bed at 9:30. Just before turning In Watr .son remarked his head was downhill. I 6ald to put something under the legs of his bunk to raise it, but he said it was easier to turn around, so he slept with his head at the tent door. "About 10:30 I woke up to see plain ly in the entrance a Moro with a barong. He was jumping dbout, cut ting to the right and left right merri ly. His position brought him within easy range of both bunks. I let forth a yell that, aroused the camp, and swung my legs in and to the head of the cot. ending by sitting on the head of the cot with my left side toward the door then reached for my pistol and, of course, could not find it. 1 had taken it out of the holster and put It where I could not miss finding it. but some of the bed clothes must have covered It when I moved, and I had to keep my eyes on the Moro. Instead of coming Into the tent, he stepped back out of sight for a second, then reappeared with a spear about ten feet long, the longest I have seen. With this he made two lunges at me, swinging far back on his rear foot, then driving forward with all his might. He was a busy little bee. The moon light shone on the tent and I 1 was In the shadow. I managed to parry each thrust with my left arm, Btill trying for my pistol with my right hand: then he stepped back again and reappeared coming toward the tent with his barong. "Two pistol shots* sounded outside the tent (Saxton) he staggered but con tinued then the crash of a shotgun (Wells) he was hurled back I could see his legs fly over his head. He struggled to an elbow. Van Natta emptied his pistol into him, and he became a good Moro. "Watson had not moved. I called him twice, then called for a light. They brought one. He had slight cuts, two through the spinal cord. I don't think he ever woke up don't sup pose the whole business lasted over thirty seconds. ^'Cut, right leg, half way between knee and ankle, six Inches long, diag onal acroSs bone and calf cut, left knee, nearly parallel to leg and a lit tle to the left of center through pa tella and into both bones to joint. "Spear cut, left little finger, length nf finger to bone spear puncture, left elbow, fcllght. Can't account for this. Thought a parried both lunges to left. One went through my pillow. "They sent for the launch that night and got me back to Jolo about three next day. Everything has healed ex cept knee, which was infected. Drain age tubes, dressing every day, etc. It's slowly getting well. All but two of the tubes have been removed. There were six. An operation may be necessary after the wound closes to restore motion. "Going to come north as soon as 1 am able to travel." Remarkable Coincidence. A strange coincidence that the man who dropped him into the stream two years Ago and then rescued him should be the man to recover his body was witnessed at the River Nene, near the Town bridge at Peterborough, Northampton, (England), recently, when the body of a man named Wil liam Burrows, aged thirty, who had been missing since Christmas, was taken from the water. The body was found by a lighterman known by the nickname of "Banker," who recogn ized it as that of a man whom he res cued from drowning at the same spot under startling circumstances two years ago. On that occasion Burrows was going home at closing time, when he expressed a wish to die, as he had no money. One of his mates said, "I will give anybody sixpenae who will drop him over the bridge." "Give me the sixpence," said "Banker," and hav ing got it he forthwith picked Burrows up and held him over the parapet. "I can't swim,", the victim gasped. "Then you'll be able to learn," said his tormentor and dropped him in the middle of the stream. He had sunk twice and was drowning when "Banker" swam to him and rescued him in lhe nick of time. No Hooks and Eyeai. "Woman," says Ellen Glasgow, "haa ever been man'a companion, ready to eBpouse his cause and buckle hia armor." Yes, madam, but man's armor was made to buckle in front. Very 8wlft "Bill posters work with astonishing rapidity." "Indeed they do. The other day I saw one seise a small boy by mistake and paste him on a billboard In the twlnklln* of an eya." "J .''j .•» If *r S 91 OF CLOUDS Instruments for Measuring Ele vation and Movement. Worklnga of the Besson Nephoscc^ an Ingenious Device for Extract ing Secrets From the Skies- Motion of Vapor Meases. How many people that one meets in the course of the day have ever observed carefully the motion of the clouds that._ai9 ao uncomfortably prevalent this summer? Or, if asked about the matter would not most of them say that the clouda move in the aame directions as the wind at the surface of the earth? Perhaps ona more observant than the rest would recollect that thunder clouds have a way of coming up "against the wind," and he might even add that he had observed a high cloud moving in a direction different from one lower down. Again, would not most people say that the "mare's tall," or, as the meteorologist would call them, the dmiB clouds, never move at all, or, at least, only very slowly, and that to* clouds move more quickly than the cirrus? Meteorology—the word which haa lost Its original meaning to such an extent that it now denotes simply "the science of the atmosphere," and includes, therefore, the study of cli mate and weather. Including clouds and their motions—has extended its operations within recent years very notable by considering more definitely the conditions prevailing in all the layers of the atmosphere and not merely in the surface-layer. It Is true that clouds have been observed and their motions studied scientifical ly for a long time, but since instru ments carried by kites and balloons have taught us so much about the temperature conditions in the air up to heights of sixteen miles and more, a renewed Interest has been taken in the forms and motions of clouds, for the motion of a cloud usually (but not always) Indicates also that of the silr In which it Is floating. One of the best instruments for ob serving the motion of a cloud is the Besson nephoscope. The instrument consists simply of an inverted harrow or comb flped horizontally at the end of a vertical rod which Is mounted In bearings carried by an upright post, BO that the rod can be rotated. Near the bottom of the bar is a crosspiece, to the ends of which two strings pass to the hands of the ob server, while underneath is a circle graduated with the points of the com pass. The method of observation is to select the cloud to be observed, stand on the side of the post opposite the cloud, and with the strings rotate the upright rod and therefore the comb until the cloud appears to pass along the points of the comb. It will be necessary to approach or recede from the pole until this appears to take place. Then, standing still, note the time the cloud takes to move from one point to the next. Finally, note the orientation of the comb by means of the graduated circle at the bottom of the rod. This gives at once the direction of motion of the clouds while the apparent velocity of the cloud along the comb is a meas uring of the rate at which the cloud is moving, expressed in terms of the height of the cloud. For example, if two clouds at heights of 3,000 feet and 6,000 feet appear to be moving at the same rate along the comb, then the latter Is actually moving twice as fast as the former. The height of a cloud is not so easily determined. Usually two ob servers, each provided with a theo dolite, are required, but sometimes one theodolite can be made to suffice. This instrument has its telescope re moved and two parallel plates of glass arranged in place of the tele scope. Then two Images of the cloud —one formed by reflection in the glass, the other by reflection in a small Bheet of water lying on the ground below, are made to coincide by rotating the plates of glass. The position of the plates so determined is read off on the graduated circle shown near the observer's hand. The height can then be computed mathe matically. As a result of these observations, it Is found that, In general. If one stands with one'a back to the wind, low cloud8 move in about the same di rection as the surface air, while the higher clouds travel nearly in the same direction, but have a motion from left to right which becomes more pronounced as the height In creases. High clouda usually travel much more quickly than low ones, although apparently they do not. The highest clouds rarely exceed h'tight of six miles. 8uiclde That Is Glorious. Captain Oates may have had sonw |rt of premonition of the stern and iilf-imposed necessity that drove him ut into the Antarctic ice field In or er that Bis own disabilities might not hamper the movements of his companions Mr. Ponting, the photog rapher if the expedition, says thai he once discusBed with him this very question—if a man broke down on polar Journey, what should he do?— and that Captain Oates replied, •"There's nothing for him to do bat to destroy himself." And so we find •the whole world applauding an act ol suicide, which Ib the "Not one ed my and on a base only when com mitted for a selfish end and sublime when the self-taken life is sacrificed to the welfare of others. Arbitration. 'Have you decided on a name tot baby as yet?" |w| as yet. My family has nam* member of a commission and wlfe'B family haa named another. These two are to agree on a third. the three of them are to decid# name."'-, •vC Paw Knows Everything. Willie—Paw, what is a ripe old ager Paw—That depends on whether y°« are referring to a human being egg. my O. Mmm.. .•.