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1. ,i.', :Daify (Elnbe. Official Taper of tlie City of St. iPavtl Printed and Published Every Day in the Year, BY H. P. HALL. NO. 17 WABASHAW STREET, ST. PAUL. Terms of Subscription for the Daily Globe. By carrier (7 papers per week) 70 oents per month. By mail (without Sunday edition) 6 papers per week, 80 oents per month. By mail (with Sunday edition) 7 papers per week, 70 oents per month. THiS SUNDAY GLOBE. By mail the SSNDAV GLOBE will be one dollar per year. THE WKEKLI OL.OBB. The WEEKLV GLOBE is a mammoth sheet, exactly double the size of the Dally. It is Just the paper for thefireside,containing in addition to allthe current aewa, choice miscellany, agricultural matter, market reports, &c. It is furnished to single subscribers at $1.00 per year. fostage prepaid by the publisher on all editions. All mall uhcriptlone pavabl* invariably In advance. Daily Ulobe Advertising Kates. Fourth Page S oents per line every insertion. Taird Page 6 cents per Une for the first week. All subsequent insertions 3 cents per line. display Advertising (on Fourth Page only) double at ove rates. All Advertising is computed as Non pareil, 10 lines to an inch. Reading Matter Notices, First, Second and Fourth Pages, '25 cents per line. "8Iaoial Locals," Second Page, 15 cents per lle. lading Matter Notices, Third Page, 20 cents per line. The GLOBE offers no yearly space, but proposes to oharge by the line for the space occupied, and the charge for the last day will be the same as for the first, no matter how many insertions are made. Bates are fixed exceedingly low, and no charge is made for changes, as it is preferable to have new matter every day if possible. ST. PAUL. FRIDAY, JANUARY 10. 1879. TitJS IVJEHKLT GLOBE. The Star Paper of the Northwest. The WEEKLY GLOBE is a model paper. It is immense in size, being double the sizeot the daily issue, and contains fifty-six columns of reading matter. It contains all the oream of the seven daily issues during the week, and is a compendium of news and general informa tion rarely found in any newspaper. It is sent by mail, post paid, for one year for one dollar, and affords at once the cheapest and best news paper in the State. REPRESENTATIVE BLAND predicts that re sumption will be a failure. He had better stop croaking for a little while, and wait till it shows symptoms of failure. TENNESSEE has an outstanding indebted ness of over tweuty millions of dollars. The interest on that sum is more than the whole cost of the government of the State of Jdin nesota. YAKOOB KAHN, it is reported, is preparing to follow his father into Turkestan. He is wise, for "He who fights and runs away, May live to fight another day." IT is very eudent that the interest in financial discussion is subsiding. Even so good a speaker as Voorhees delivered a speech on that subject the other day to emp ty benches, the Senators preferring a cigar in the cloak room to enlightenment on the financial situation. BISMABCK is said to favor protection, and to take occasion, in season and out of season, to enforce his views. He has evidently studied the question imperfeotly. Though times are very hard in Germany now, they are merely a foretaste of what they will be when his protective theories are adopted. THE GLOBE this morning publishes the messages of the Governors of Minnesota and Wisconsin, besides giving the current news of the world at large and of this locality. Those who imagine that a paper must covtr a large number of square inches, on paper, in order to contain the news, should inspect this issue of the GLOBE. CAM. EADS is never content unless he has some scheme on foot through which he can bleed the national treasury. His latest is the preparation of a plan lor the reclama tion ot the waste lands of the Potomac, in ie District, and for the improvement of the sewerage of Washington. Several plans for this work have been presented to the Senate district committee by local engineers. There is a very pretty pmm in the job. JOHN*JAY KNOX, the comptroller of the ourrency, says there has never been more than a million dollars in gold in the national treasury at any one time, but yet the govern ment has met all claims upon it for coin. But the time may come when there will be a run, and then Mr. Knox will learn that the plan of running a bank which he tried in Minnesotak eping small assets with which to pay large liabilitieshas its disadvan tages. A TELEGBAM received yesterday by Hon. W. M. Campbell, of Meeker county, brought the sad intelligence of the death at Litchfield, Wednesday, of Henry L. Smith, only son of Judge A. O. Smith, of that place. Deceased was about 30 years cf age, unmarried, and living with his parents at the time of his death. He had grown to man hood in Litchfield, of which his father, Judge Smith, was one of the first settlers, and was universally respected for his many viitues and stability of character. HON. M. S. WILKINSON left for Washing ton yesterday. His mission at this time is to argue a case before the United States supreme court, a decision in which will be looked for with great interest bv many Min nesotians other than those directly interested in this issue. The case is that against Clark W. Thompson, as ex-Indian superintendant, in which Justice Miller, of the United States circuit court, at a term held in St. Paul, de cided that in the absence of a law by the general government governing limitation, the State statute applied. The ruling of Justice Miller affirmed, and a large number of suits pending against pine land trespass ers in this State will fail, and the parties re ceiving benefits from the trespass will be able to retain their dishonestly acquired gains. The case comes on for argument the 13th inst., and it is expected a decision will be rendered some time this month. SIMPLICITY is a feature of our form of government. But when Speaker Gilman, yesterday, directed the sergeant-at-arms to inform the Governor the Legislature was ready to receive him for the delivery of his annual message, the idea was carried a little too far. It is the universal habit in other StateB, and heretofore has been in Minneso- S^o^.h. _'-\ ~ia-* -XJUuSSiaiasaa V^fp% ta, to honor the Governor on such occasions by the appointment of a special committee to wait upon him and conduct him before the Legislature. As the matter was con ducted by Speaker Gilman, yesterday, had it not been for the timely appearance of a few of the State officers to give him countenance, the Governor wonld have been compelled to appear before the honorable Legislature in a similar role to the school boy called up for punishment. As it is the office and not the man that is honored, there is ho real grounds for carrying the simplicity idea to such an extreme. At least so thinks the GLOBE. THE GOVERNOR'S MESSAGE. The annual message of Gov. Pillsbury was read to the legislature, in joint tSonveu tion assembled, yesterday. Itfaa document of considerable length, but hot at all re markable in any respecta homely state ment of facts summarized from the annual reports of the other State officers, with an occasional recommendation of more or less wisdom, ending up with a very silly piece of bombast and political charlatanism. The expenditures have amounted during the year to a little more than a million and a half of dollars, having a balance on hand on the 1st of December of but $48,499.20. In connection with the depleted condition of the treasury the governor reiterates his pre vious condemnation in anticipation of re ceipts into the State treasury. He declares that it is offensive to correct business prin ciples, forces the State into discreditable competition for money accommodations and exrets higher rates of interest than her actual necessities justify. In this matter the GLOBE heartily concurs with the governor, and trusts he will carry out his determina tion to veto appropriations so made. Considerable space is devoted to educat ional matters. The governor's remarks on these topics reqmre no oomment save an ex pression of the doubtful propriety of his commendation of the Merrill school book i w, a matter upon which even the most honest men greatly differ. He almost ig nores the report of the Senate committee on the insane asylum, apparently desiring to let the agitation of the question of a reforma tion in its management die out. He com mends the management of all the other State institutions, notably that of the penitentiary, against which serious charges of inhumanity and misman agement have been preferred. The reference to the office of public ex aminer is needlessly diffuse and terribly strained. His is a new office, and perhaps needs executive bolstering. Yet it is ques tionable if the wisdom of its eation has yet been demonstrated. The gentleman who fills the office has evidently striven hard to prove that there is a great public necessity for such a functionary, and has made the most of all the discoveries he has made dur ing his nine months' term. Still we fail to see the necessity for the office unless we pre sume that all public functionaries are rogues, or would be such except from fear of the prying eyes of Examiner Knox. It is cer tainly not of such paramount importance to the welfare of the State as to merit so large a share of the governor's attention. The governor's recommendation that the legal rate of interest be reduced is a wise one. In none of our neighboring States are men allowed to charge more than ten per cent, interest on loans, while in a majority seven per cent, is the maximum limit. He is right in his conclusion that low rates of interest inorease the wealth of the State, stimulate the development of our agricul tural, manufacturing and commercial indus tries, and enlarge the field of employment for both capital and labor, while high rates of interest have the contrary effect, and tend to discourage enterprise and to encourage men to loan their capital rather than employ it in the active pursuit or wealth. On the subject of biennial elections much cin be said both pro and con. While the frequency of elections may have a delete rious effect in some respects, it is by no means certain if they were less frequent the condition of affairs would be improved. The experiment of biennial sessions of the legislature is now on trial. It may or may not prove a benefit. Indeed, the prob abilities are that a return will have to be made to the old system. The State is yet young, and theie are matters constantly arising that require legislative attention. Many of our laws are imperfect and require amendment as soon as possible after their defeots are discovered. Two years is too long to wait for such amendments, for in the meantime incalculable mischief may be wrought. In older States, where ample time to mature the laws has been had, the experi ment has been a failure, and it is almost too much to expect that it will be a success in Minnesota. As for the simultaneous election of all officersState, county and municipal we differ decidedly from the governor. In the selection of local officers the question of politics seldom cuts much of a figure. Our mayors, aldermen and other officials, are chosen on personal grounds, and as a result we are much better served than we could be if the choice of them was complicated by the progress of an exciting political cam paign. It is far better that the election of local and general officers be kept separate as at present, for then the real issues at stake in each will not be lost sight of. The incidental reference to the swindling brass kettle is timely, though the members of both house had already taken the matter in hand with a view to remedying the evil. The recommendation that a bankrupt law be passed is also judicious, and will command the attention of the legislature in due time. The closing paragraphs of the message were not only uncalled for but exceedingly silly. The statements of the governor as to matters at the South are of questionable truth and his deductions very farfetched and absurd. As a peroration to a rather common place message it is flat and pointless. The governor seems to have overlooked the fact that to introduce a stump speech into a State paper is of doubtful propriety, but if done it must be well done in order to escape fall ing under condemnation as the stupidest kind of demagoguery. Mra. Bruce's ffew Tears. [Washington Special to Boston Journal. Many called upon Mrs. Senator Bruce, the colored bride of the colored Senator from Mississippi. She made her debut into Washington society on this occasion, and nowhere were callers more gracefully wel comed or more hospitably entertained. Mrs. Bruce is a lady of great personal beauty, of the Andalusian type, and wore a magnificent black velvet dre made for her by Worth during her recent visit to Paris. She was assisted in entertaining by her sisters, the Misses Wilson, of Cleveland, both of them handsome and accomplished ladies, ANNUAL MESSAGE os- GOV. JOHN S. PILLSBURY, Delivered to the Minnesota Legislature Jan 9th, 1879. Gentlemen of the Senate and House of Repre sentatives: The annual recurrence of public events convenes you this year for the deliberations of die twenty-first regular session of the State legislature. For something less man twenty-one years, Minne sota has eajoved a political existence as a member of this union of States. They have been years not of uninterrupted prosperity, but of varying fortune and vioissitude yet from the first struggling experiment of severeignty to the assured position of to-day, our career has been marked by constant and unsurpassed growth in all that should constitute a stable and pros perous commonwealth. Without here indulging in the pleasing retrospection whioh the facts seem to invite, it is not too much to say that few years of the past have afforded upon the whole more substantial cause for encouragement than that which has just terminated. No wasting pestilence nor destitution has afflicted our people. Their fields have been ex empt from insect ravages, and their labors rewarded with general abundance. The varioub industrial in terests of the State have been fairly advanced. Our eduoation and charitable institutions have prospered. There has been a continuance of the progress noticed in my last message respecting railroad con struction, growth of population and the absorption and cultivation of our unoccupied lands, and the sole hinderance to the uniform advancement of the general prosperity resulta-f rom that unwise purauil of agriculture which restricts its operations too largely to the production of a single cereal. Chiefly in consequence of this wrongful course, the profits of agriculture the past year were suddenly swept away throughout Jie oldest and wealthiest portions ot the State, by a few days of unpropitious veather which, at a critioal moment, blighted the promise of a superabundant yield of our great staple, while sparing other products in unimpaired abundance. While the effect has been to cause a partial relapse into the business depression from which our com munities were recovering, if it shall also prove to have checked the prevalent tendency toward the contraction of needless debt, the total result cannot be deemed an Unmixed calamity. If we extend the review to the country at large, the year will long be remembered for the unpar^lled abundance of its agricultural products for increased revival of industry for renewed stimulus to the pro gress of invention for that proud growth of the national credit which triumphantly anticipated the redemption of the national pledges, and for the rapid culmination and exposure of th t strange popular delusion which assumes that wealth may be created by arbitrary enactment rather than by actual pro duction, and which would substitute the semblance for the substance of prosperity. The year will, more over, be held In both sad and honored remembrance for the prolonged and deadly pestilence which deci mated portions of the oountry, and for the magnani mous conduct of a great people who silenced the voice of civil strife by extending the succor of kin dred to perishing kindred with unsparing hands. These varied evidences of an interposing and con ferring Providence, call for that prompt and grate ful rei ognition of supreme guidance which becomes an enlightened people. The condition of public affairs will be amply shown you by thereports of the several departments and State institutions. The financial exhibit is clearly detailed by the State auditor, a summary of Which is embracedin the figures foliowing: STATE FINANCES. Receipts. Balance Peo. 1st 1878 $133,271 86 State taxes 47827221 Taxes from K. E., Ins and Telegraph Cos 189.P52 62 Fees of insurance Co 4,522 00 Interest on State deposits 888 94 Board of U. S, mvicts 782 61 County indebtedness to reform school 14,318 82 J. 8 Pilisbury, unexpended seedgrainlund Sale of sinking fa bonds.... Interest on sinking fund bonds. Sale of pme on school lands later ston stumpagi accounts university In erest on permanent uni versity und Interest on internal improve ment fund 2,890 00 Redemption 16 mo. bonds school fund 15,000 00 8. 5 per ceut on cash sales public lands 1154 70 Premium on gold 9 38 Sale of school ,ands, 1878 69,667 31 Collections on former sales scheol lands 63.0F6 81 Sale ot ne on nniversity lands. 7.171 56 Sale of university lands 2,367 14 Sale of internal improvement lands, 1878 45,467 05 Sale of pine & right of way on int. impt lauds 1,168 48 Sale of agricultural college lands 7,438 94 Collections prin & int. former sale- ag col lauds 14,665 46 Interest on school land sales i.2,827 25 interest on school land,10imer 8a,e Snsass^ 6V64 42 0S5 00 2,035 00 16,408 78 2,137 91 6.935 00 115,468 80 interest on permanent school fund.. 86,437 77 lot on lauds sold and collec tio son ormersaes 20722 28 Inebriate asylum fundlicenses 2,3b0 5) tat- loans, 1878 200,000 00 Interest on university lands aold during year 878 75 Interest on ag. ool. lands sold durmityear 1,740 73 K. right of wav over school lands 62711 School text book fund, paid by couuties for books furnished by contractor 25B24 89 miscellaneous 13,749 58 Int mil improvmemi' land.* Inebriate asylum.., School text book, Revenue fund over- 0 -$1.610,9QB17 Dl-bureements, Legislative, executive and judicial expenses 178,543 14 Tor printing, printing laws in newspapers, paper and sta tionery 50,853 56 Supreme court leports 6,067 72 For support insane hospital, re lorm school, 11. and blind institution, soldiers' orphans, normat schools, university and State prison 312,812 77 Public buildings and repairs ca i.ol.. 38,02178 Prisonworkshops, 11, grounds and steam he* in?s 25.683 94 kn ars ng university grounds.. 9,000 00 Interest on btate debc 29.750 00 1 nebriate asylum 3,688 94 Apportioned school fun 217241 88 Purchase of bonds for invested funds, premiums, intere and expen es on purchases 897,993 19 Setd griio, coal, tar and iron for grasshopper sufferers.... 209,213 82 Agricultural and histo ical so cieties 4917 85 State iards of heal h, equaliza tion and immigration 7,61169 geological survey 2,000 00 ainiag schools and institutes, expenses high school board, examiners and text bonk corn mis ion 8,05185 Jif comuussinnere 5 0U000 lixamining and appraising lands 7 643 558 School texr. book 25*4'* 7 2 Miscellaneous 27)983 57 Balance in treasury Nov. 80,1878 To the edit of the fo'lclng funds Interest. 31.78il 98 Sinking fund... J67S5 77 permanent school 2882 43 General school 9738 85 Permanent univer-it 188 05 General university l.H6 05 Internal improvement 1,480 1562,409 97 48,499 2J 8,551 33 889 91 87 61 drawn $24,460 10 Stats institution JTund overdrawn.. 47 99 $73,007 29 24,508 00 Cash balance in treasury.... $43 419 20 These figures, together with the auditor'^ esti mates of receipts and expenditures, show the neces sity for cautious appropriations, and the continued need of retrenchment and economy in legislation, which have been repea ed'y urged. It will be seen that the balance in the treasury at the close of the year was but $4s,49.20 belonging in small parcels to ten different funds, and that the general revenue fund is overdrawn to the amount of $24,460.10. The auditor states that the outstanding warrants against the revenue fu id at the close of the year, together with over drafts, make a total floating debt amount ng to $122,001.94, and that since the old days ef depreciated State warrants, the treasury has not been in so depleted a condition This is owing to the disbursements for seed grain and other extraordinary purposes, amounting to ai out $100,000 for the year, and to the non-receipt of the expected income from convict labor which was estimated at $50,000. From the auditor's esti mates it appears that with careful management, without any extraordinary expenditures, the receipts of the present year may be expected to meet current expenses and pay off the floating debt, which will square accounts and bring our finances iuto a sound condition with the beginning of another year, in which event the receipts and disbursement for 1880 will leave a probable surplus of $100,000. Every consideration therefore, of sound and prudent financiering demands that there should be no appro priations for extraordinary purposes at this session, which contemplate draughts uponthe treasury during the present year. I reiterate my condemnation of the practice of making appropriations in anticipation of receipts into the State treasury. It is offensive to correct business principles, forces the State into discredit able competition for money accommodations and exacts higher rates of interest than her actual neces sities justify. I have found the practice so annoy ing and detrimental to the public interest that I shall feel it my duty to disapprove of appropriations so made, and to insist that no warrants shall be drawn upon the treasury in excess of its receipts durlnir the year 1879 I solicit your careful attention to the various im portant subjects discussed by the auditor, and espeoi a'ly to his remarKs, and the action of the State board of equalization respecting the evils of the present system of township assessments. The proposed remedy cannot fail to commend itself as worthy of your serious consideration. TREASURER'S BEPOBT. The ample details contained in the report of State treasurer, afford a clear view of the condition of State funds under their several classifications, the total results whereof are oondensed into the state ment following: tBB ST. PAUL DA1J.Y GLOBE, FRiDAY MORNING, JANUARY 10, 1879. Balance in treasury Deo.1, 1877 I wi\ MK Tohareceiptodurmgfiii'oal year- 14T7,1 ja i "eotion8rhe a $1,610-,909 17 Total 'disbursements Ito'r tneyear Leaving balance in Weu #Dec. 1,1878 $ 48,499 20 lne treasure states that to coniequenceiof prompt 1 *ic llftC2,io9 97 was enabled to redeem Augus last $30,0uu of thetempoiary seed grain loan which 2 negotiated In March preceding, leaving but oe jyiyjoo as interest bearing warrants outstanding at the close of the year. EDtJOATIO*. The superintendent of public instruction has ren dered excellent service to the cause of general edu oation by giving suoh shape to his lest report as makes it substantially an educational history of the State. It is a resume in which will be found concise statements of the Congressional land grants, the va rious formative and amendatory acts of State legis lation, and the practical trials and triumphs out of whioh has been evolved our present educational sys tem. Intermingled with the recital of facts are per tinent observations touching the Causes and effects of the successive changes* evincing discernment at once of present needs and of the scope and necessi ties of the Widening future. It is with the remem brance of the early difficulties and dangers with which our educational interests were repeatedly be set that their present firm footing aud assured future area cauBe of eclal gratification. The good effects of the law apportioning current funds upon enroll ment rather than upon a numerical basis, continues to be shown in various ways. Teachers institutes amounting i thirty-one weeks have been held iu eighteen different couuties, with an aggregate attendance of 1,263 teachers of our public schools. It is notioeable that some twenty oounty superintendents spoke in their reports of the beneficial results of these institutes,and commend the planof employing the principals and instructors of the normal schools to teach in them, in connection with other experienced institute instructors. The super intendent's report contains a full account of this im portant work, which will be read with interest by the friends of progress public sohool teaching. Under the so-called Merrill text book law as amended last winter, about one-third of the districts had ordered books of the contractor to the 18th of November last. The demand for them Increases as districts come to replace wornout booksIn prior use. The introduction of the new books is thus gradual, and it is estimated that in about forty-four districts in one hundred they have been more or less intro duced. They give general satisfaction, and there is reason to believe they will come into general use within the time prescribed by law. Their average cost per district has thus far been $27.61. The act for the encouragement of higher educa tion enacted by the last legislature, is favorably no ticed by the superintendent who gives cogent rea sons for its support as well as forneeded amendments, which are commended to your attention. Charles S. Bryant, Esq., was appointed to complete the "high school board," and was also selected as its secretary. He entered zealously upon his duties, for the faithful performance of which he is fitted by long experience and rare devotion to educational interests. In the superintendent's report tables are given showing that pupils have undergone examination in sixteen schools applying for the benefits of the act, and that applications from twenty additional sobools await ex amination. The operation of the law bids fair to Justify the most sanguine hopes of its friends, in filling the gap which has prevented the connecting grades and efficient unity so leng desired in our edu cational system. The effects of the Improved courses of studies, and of tue more thorough work in our normal schoo's continue to be seen in the more practical results achieved. The report of the Statenormal board rep resents that an increasing proportion of the gradu ates of these schools is being annually sought for to fill positions in the highest grades of teaching and it is claimed that while none of our sister States ex hibit more economical or efficient management of these schools, in no State are they more advanced. I earnestly request your attention to the represent ations of the board, respecting the ne essity for certain repai in the school building at Winona. Nothing has been expended upon this building for re pairs Bince its erection ten years ago, and if this ne glect endargers the whole structure, aB is reported, in consequence of the decayed and leaky condition of the roof, it would seem to be but the dictate of wise precaution to take that prompt action which will avoid the large expenditures soon to be demanded to rescue valuable property from needless destruction. Your attention is asked also to the wants of the schools at Mankato and St. doud as set forth by the board. I dt-em It unneoesary at present to add anything to the statements heretofore made relative to the condition of the State university. The stable foot ing the institution has now attained, and the annually enlarging sphere of its usefulness, give promise that with the broad groundwork afforded by our richly en dowed common schools, the ed icatioual faculties of our young State will keep pace with the proud march ot her material development. STATE PRISON. The report of the State pxison inspectors shows an increased average number in confinement during the year. The current expenses were $46,238.74 and the earnings $23,482.36, being a net cost for maintenance of $22,482.36 or $100.36 per convict, which is a de crease from the cost of the preceding year, and ex hibits a continuance of the economical management whioh has heretofore characterized the institution. The improvements for which an appropriation was made by the 'ast legislature have been completed, and there are now accommodations for 296 convicts, an excess of seventy-eight overthe number in actual confinement at the close of the year, the current expenses for the next two years are estimated a $105,000 in addition to which a sum exceeding- $45,- 000 is requested for various purposes specified. While no reasonable expenditure requisite to the best management of the existing prison should be withheld, I feel a renewed conviction that steps look ing to the erection of another prison should not be longer delayed, and I therefore earnestly renew my recommendation of last year upon this subject. The reasons ttien urged for this action remain in unim paired force. For due attention to all considerations involved in a matter of such importance, much time is required for preliminary work In testing the rela tive merits of prison improvements, in the selection of Bite, adoption of plana and other preparations, while the process of construction is necessarily a work of time. If it be not commenced at this ses bion two years must elapse before any action can be taken, which I cannot but believe will prove an un wise delay, as the full capacity of the present prison will probably then have been nearly or quite reached. Another consideration worthy of mention iB the op portunity which another prison will afford for the greater separation of the more hardened criminals from new offenders, which has been followed by salutary results in other States. The advantages ot site before recommended for the new structure, near the granite quarries at Sauk Rapids, in close proximity to abundant timber supplies, are obvious. The situation is at once central, sale and convenient, affording an opportunity for the employment of con vict labor the heavy work of preparing and moving building materials, without bringing it into that com petition with honest labor which ia justly felt to be a grievance. The employment of convic' labor great ly reduced the cost of the Illinois State prison at Chester, and the Iowa prison at Anamosa and it has moreover been found that certain classes of con victs can be advantageously employed in raising veg etables and other products where the site affords land and opportunity for the purpose. STATE IP8ITUTIONS. The condition ot the several eleemosynary and otherinstitutions supported by the Stare is thorough ly set forth by their respective annual reports which afford ample classified statistics and statements of their transactions, wants and prospects, The State refc ss school makeB is twelfth anuual repor from which it appears that it has received 384 boys since its commencement in 1868, of which 143 were inmates the past year. The increase of facul ties for teaching the useful arts is attended with salu tary results, a large portion of the discharged in mates being not only reformed in conduct but forti fied against temptation by mechanical instruction which speedily enables them to find honest employ ment. So far as known at least 93 per cent, of all who go out of the institution are saved from criminal lives. The corrective snd durable influences, and the admirable financial management of the institution entitle ittothe cordial support of the State, and I renew my former recommendations that it be placed upon a footing similar to that of the other institutions owned and controlled by the State. The sixteenth annual report of the institution for the deaf, dumb and blind shows that the total attend ance during the year was 129, of whom 108 weie in the department for deaf mutes, and 21 in that for the blind. The new pupils admitted in both departments during the year numbered eighteen. The general health has been excellent, and no death occurred during the year. The report shows that the school is divided into six intellectual aud five industrial classes, and the benencuu results of more varied and practical instruction, afford additional proof that to ''unite a thinking brain with a skillful hand is the way to elevate labor." There is continued evidence that a class of unfottunates who peculiarly touch the sympathies of the humane, receive competent and faithful care under the present management of the Institution. The rapidly increasing necessities for the proper care of the insane will again claim your prompt at tention. The twelfth annual report of the hospital shows that 660 patients were under treatment at the close of the year, being an increase of 81. Of the wbole number of Inmates 100 remain in the temporary buildings, leaving in the permanent hospital 560 patients, which is 60 more than it can comfortably accommodate. Notwithstanding, therefore, the ad ditional room afforded by the second hospital at Rochester, there will be little more unused oa,. acity than will suffice for the expected inorease of a single year. As no step can be taken for two years unless taken now It is important that such action be had at this session as will at least secure the preliminary measures to speedily meet the wants of the near fu ture. The several reports make an ample aud favo able exhibit of the condition and oonductof the hos pital, showing an average cost for maintenance per patient of $3 25^4 per week during the year, includ ing all items, which is 50yj cents less per capita than the coat of the preceding year, and leas, it is claimed, than the average of similar institutions in any State in the Union, with three exceptions. The general health of the patients has been good, the 35 deaths being a reduction of 7 from the number of the pre ceding year, although 67 more patients were treated. No caBe of typhoid fever has ever been developed in the permanent hospital, and it is also worthy of note that notwithstanding the crowded dormito ries, no serious accident has occurred. The report of the State board of health embraces the results of their inspection into the sanitary con dition of public institutions with recommendations respecting the same, and of observations and labors of the board touching the general publio health. Two diseases, small-pox and) diphtheria, threatened to become epidemic in the State during the past year. The latter prevails to a large extent over the civilized world and has been epidemic in several towns in this State. Every effort has been made by tho bwt control the disease with some effect. I refer you with pleasure tot' ments and ample exhibits embraced in the fifth an nual report of the State fish oommUsiqners showing both an increased numberof fish distributed and in cr, ased 1 acili,ties for hatching add handling the larger stock for 1879. The reportsets forth the labors and wants of the commissioners, and the encouraging prospects of the enterprise, to whioh your attention is requested. These several institutions and State interests in ad dition to their current maintenance request appro priations for various purposes specified, to which your oordial consideration is respectfully solicited. The Soldiers' orpbaus' Home at Winona was closed on the 10th of Maylast, the number of inmates hav ing been so reduced by discharges as to render its further Continuance unnecessary. The board of trustees still retains ten of the orphans in charge, to five of whom it is affording partial relief until they become self-supporting, and Ave of whom are pur suing their studies in the State university. 'Ihe un expended balance of the last appropriation will, it is thought, be amply sufficient for all needs of these wards of the State. A total number of about 15n orphans were provided for at the Home during its continuance, and now that the work is Virtually ended, the state is to be oougratulated on the good work accomplished. DEPARTMENT REPORTS. direct your attention with pleasure to the practi cal suggestions and the detailed and ample informa tion pertaining to their respective departments which will be found in the reports of the secretary of state, attorney general, insurance commissioner, state librarian, adjutant general, and secretary of the State Historical society. All tuese reports embrace inter estlnfl' statements relative to publio interests and bear witness to the faithful performance of the du ties assigned the officers named. STATISTICS. extraordinary promise until near maturity as justi fied an estimate of 47,00i),000 bushels as the wheat yield for 1878 Unfortunately, at the critical ripen ing* period an alternation of sultry showers and blazing heat shrivelled the kernel to such an extent aBtodestroy half the crop in both quantity and value throughout the great wheat growing section of the State. In two-thirds of the wheac area lying in the southern portion of the State, the yield is esti mated at ten bushels, and in the remainder, thirteen bushels per acre, making a total product of about 26,000,000 bushels. The crop of oats exceeded an average-yield, being estimated at 16,800,000 bushels, while the product of corn was the largest and best everknownin the State, approximating to 13,000,000 bushels. The report shows a gratifying increase in the culture of what is known as the '"Minnesota Early Amoer" sugar cane giving promise of valuable results. The syrup pro ducedln 1877 was reported at 140,160 gallons which, with an enlarged growth of the cane, will be found to be greatly exceeded by the product of the past year. Striking evidence of the expanding theatre of agriculture in this State is found in the transactions of theseveral United States land offices and the sales of State and railroad lands during the past year, which reach a grand aggregate of/,,344,246 acres, being more than double the total qiJ.ntity disposed of in 1877, which in its turn, far suipassed any prior year in magnitude of land transactions. This absorp tion of publio lands being chiefly in small parcels by actual settlers, indicates a large, permanent and de sirable addition to the population of the State, which is now eBtimated at about 765,00i. The returns of vitaletatisticsgiveatotalof 21,799 births and 6,599 deaths, showing both an increase of the former and decrease of the latter and exhibiting the extraordi nary ratio of 3.3 births to one death. BAILROADS. The report of the railroad commissioner shows a gratifying increase both in the extension and con struction of new roads and increase of traffic. The number of miles added to our railroad system, -with in the year 1878 was 875, making a total of 2,608 mles. The gross earnings of roads in Minnesota for the year ending June 80, 1878, were $7,431,199 against $5,408,0d9 the year before, a gain of over two million dollars. The net earnings were $2,58,87 against $1,542,536, a gain of nearly loo per cent. The number of pas sengers carried in the year reported was 1,690,649 the total number of miles traveled by all being 51,648,797, again in number of passengers of 351,226, or about 3 per cent. and in total miles of about 12,000,000. The tons of grain carried were 650,134, against 386,81)4 an increase of 68 per cent. The total tons freight 2,496,559, against 1,717,923, the year be fore again ot 4per cent. The sales of railroad lands in eleven months of 1878toDecember 1st, were 430,900 acres, against 22 ,63 acres in corre sponding period in 1877. The revenue which the State derives direct from the railroads was $165,000 in 1878, against $135,898 in 1877, an increase of near ly $30,000. A noteworthy fact touching our railroad develop ment is the greatly reduced cost of construction. Exclusive of rolling stock the average cost of standard guage is now less than $8,000 per mile, which is about one-half the prevailing cost six years ago. FORESTRY. From official reports it appears that 28.310 acres have thus far been planted to forest trees in our State, of which 4,860 acres were planted the pas year. Although the comprehensive efforts to clothe the nakedness of our vaBt prairies has not met with un varying success.enough has been achieved toprove its entire practicability. In this result what was five years ago a mooted question of serious import is so far determined, that the larger portion of our State is being transformed from treeless, uninhabitable areas into productive and populous plains, augment ing the prosperity of the State and country. IMMIGRATION. Pursuant to an actof thelastlegislature two persons were appointed from each Congressional district to act in conjunction with myself as State Board of Immi gration The gentlemen so appointedrenderedintelli gent and zealous service tow rd the end contemplated. After due consideration it was deemed that a wide and ayatematio dissemination of facta touching the advantages of our State embodied in a concise and readable form, afforded at once the speediest, cheap est and most effective means toward the end sought. Accoidmgiy the board made prompt provision ror the publication of a pamphlet whi had been care fully prepared by its secretary, and arranged at the same time for its wide advertisement and the publi cation of a summary of its contents through the agency of the American Newspaper Union. By this means so extraordinary a demand was stimulated for information of our State that an edition of 30,0i.0 cop ies of the pamphlet was quickly disposed of and two subsequent editions were absorbed with equal rapid ity, making a total circulation of 70,000 copies. To ward this lesult was enlited the efficient co-op eration of several oi the leading railroad com panies, by whom the expenses and advantages were shaied. Owing to the depressed industries which filled cities throughout the country with idle workmen and idle capital, it seemed advisable to limit the small means at command of the board chiefly to a present effort to attract immigrants from the several States of the Union, but reviving home indus try and the circumstances strongly tending to a re newal of emigration from Europe, render it advisable to enlarge operations to correspond with the extend ed field to be thus presented. There is reason to be lieve that a large edition of our immigration pam phlet in the German and Scandmavian and other languages could now be circulated to goodadvantage, and that renewed efforts to attract emigrants from various countries of Europe would be well repaid. The simple and inexpensive mode of making widely known the advantages we offer to persons in search of new homes has unquestionably lent great acceler ation to that common movement from abroad which is peopling ou" \ast prairies and developing our re sources. I invite your attention to the report of the board, and solicit such further supcort at your hands as the Importance and value of its labors seem to require. PUBLIC EXAinNER. The legislature, by an act approved March 11,1878, created the office of publio examiner, and defined its duties to be the exercise of a constant supervision over the financial condition and management of the various State institutions and county offices as well as of monied and savings associations organized un der the State laws. Thefirstreport of the officer ap pointed under this law wilt be laid before you an"d I bespeak your candid and earnest consideration of its comprehensive statements and exhibits. Affording as it does ample evidence of the tireless labors of a conscientious officer, of his power of exhaustive re search and clear analysis as well as of dangerous er rors existing financial methods and discernment of practical remedies, I cannot doubt you will join me in the conviction that the public is to be congratulat ed both Uuon the est bhshment of the office and the character of its incumbeut. Much care and delay were necessary to properly fill an office demanding so many and varied qualifica tions, as well as to bring its provisions into practical operation, in consequence of which butseven months are embraced in the period covered by this report. Yet in that brief spice the examiner has gained a comprehensive knowledge of the different duties im posed upon him and has condensed into convenient shape amass of information of the multitudinous de tails falling under his observation which will prove invaluable as a basis and guide for intelligent legis lation upon those subjects. Having familiarized himself with the merits and defects of the existing conduct of county affairs the examiner has after careful study and consultation with experienced offi cials elaborated an improved plan for the more com plete control of taxes by a guarded system of receipt ing for their payment, to whioh your careful atten tionis invited. Cogent reasons are educed for his belief that this improvement would constitute the groundwork for the correction of the most radical evils in the conduct of county finances by making it for the immediate interest of all concerned to give a more watchful supervision in all initiatory proceed ings. The other views and suggestions of this offi cer are worthy of careful examination, especially those touching an extended term of office for county auditors. The laborious and complicated duties re quired of these officers and the high grade of ability demanded for their faithful performance unques tionably render frequent changes of incumbents det rimental to the public interests, the experience de rived from one or even two terms, as now limited, being inadequate to the best discharge of duty even by officers otherwise folly competent. From the many exhibits in the examiner's report the following information is condensed respecting the monied institutions in the State: No. of Institutions. State banks 13 Savings banks. *8 National banks 31 From the report of the commissioners of statistics it will be seen that the total number of farms in the State is reported at 60,816, covering a total tilled area of 3,429,161 acres. Nine years progress in agricul tural development may be-seen by comparing these with similar returns for 1869, when the number of farms was 46,256 and the cultivated acreage 1,863,316. The area in wheat the past year is reported at 2,854,- ^w 844 acres, upon *hic the growing grain gave such I beginning of official life, becomes alike obvious. The Capital and Surplus. $1,121,762 136,679 5,549,284 Private 50(reported) 530,000 Deposits. $1,647,776 645,528 6,496,487 Total 108 $7,837,72 $8,789,791 0 ir only have capital. o.wiminr speaks in complimentary terms of the generally sound condition of our State banks I and the judicious care usually shown In their man agement, which be ascribes less to any legal regula tions under existing crude provisions of law than to wholsome practices self-imposed under the dictates of enlightened policy. The various suggestions of the examiner made after due investigation of the many objects of bis inquiry, can hardly fail to com mend themselves to your favorable attention. If he had done nothing but reveal the expo6ed condition of the publio lunds resulting from the negleot of county officers to deposit adequate official bonds as required by law, it would have fully established the importance of the office and more than justified its cost. Upon investigation it was found that only fifty-seven of the 140 bonds of county treasurers and auditors required to be deposited in the office of the secretary of state, had been filed there according to law. As a result of the persistent efforts of the examiner these delinquent bonds were finally fur nished, but only thirty-two of the entire number proved to be legally and technically correct. The others were found to be defective in varions degrees from a oondition of informality to that of utter worthlessness. Those from twenty-two counties named penal sums less in amount than the balances held on the 1st of June by the officers giving them respectively. The correction of these evils by requiring the sub stitution of improved and increased bonds, being beyond the power of the examiner, the remedy must be supplied by prompt and adequate provision pf law. The aggregate amount of money passing through the hands of county treasurers now approx imates the sum of $6,00ii,U00 annually, and in view of the lax precautions for the safety of these funds and the crude methods by which acceunts are kept in most of the counties, it is complimentary to the gen eral character of county officials that there has been so Utile malfeasance in office. Nor is the creation of the office of publio examiner a necessary imputation upon the motives of these officers. Conduct which leads to embezz ement and defalcation in the major ity of cases begins in ignorance rather than in in tentional Criminality. Whether therefor the protection of the public, the good of the erring official or the avoidance of public scandal be considered, the importance of that careful supervision which ensure*s a correct basis and honest dangerlies especially in the first misstep, which, iff norantly taken and thoughtlessly repeated, imper Ceptably grows into such startling temptation as to defy the power of successful resistance. It is scarce ly too muoh to say that the information imparted and the correctives apphed by the public examiner have already been the means of strangling a number of Incipient embezzlements, while the more matured abuses exhibited by the conduct of a displaced county auditor, and by the recent examination of the accounts of the hospital for the insane, whether resulting from unconscious or intentional miscon duct, illustrates the wisdom of the legislature in the timely creation of this office. In view of the work already accomplished and the enlarged usefulness to be expected from the further operation of the law I cannot doubt that you will support it with such ad ditional provisions as may be needed to'subserve its highest purposes. In consequence of the late hour at which the act became a law no appropriation was made for its practical enforcement, au ommission to rectify which jour early action is solicited. The re port of the Senate special committee for the investi gation of the management of the inane hospital was duly submitted to me and will be transmitted. BRAINERD BRANCH LANDS. By the act of March 1st, 1877, providing for the complet on of the so-called extension hues of the St. Paul & Pacific railroad, various duties were imposed upon the executive respecting the adjustment of certain claims incurred for railroad construction, and also of claims of settlers who had made prior filings and improvements in good faith upon the lands pertaining to such roads. The commission provided for the examination of the claims of rail road creditors, consisting of the Governor, attorney general and lailroad commissioner, after repeated hearings and full consideration, filed then: statement aB required, in the State auditor's office on the 27th of February last, showing claimants to the number of sixty-six, and a total allowance of $493,228.10. For the payment of the claims so ascertained and I accordance with said act, I caused J, sale by auction I to be made of such selections as had been made from the lands which had already been certified to the Slate. Prior to the published day of sale, a writ of injunction was served upon me for its prevention upon the complaint of the Western Railroad com pany, the constructor of the railroad from Watab to Brainerd, upon certain alleged grounds. Without reference to the merits of the controversy, which were not a matter for my consideration, I deemed it my duty, in pursuance of well established executive authority and upon the advice of the attorney gen eral, to disregard the injunction and proceed with the sale. In the execution of the difficult task devolved upon me for the protection of the bonaflde settlers upon the line of the road, 1 found it advisable to avail my self of the legal knowledge of the attorney general and of the assistance of Samuel H. Nichols, Esq., whose former service in a government land office rendered him familiar with the laws and rulings gov erning the disposition of the public lands. For the convemence of the settlers frequent meetings were held in close proximity to thotr homes for the hear ing of their claims, and amp time and opportunity were afforded for a full presentat on of facts by both claimants and contestants. A thorough investigation was thus made ef each land claim, and upon due consideration 158 of them were allowed in whole or in part, covering 19,046.47 acres, descriptions of which, together with the names of the persons re spectively entitled to acquire the same, were em braced in the deed of relinquishment to the United States in order to perfect the titles of the actual resi dents upon these lands as contemplated by the act referred to. SEED GRAIN. The legislature at its last session made provision for a supply of seed grain to the several counties wbich had suffered from grasshopper ravages during the preceding year. The sum of $150,000 was ap propriated for this purpose, and prompt action was taken to comply with the several requirements of the law within the brief period between the passage of the act and seeding tune of an early spring. Thirty four coun ies availed themselves of the opportunity afforded, furnishing an aggregate of 6,026 applicants desiring various IdnuB of gram sufficient to seed a total of 223,727 acres. The distribution afforded an average of something less than 50 per cent, of the several amounts applied for. The practical operation of the law proved universally satisfactory, and there is no reason to doubt that great and deserved assist ance was rendered to destitute sections winch had been so repeatedly subjected to the insect scourge as to be disabled from helping themselves, while the general good resulting from the mersure is shown by the fact that the most of the counties receiving aid are those which largely esca.ed the destructive blight of the past season and produced the best crops in point of quality aud quantity the benefits to in dividuals thus speedily Contributed to the common prospetity by the increase and improvement of the total product. Complaints having been received that the grain raised from seed furnished by the State was in some instances being levied upon and forcibly re moved by creditors, I suggest that the existing law relative to attachment and replevin be amended for the better protection of tue interests of the State. CAPITOL EXTENSION. At the last session of the legislature an appropria tion of $14,000 was made for the purpose of erecting an addition to the western wing of the State capitol and rearranging the apartments therein. The com modious chamber in which you are assembled, and the convenient oommittee rooms adjacent, as well as the increased accommodotions beneath, bear witness that the objects for which the appropriation was made have been accomplished. The enlargement and changes thus made afford additional room long needed in some of the departments and it is gratify ing to ttate that these purposes have been attained by an expenditure strictly within the limits of the moderate sum set apart therefor. BIENNIAL, ELECTIONS. The constitutional amendment providing for bien nial Leu of annual sessions of the legislature will necessiate much adjustment of administrative ma chinery to correspond therewith. In effecting this, great care will be required to inolude practical de tails of an essential nature pertaining to the several branches of the government. The changes re quired and the examination necessarily given to the subject, would seem to afford a suitable opportunity for the consideration of another question of im portance. The extraordinary frequency of elections has long been deemed by reflecting men one 01 the most st nous evils pertaining to our form of govern ment. The differing duration of our State offices, requiring elections to fill some of them annually, and the different seasons in which township and munici pal elections are held, leave intervals so short that the public finds little repose from the destractions of political warfare. The deleterious effect of these constant diaturbancf sis manifest. They are unfav orable to public order, to the pursuit of private busi ness, and to the dispassionate dkcussion of questions concerning the common welfare. Tfiey Increase the aversion to political duty entertained by orderly aud busy men through whose default bad men are elect ed to office while the expenses attending such fre quent elections entail a heavy annual burden upon the people. In view of these evi I tuggest the in quiry whether an obvious public interest would not be subserved by providing for such amendments to the laws and constitution as wonld require biennial elections only. For this purpose it would be neces sary to cause our State elections to take place the same year as that in whioh members of Congress are elected, which would conform to that in which mem bers of the legislature are now biennially chosen, and also to the year in which the Presidential election alternately takes place. If the terms of the offices of clerk of the supreme court and State auditor were lenghthened one year each, and the commencement and terminahen of the several county offices made uniformly to accord with those of State officers, biennial fall elections only would be necessary throughout the State, except for judicial officers, whose election, occurring at separate and irregular periods would, in consequence, be properly further removed from detrimental political influences. In order to free the matter from complications influ enced by the interests of those already in office, give due notice to all seeking office, and insure an im partial application of the change* to all concerned, the proposed amendments might be made to take effect at some convenient period in the future. I deem the matter worthy of attentive examination. RAILROAD BONDS. The recent vote of the people of the State on the proposition to exchange Internal improvement land for railroad bonds, indicates that they are not pre pared to make settlement of this vexed question. This I deeply regret. My convictions as heretofore expressed upon thin subject have undergone no change, and I earnestly hope that in the near future the people of our State will take a different view of 1 the matter. INTEREST BATES. I invite you to inquire whether the publio welfare does not demand a reduction oi1 the rate of interea authorised in this State. Whatever may be though of the soundnsss of the principle upon which usury laws an based, so long as such laws exist they should be amended as often as is required to cause the rates to approximate at least to those of the natural law of supply and demaud. Low rates of interest in my Judgment increase the wealth of the State, stimulate the development of our agricultural, manufacturing and commercial indus tries, and enlarge the field of employment for both capital and labor, while high rates of interest have the contrary effect, and tend to discourage enter prise and to encourage men to loan their capital fither than employ it in the active pursuit of wealth, xperience during the past ton years has taught those engaged in promotion of the various industries, that our commercial and manufacturing pursuits are to be conducted in direct competition with those of our sister States, where the rates of interest are much less. I am satisfied that a law reducing interest rates as much at least as to correspond weth the legalized rates in neighboring States, would result to the ad vantage of all concerned. The resumption of specie payment as the settled practice of the government, and the low scale of values which must prevail from the sounder basis upon which business is conduotod, must render a small margin of profits inevitable in all branches of buBine38, and there is every reason why the price of money should share in the common reduction. AOBiom/ruRX. During the first half of the growing season the past year the unvarying report from all parts of the State was that the prospects for wheat were never so good, nor for corn so poor, as appearances then held forth. The result in two-thirds of our tilled area was the poorest wheat crop and the finest corn yield ever known in the State. Nothing could more emphatically illustrate the uncertain promises of agriculture, nor more pointed condemn the folly fo limiting its varied chances to the precarious profits of a single product. ThiB is further Bhown by instances which have come to my knowledge, where men heavily pressed with debt had fortunately resisted the prevailing excitement for wheat and de voted half their prepared land to corn, with result ing good profits and a happy rescue from bankrupt cy. It is indeed the opinion of observing men of longest experience that notwithstanding our peculiar adaption to wheat growing and the supposition that our latitude is too high for the most successful pro duction of Indian corn, the latter is nevertheless the more certain and profitable crop when the average results of several years are considered. At all events it is the part of wisdom to try both, and to still fur ther employ the resources which, beyond those of all other pursuits, give agriculture assurances against needless failure. The profit resulting from the transportation of neat cattle across the ocean, and the extending facilities by which the farming products of this country are coming into successful competition with those of Europe, should encourage producers to avail themselves of all their multiplying advantages. WHEAT INSPECTION. In view of the excitement recently created regard ing the inspection and grading of wheat, I suggest that a commist-lon be created by your honorable body to take the whole matter into special consider ation. The peculiar nature of the injury inflicted upon the maturing gram the past season was made the occasion for much complaint with the classifica tion of the product and the manner of testing its grades, and inasmuch as serious charges have been repeatedly made of dishonest practices by wbeat buyers to the injury of producers, it is important that a thorough and impartial investigation of the matter by men representing all the parties interested be made without unnecessary delay. INSOLVENCY. Since therepeal of the national bankrupt law many complaints have been made respecting the injustice attending assignments by bankrupts. By the collu sion of the insolvent with one or two leading credi tors, it is claimed, the assets of the debtor are fre quently sequestered and absorbed to the injury of the mass of creditors, among whom the effects should be equitably divided In my judgment, the wrongs inflicted by such practices demand the enact ment of a law whico shall provide alike for all credi tors, and btrictly prohibtt the preference of one credi tor over another. FRONTIER MATTERS. The absence of legal prevision for the actual organ ization of i ounties which have been established and named by the act ot the Legslature and the resulting confusion, irregularities and contests occasioned by premature efforts to create county government*, nave been referred to in former messages. .The questions raised in the recent canvass of election re turns as well as the danger of future complications growing out of the doubtful legal status of these counties emphasize the importance of timely reme dial legislation. As more or less irregularity attend ed the organization of many of the newer counties, I suggest that th various proceedings had relation to them unde go ca^etnl examination with a v^ew to such legalizing etion as may be found necessary, and that provision be made for the uniform and reg ular organization of counties in future. If legislate discrimination concerning localities be ever justifiable it should surely favor rather than oppose the interests of those frontier 6ectionB which suffer the unavoidable oisabihtaes incident to then exposed situations. The failure of the legislature to make the required apportionment following the census of 1875 as a senoup injustice to the newer counties in depriving them of the increased repre sentation to which they were entitled by their rapid growth of population and if anything can properly be done at the present session to make amends for that injustice by faciliating the prompt apportion ment to follow the federal census of 1880,1 trust it may not be withheld. Information has reached me that in some of the southwestern counties in consequence of the failure of the past year's crops following the impoverished condition resulting from successive grasshopper raids the people will be unable to meet the require ments of the seed grain law, and 1 suggest the pro priety of granting further time to enable them to meet their engagements. A forced repayment at this time would defeat the original purpose of the law, by depriving the most necessitous of the seed gram needed for their coming season's crops. Another matter affecting the practica interests of the frontier people I deem of sufficient importance to require attention. Considering the similar topog raphy and identity of interests marking our wide prairie areas the_ multiplication of small new counties burdens their inhabitants unnecesearilv -with the costly machinery of government. Large counties like Kandiyohi, Stearns and Otter Tail, while suffi ciently convenient to all part* of their territory for the transaction of business with the seat of govern ment, distribute the burdens of taxation upon larger populations and thus lessen their hardship upon in dividuals. In the considerations touching the sala ries of county officers and the expensne buildings and provisions required for the care of county re cords the advantages which large counties afford over small ones without increase of taxation, are worthy of attention. The improvement of the connecting channels and increase of harbor facilities for transportation upon the great lakes are demanded by the rapid increase of their trade, and the marvelous resources and growth of the vast country whose bulky products must seek such water transit to the seaboard. The recent completion of a continuous railroad from St. Pau" to Winnipeg, affording overland con nection with the three great water systems of the Mis sissippi river, Hudson's Bay and the lake chain, and the immediate extension to be made of the Northern Pacific railroad to the mineral and grazing section of the far West, indicate the extent of the expandmg commerce which must here converge. The impor tance of the subject leads me to urge that you memorialize Congress in furtherance of the objects sought by the late convention in behalf of lake navi gation. The condition of the terminal harbor at Duluth and the erection of at least one lighted refuge for vessels upon the long coast between that port and Thunder Bay, would seem to be among the Important considerations pertaining to the interests of lake commerce. NATIONAL. The resumption of specie payments adds another to the proud achievements of a prosperous nation. It corrects perhaps the most fruitful of the radical disorders bequeathed us by the demon of civil war. It signals the end of the long night of feverish dis tress and hastens the glad morning or health, peace and prosperity. In her dire struggle for life and health the nation has never seen a more auspicious epoch than that with which the receives the greeting of the new year. There remains now but needful time and rest for restoration to the full measure of her normal strength. History indeed records no obstacles more formid able than those which confronted the American peo ple in the great work of pacification following the convulsions of their new birth. A despotic power may suppress insurrection by simple force, visit summary punishment upon its rebellious subjeots and reassert its absolute Bway. With a popular gov ernment comprising a voluntary inion of States, without unrepresented territory, the task is not merely to enforce the national authority, but to reconcile central power with local disaffection and wring from sullen and discontented communities the willing Bupport requisite to its cohesive existence. In the performance of a work so complicated, to wholly escape blunders would he to evince in human affair* more than human wisdom. If the govern ment has carried its forbearance to a point exciting the amazement if not the ridicule of nationsif it has withheld p. nishment for treason by blood or con fiscation-if the insurgent States have felt the avenging hand of the government in little else than its benefactions-if leading offenders find swift re habilitation in the councils of the nation they sought to disseverit may prove that a wise government is stronger in the hearts of it people than in the prow ess of its arms. Whether such shall be the happy outcome of all our internal disturbances depends now upon the conduct of the people upon whom the ex periment is tried. The control of their own affairs has been surrendered wholly into their own hands It is for them to show that the nation's magnanim ity has not been misplaced nor its confidence be. traved. While much may be pardoned to the convulsions which overturned southern Society, and clothed its ignorant masses with dangerous power, nothing can justify a resort to violence or fraud as a remedy. A local sentiment so ferocious and intolerant as to per mit parties to exiBt only of those who once sought to destroy the government, must inevitably provoke iu other sections a party of those who rallied to its defense. The country becomes thus embroiled anew in a worse than sectional strife. If such perforce must be the guage of battle, the loyal sentiment of the country cannot avoid the issue But a wiser and nobler contest should engage the people of a com mon countrya contest of brotherly deeds and of the conquering arts of peace. For the sake ot the traditions of an honored past and the hopes of a glorious futurein the name of that common faith and aspiration, which throughout the civilized world point to the common destiny of free government let us invoke a renewed recognition of those funda mental principles which gave us political existence, and appeal to that patriotic love of justice which shall ignore parallels of latitude, and enforce every where under the flag the equal rights of all men be the law. Nay let it be our wider ambition, that alike in every quarter of the national domain, and in the farthest co-ner of the habitable globe, a panoply of safety and honor shall crown the highest and lowest person who claims the proud title ofPHiXj8BTJRT American citt- B*1^' Executive offlee, S Patu, January 9th, 1878.