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THE MONTANA POST.
D. W. TILTON & CO.,
ipul ers arl Proprietc-r ............................ .... My Country, may she always be right; but my Country, right or wrong."........ ......... ... ...... o p
VOL. ----CITY OF VIRGINIA, MONTANA TERRITORY, SATURDAY, AUGUST 26, 1865. ~.
VOL. 1. CITY OF VIRGINIA, MONTANA TERRITORY, SATURDAY, AUGUST 26, 1865. NO. 53.
D. W. Tilton & Co.
D . TILTON. BEN. R. Dirrs,
PUBLISHERS & PROPRIETORS.
os at ory C Book Store, corner of Wallace 4' Ja.cke.
o *rcels. Virginia City, Mon. Ter.
O, p, one year...........................7 50 a
do. six months................--------........... 4 00 B
do. three months,. ......................... 2 50
gates of Advertising. C
,0sinW Cards, five lines or lea, 3 months,...... 10 00 00
do. do. do. 6 months,...... 15 00
do. do. do. 1 year,........ 9O 00
One quae, ten lines or less, 1 insertion, .......... 4 00
do. do. do. 2 do. .......... 6 00
do. do. do. 1 mouth,............ 10 00
do. do. do. 2 do. ............13 00
do. do. do. 3 do. ............ 15 00
do do. do. 6 do ............ 25 00
do. do. do. 1 year.. .......... 3500 r
Two equares, 1 insertion, ...................... 6 00
do. do ........................ 8 00
do. I month, ............ ........ 1200 w
do. 2 do ..................... 18 00 'I
do. 3 do......................... 4 00 it
do. 6 do......................... 4000 a
do. year.......................... 65 00
osn-eighth column, 1 insertion ................ 8 00 a
do. do. 2 do . ................. 12 00 d
do. do. 1 month,.................... 18 00 d
do, do. 2 do. .................... 25 00 -
do. do. 3 do ................... 30 00
do, do. 6 do. ...".... ....... 5000
do. do. 1 year ...................... 7000
Oanesi=th column, 1 insortion .................... 10 00 1
do. do. 2 do. ................... 15 00 s
do. do. 1 month,...................... 0 00 a
do. do. 2 do ...................... 3000
do. do. 3 do ...................... 3600
do. do. 6 do. ..................... 55 00
do. do. 1 year...................... 80 00
One-fourth column, 1 Insertion,.................. 12 00
do. do. 2 do. ................... 18 00 d
do. do. 1 month ...................... 24 00
do. do. 2 do. .................... 36 00 C
do. do. 3 do. ..................... 45 00 -
do. do. 6 do. ..................... 6500
do. do. 1 year,....................... 90 00
Onehalf column, 1 insertion ............ ...... 20 0 1
do. do. 2 do. .................... 25
do. do. 1 month ...................... 35 00 (
do. do. 2 do. ...... ......... 4500 a
do. do. 3 do. ...................... 55 00
do. do. 6 do. ...................... 80 00
do. do. 1 year,........................ 115 00
O~e column, 1 insertion ......................... 30 00
do. 2 do. ........................ 4000 1
do. 1 month ........... ............. 5500
do. 2 do. ........................... 75 00
do. 3 do. .......................... 9000
do. 6 do. ........................ 140 00C
do. 1 eaf............... .......... 200 00
LocAL. NorrIcES.-One dollar per line for three lines or
less: 75 cents per line for ten lines or less; 50 cents per
line for eleven lines or more.
-I --- --_I__________
OFFICIALI I)IRlLCT 0Y.
.~ernor --SIDNEY EDGERTON, Bannack City.
.erretary-JOHN T. COBURN.
,hirt Justice-II. L. HosaMER.
.Aisoriate Justice-L. B. %VttILLITON.
-L. E. Ml.NSoN.
Jtornev-Genirral-E. It. NEALLEY, Virginia.
U. S. Marshal--OEO. M. PINNEY.
Assist U. . ..arshal-J. X. BEIDLER.
Auditor-JOHN S. LOTr.
Treasurer-JOHN J. H 'LL.
Superintendent of Public Instruction-T. J. DIMBDALE.
Asesesor-T. C. EVERTS.
Collector Internal Revenue-N: P. LANOFORD.
Clerk of the U. S. District Court-A. M. TORBTr.
luanicipal Officers of Virginia City.
Mayor-P S. PFOUTS..
Po ce Mas'istrat-T. W. Ta lsferr'o.
Clerk-Chas. J. D. Curtis.
Attorney--W. L. Browu.
Treasurer-John S. Rockfellow.
Assistant City Maashal-Jerry Lewis.
County Officers of adlison County.
County Commissioners-John Pottets Chairman; J. E.
McClurg. Fred. K. Root.
Probate Judre-O. F. Strickland.
Acting Sherif--OG. G. Bissell.
Deputy Sheriffs-H. L. Crawford, James Williams, J. B.
Recorder--R. N. Hill.
County Assessor--J. Armitage.
W. F. SANDERS. JEtRY COOK.
Sanders & Cook,
ATTORNEYS AT LAW and Solicitors in Chancery,
Virginia City, Montana Territory. 3-ly
ATTORNEY AT LAW, Virginia City, Montana Ter
1 ritory. Omffie in Post Office Building, on Wallace
Jno. C. Turk. W. L. Brown.
Turk & Brown,
ATTORNEYS AND COUNSELLORS AT LAW. I
SWill practice in all the courts of the Territory. Office,
over Geo. Hanna & Co.'s store, Wallace street, Virginia
City, M. T. 45-57*
John S. Atchison.
NOTARY PUBLIC. Revenue Stamps and Blanks for
I sale at Allen & Millard's Bank, Virginia City, Mon
tana Territory- 43-55*
SURGEON DENTIST. Office two doors west of Now
. lan's Bank Building. Patients visited at their residence
when desired. 43.55*
G ENERAL AUCTIONEER. Partieular attention giv
en to the sale of Live Stock and Real Estate, sales
of Stocks of Goods in Store. Office at the Elephant Cor
ral, Virginia City, M. T. 18-44*
John S. Lewis, N. B. Hale, D. M. Gillett.
Lewis, Hale & Co.,
JEWELRY MANUFACTURERS. Every description
of JcweLry made to order from the Native Gold, and
Warranted. Particular attention paid to repairing Fine
Watches. Also, Engraving done to order. Sign of the
Gold Watch. J.ackson Street, Virginia City, M. T.
February 25. 1865- 40-52*
Roath and Co.
A MERICAN WATCHES just received direct from the
£ Manufactories. Every description of Jewelry manu
hetured from the Native Gold. Call, examine specimens,
and then jiude. Sign of the MAMMOTH WATCH, Vir
nia City, Montana Territory. Corner of Jackson and
Wallace streets, in the City Book Store. 44
FFICE four doors east of Jackson and Wallace streets.
House and Real Estate Agent. Buildings rented,
taxes paid. Abstracts of Title of obtained, Quartz speci
meas and the necessary papers relating to Lode Claims
forwarded to New York. Particular attention given to the
-elleeting and shipping of money. References:- J. Kis
kadden, D. W. Tilton & Co.,, Pfoute & Russell, John A.
Nye & Co. 41-tf
Ceer *f Wallace and Van Baras krets, Virgtni City.
1 H. PILES, begs to inform the public that he has
* opened this house for boarders, and will frnaish
mSei to transient customers. His table will be supplied
`ith the best that the market affords. 8pe el tntion
will he paid to the comfort of his guests. (od lesn beds.
John H. Ming,
CORNER of Wallace and Jackson streets, Virtgiia0 t,
Montana Territory. Books and Stationery'. Whol
s Sand Retail. Groceries, Boots sad Shoes.
Hosmer and Hauser,
CLAIM AGENTS, have estabished an agony for the
purobase and sale of Gold and Silver Quarts Claim na
dl'lsnt parts of the Territory. One of the pertaess will
attnd in person, to the introdnetioe sad sale of Lodes ti
e York, Philadellphis and other Easters cities, and the
4l to oMbm the mse to this city. Arrssgeamete
illbe m4ad, rs l Sthe Spring fon seepreswtsing Yods
T Wsnr tt Cre's UrA. en Welaee Sfltveet, an5O'E
WaUlace SWeet, Virgini COity, M. T.,
J, Ut. CASTNE.E, Prwprletr.
SHIS Popular Howl, whleh fbrms part of Catser's
Building, has been enlarged and relttoed in a style to
meet the demands of the Public. Its larder is we: sup
plied, and lt tables arnished with the best the marlet
The Idae. Ii1ws Hall.
curled on by HULL & Cuaatrsa, contains br First Class
Billiard Tables. where the lovers of the game can always
be accommodated. The old friends of J. J. Hull and J. M.
Caster, can always And them at the Idaho.
Those having Territorial fnds to depeuit, should call at
the Idaho, where the oSoe of the Treasurer is situated.
At the old stand of Kircheel, Kinesy 4 Cb., Jack·oe
Streat, Virgio City, M. T.
Cal. U. P. DOWNS, Proepr.
THE proprietor begs respeetally to infranm his iends
1 ad the pbhegemally, that Bared sad Lodgingin
ood style can be obtained at his estabshm mt No pai
will be spared to present a well spread table to his guests.
The comfort and accomodation of his patrons will be sedu.
lously attended to. Breakfast on table from 6:30 to 9 o'clock
a. m.; Dinner, 12 m., to 2 p. m.; Sapper, 6 to 7 p. m.
A good Feed Stable and Corral attached to the premises,
and also a Graring Ranche, where cattle will be watched
day and night. The pasture is excellent and water abun
0 ADDLER & HARNESS MAKER. Constantly on
3 hand and manufacturing from the best material, all
styles of Saddles, Bridles, Single and Double Harness, or
) anything else made in a first ose saddler shop. 27-52*
Dodge & Thexton,
ENERAL BLACKSMITHS and Plough Manufaotur
SL ers, Cover street, Virginia City, Ploughs of the best
description, suitable for Ranchmen in this oountry, made to
i order in the best possible manner. Horses, Mules and
Cattle shod in the most approved manner. 29-54*
ELENA CITY. Montana Territory. The above
named House is now opened for guests and boarders.
Good beds, and the best the market affords, for the table,
at reasonable prices. B. B. Burchett,
E. M. Dunphy.
i TTHOLESALE and Retail Grocer, Storage and Com
SVV mission Merchant, west side Main street, Helena,
A large and complete assortment of Fancy and Staple
Groceries on hand, at figures to suit the time. Give us a
Occidental Billiard Hall.
ROCKFELLOW & DENNEE'S BUILDING, Jackson
Street, Virginia City. The finest tables in town. The
bar supplied with the best of Liquors and Cigars.
42-68* JOHN H. MING.
W ALLACE STREET, one door below Nolan & Co.'s
Bank. Gold and Silver, and Ores or every descrip
tion Assayed. I guarantee my assays, and will pay any
difference which may arise between them and the U: d.
Mint. 38-50* D. GILBERT.
John R. Gilbert,
AASSISTANT ASSESSOR U. S. INTERNAL RE
t VENUE, for the First Division of the Collection Dis
trict of Montana. embracing Madison County. Office, first
door east of City Drug Store.
Virginia City. April 27, 1865. 36-88*
HAY SCALES STORE, Wallace Street, Virginia City
Commission Merchant. Cas advanced on consian
ments. A general assortmbnt of Miners' Outfitting G s.
Provisions, Vegetables, etc., etc. 42-67*
Eggers and Ludlow.
L UMBER YARD, Successorsto Gamble, Walker& Co.,
corner of Idaho and Broadway streets. Virginia City,
M. T. All kinds of Sluice and Building Lumber. Lum
ber bills filled on short notice. Also yards at Centreville
and Nevada. 22-44
IHE UNDERSIGNED are now prepared to assay oor
Irectly in small or large quantities the ores of Montana.
Silver, Gold, Copper, Lead. Antimony, or Bismuth. Otioe
No. 2, of Content's Block, corner of Wallace and Jackson
Streets, Virginia. W. Y. LOVELL, & CO.
TXTE have in our Lumber Yard on the corner of Idaho
aV and Broadway streets, Virginia City, a complete as
sortment of White Pine and other Lumber, and can supply
customers on the shortest notice. Orders may be left at the
Lumber Yard and will be promptly filled. We have the
only mill in the Territory which runs Winter and Summer,
and can fill orders at all seasons.
4-tf THOMPSON & CO.
Iron and Steel Turning.
-M ACHINERY Repaired. Billiard Balls turned, to.
IVI Every cescription of Gun work performed. in good
style. Ammunition of all kinds kept constantly on hand.
Powder Lead, Caps, Navy and Dragoon Balls Shot, and
Cartridges. ALEXANDER KEMP.
45-67* Gun Shop, Wallace St., Virginia City.
H. C. KzeDALL. A. Vucwrr.
OVER STREET, Virginia City. Manufacture
C and keep constantly on hand, Bread and Pies;
also Sods and Butter Crackers, Wholesale and Retail.
J. A. Gray,
A UCTION AND COMMISSION MERCHANT, Vir
ginia City, M. T., tirst door below Content's
corner. Liberal advances made on Consignments
Stock and Goods of all kinds disposed of by Public
or Private Sale 47-59e
N. Axmuaso.. FAxcirs Winox.
F. Wilson & Co.,
WHEN you want a good shave, your hair out ad sham
pooed, or your head rubbed till you can't rest, go to
the Star Shaving Saloon, and you will get it done up in
good style: Ladies hair dressed, curled and shampooed
at the shop, or they will be punctually attended at their
private residences. If you are losing your hair, give An
derson a call, for he is sure cure.
51 F. WILSON.
Drs. Crepin & Justiee.
OFFICE ON WALLACE STREET, Next door to
City Drug Store. 47"64
James N. Williams,
FASHIONABLE ailr Dressing and Shaving Salooe,
Bridge Street, Helena, Montana Territory. 45-54'
a, a cnLZart. ctsurtxAn rcaTLa.
E HAVE costantly easd a larg aepply of
BEER <EGS, ETC.
g AU ordes in oar le tof blness will be promptly
Virginia City, M. T. 513'
.ILCLEW a .WIILLaIfD,
vr. l.A cITY A4N M ILZ4. . T.
covi, Geld Dil, Tressmwr N es, , a
Ferein aDne DwomrssZe aseams,**
I. V. ALLEN, 1&*
D £ Me i we su l . la, W. T.
A t eitaae ] Point. ot
Angest Ath, ]b5.
SAx. Worn. . JA. G.1 ti,.
Word & Spratt,
ATTORýEB 3 AT 'LAW, Virginia City, Montana
Territory. Will practice in all the Courts of
said Territory. Special attention given to the Col
lection of Claims. 43-5*
L. W. Frary,
SURGICAL AND MECHANICaL DNTIST. Of
Siee up stairs, in Pfonts A Ruesell's 8tone B&ild
ing. All dental operations performed in the best
possible mamnet. Single teeth a.d complete sett
inserted in the highest style .of art. eLdie and
gentlemen will Ind every arrangement for their con
Denlver J.leat .7Plarket,
Nevaat City, .- - * . T.
TAXE S plesre announoe to the public, thet be
there wil always be fund the bet e~ae at
SAUSAGE MEAT, and
SAUSAGES OF ALL KINDS.
He also, receives constantly Game, Fasbh and Fowl of the
season. Try him. 34-1.4
TOBACCO, CIGARS, PIPES.
SNUFF, &C., &C.
Ii. J. Brendltnger J Co.,
RESPECTFULLY call the attention of all pýsona
baying any of the above articles, to the desirabIestook
of goods now in stob.
The finest and best assorted stock of Plug and Fine Cut
" Chewing Tobacco, ever offered in the Territory.
SCOTCH AND GERMAN SNUFF.
CIGARS! CIGARS! CIGARS !
A well-selected stock, from which every one can be suited.
Genuine Meerachaum, Gutta Percha, Briar Root, all kinds
e of Wooden, Fancy, Clay, a&c.
PIPE STEMs--Patent Gutta Percha, Cherry, Case. &o.
Mouth Pieces and Cigar Holders,
- And a Variety of Fancy Goodes I
H. J. BRENDLINGER, & CO.,
Wallace street, three doors below Kiskadden's Stone Block.
EMIGRANTS AND FREIGHTERS
KING, CURTIS & CO.,
Gemeral Auctieoeers and Ceam issin
Jackson Street, Virginia City, M. T.,
A RE prepared to sell merchandise of all descriptions, o
, either from wagons, or take goods in store, as oustoam. a
era may prefer.
of horses, mules, cattle, wagons, notions, produce, and
every other description of property, either at auction or
private sale. Advances made on consignments. 39-51* P
Hliggins, Trals 4" Co ,
Wallace Street, Virglnia City, and t
Helena M. T. a
LIVERY AND SALE
ELEGANT vehicles, and well trained hores for the
SSaddle, Buggy or Carriage. constantly on hand.
A First Class Turn-out Guaranteed.
THE VIRGINIA CORRAL IS IN CON
NECTION WITH THIS ESTAB
../. Branham 5 Co.,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL GROCERS,
Blacokfoot, M. T.
Consignments of Groceries, Provisions and all
kinds of Merchandise solicited.
Rarra TO :
Rockfellow & Dennee, Virginia City, M. T.
Tutt & Donnell. Helena, M. T.
Carroll & Steell, Fort Benton, M. T.
Gilbert & Sons, Bsit Lake City, Utah.
Branham & Hopkins, St. Louis Mo. 47-56*
HO!. FOR THE STATES! S C
S0th of September, 1865. h
600 Passengers Wanted. *
FLEET of Mackinaw boats will leave the mouth of
the Yellowstone Canon, for the States. The boats are
from thirty to thirty-vofeet loan; sharp at both ends. and Y
built so as to be proof against all ijury from obstruations 0
to•river savigation. i
FARE--From Virginia City to St. Joseph, o., 40 00; b
from the place of embarkation. $30 00.
Experienced navigator of the Yellowstone and Missouri
will act as pilots, and the whole will be in charge of a man
well aogqanted with Indi.an affair.
Tiekets for passage ega be obtained rom A. M. Torbett,
at the Clerk's Oice, Virgini.City, sad at Taylor ad
TIns-a-Ten dollars in advase, and the blm aoe on em
Tickets must be secured bythe Istof September.
R.O . KNOX & CO., Prop6et s.
August 4th, 1865. 50-1m
Academy of the Holy Family, I
FOR, YOUNC LADIES,
St. Igmatlmu Hslein, - - U[. T.
rHIS Academ is under the direction oa the Sisters of
. Charity. Theywil teach to read asd write, Gram
mr and glih Compe.tlea, Airitmeli Geography,
History, sad the French laugs If rqqtired. Seg, I
snad whatever s understood under the eztnsive word of
Hosewifery. Children must be ptvrovMed with bed-loth
ng, two dresses for week days and one for Sundays. shaI as
doaes pocket handkerchies three towels, combs and basi,
spoon, fork sad knife. They will by their school books
i the Aademy. For the sake of unirmityand ood r
dei ail ts papis wll aist ot the religio ser s t
the Ilast a ll ss either seat or s reaised Iby the
p ,upl S r sumjeltos othe ipeeticl ofthe - 1
le viuiwr adddtit without awrt or of ta. vespest- 1
sw o lea e , h a sEls athe iL. perm
Wa.-sa and uming, u I7 w b he mst sesmuts
wilal eom inse .te r at se ta , ms s
teat of June: tar Ather h sd sas; adbindms
1as s ta san s,- see ms ·ki) (L sss I
atmd aeoidg to the Aet ot Coegre., in the
186, by Thos. J. DnlBDALu, in the Clerk's Oes of the
Dstriet Cout of he 1it Judicial Distri~t of Montma
VIGILANTES OF MONTANA.
A ntLL AND ooPl Krns HrorT or
THE CHASE, CAPTURe, TRIAL AND EXEOU
TlON OP ALL THE OUTLAWS WHO FIG
URUD IN THE BLOODY DRAMA.
The object of the writer in presenting this
narrative to the publio, is twofold. His
intention is, in the first place, to give a oor
reot history of an organisation administering
justice without the sanction of constitutional
law; and secondly, to prove iot only the
necessity for their action, but khe equity of
" Having an intimate acquaintanoe with
parties cognisant of the facts related, qnd
feeling certain of the literal truth of the
statements contained in this history, he
offers it to the people of the United States,
with the belief that its perusal will greatly
modify the views of those even who are
most prejudiced against the summary retri
bution of mountain law, and with the convic
tion that allhonest and impartialmen will be
willing to admit both the wisdom of the
course pursued and the salutary effect of the
rule of the Vigilantes in the Territory of
It is also hoped that the history of the
celebrated body, the very mention of whose
name sounded as a death-knell in the ears
of the murderers and Road Agents, will be
edifying and instructive to the general
reader. The incidents related are neither
trivial in themselves, nor unimportant in
their results ; and, while rivalling fiction in
interest, are unvarnished accounts of trans
actions, whose fidelity can be vouched by
As a literary production, the author com
mits it to the examination of the critical
without a sigh. If any of these author
slavers are inclined to be more severe in
their judgment than he is himself, he trusts
they will receive the reward to which their
justice entitles them; and if they should
pass it by, he cannot but think that they
will exercise a sound discretion, and avoid
much useless labor. With all its imperfec
tions, here it is.
CHAPTER I. sta
IlrTRODUCTORY-VIGILANCE Co.MErITTr . h.
"The teeth that bite hardest are out of sight."-Paov. P
The end of all good government is the safety and
happines of the governed. It is not possible that i
high state of civilization and progress can be main- m
tained unless the tenure of life and property is secure; 11
and it follows that the first efforts of a people in a new sr
country for the inauguration of the reign of peace, .
the sure precursor of prosperity and stability, should h
be directed to the accomplishment of this object. to
In newly settled mining districts, the necessity for
some effective organization of a judicial and protec- bi
tive character is more keenly felt than it is in othr
pices. where the lees exciting pursuits of agricdf
tare and commerce mainly attract the attention and d
occupy the time of the first inhabitants.
There are good reasons for this difference. The
irst is the entirely dissimilar character of the popu- co
lations; and the second, the possession of vast sums a
of money by uneducated and unprincipled people. in ,
all places where the precious metals may be obtained ,
at the cost of the labor necessary to exhume them fr
from the strata in which they lie concealed. k
in an agricultural country, the life of the pioneer b
settler is always one of hard labor, of considerable hi
privation, and of more or less isolation, while the
people who seek to clear a farm in the wild forest, or
who break up the virgin soil of the prairies are rr
usually of the steady and hard-working classes, need- e
ing little assistance from courts of justice to enable
them to maintain rights which are seldom invaded ;
and whose differences, in the early days of the coun
try, are, for the most part, so slight as to be scarcely
worth the cost of a litigation more complicated than
a friendly and, usually, gratuitous, arbitration- k
submitted to the judgment of the most respected h
among the citizens.
In marked contrast to the peaceful hfe of the tiller
of the soil, and to the placid monotony of his pur
suits are the turbulent activity, the constant excite
ment and the perpetual temptations to which the
dweller in a mining camp Is subject, both during his
sojourn in the gulches, or, if he be given to pros- h
pecting, in his frequent and unpremeditated change b
of location, commonly called a"stampede." There r
can scarcely be conceived a greater or more apparent
difference than exists between the staid and sedate
inhabitants of rural districts, and the motley group
of miners, professional men and merchants, thickly
interspersed with sharpers, refugees, and a fall selec
tion from the dangerous classes that swagger, armed q
to the teeth, through the diggings, and infest the
roads leading to the newly discovered gulches, where
lies the object of their worship--4old.
Fortunately the change to a better state of things
is rapid, and none who now walk the streets of
Virginia would believe that, within two years of this
date, the great question to be decided was, which
was the stronger, right or might?
was the stronger, right or might?
And here it must be stated, that the remarks which
truth compels us to make, concerning the classes of
individuals which furnish the law defying element of
mining camps, are in no wise applicable to the ma
jority of the people, who, while exhibiting thechar
acteristic energy of the American race in the pursuit
of wealth, yet maintain, under every disadvantage,
an essential morality, which is the more creditable
since it must be sincere, in order to withstand the
temptations to which it is constantly exposed. "Oh,
cursed thirst of gold," mid the ancient, and no man
has even an inkling of the truth and force of the
sentiment, till he has lived where gold and silver are
as much the objects of desire, and of daily and labo
tieus exertion, as glory and promotion are to the
young soldier. Were it not for the preponderance
of this conservative body of citizens, every camp in
remote and recently discovered mineral regions would
b.a foeld of blood; and where this is not ao, the fact
i- proof irresistible that the good is in suficient force
to control the evil, and eventually to bring order oat
Let the reader -suppose that the police of New
York were withdrawn for twelve months, and then
let them picture the wild satprnalia which would
take the place of the order that reigns there now.
If, then, it is so hard to restrain the dangerous classes
of old and settled communities, what must be the
difflcult; of the task, when, ten-fold in number,
fearless in character, generally well armed, and sup
plied with money to an extent unknown among their
eqals in the met, such men mnd themselves removed
from the restraints of civilized society, and beyond
the control of the authority which there enforces
obedience to the law.
Were it not for the sterling stff of which the mass
of miners is made, their love of fair play, and their
prompt and decisive action in emergencies, this his
tory could never have been written, for deperadoes
of every natie woeld have made this country a
scene of bloodshed and a sink of iniuity such as
was never before witnessed.... ..
was never before w l55sseO.
?cgether with so much that is evil, uo where is
thee as much that is sternly pposel to dishonesty
amd violences in the ao.tamis; sad though are
ler of xtermsls and sgle, to degree elsew re a
klown, the intrinsic value of may uaprightaena is
n6 where so clearly exhMtbd d so well aprecia.
ted asia the 11orado f the west. Middlrg peo
de eo t livel. i theesegio 'A ma a swoman
ecome better or wore V trip towards the Pcifc.
The ken y of th eaperied ainer detects the
•i bu.re tso $gle a, ei eaes his etire . elsm
tim, it his aaseeamtlm Ita *. fln sgihl he
1- wmks _ -ca. l . katrs, ater a
it from a. r * * * *
"owin o i.. I • omes.
.en more it to serve his eonbty in any eapecity
requiring courage, integrity and self-reliance, than I
an "honest miner," who has been tried and found
true by a jury of mountsaleers.
The univeral license that is, at frat, a necessity
of position in such places, adds greatly to the numn
ber of crimes, and to the facilities for their peer
tration. Saloons, where pssonous liquors are vended
to all comers. and consumed in quantities sufficient
to drive excitable mea to madness and to the coa
mission of homicide, on the slightest provocation,
are to be found in amazing numbers, and the villain
ous compounds there sold, under the generic name of
whiskey, are more familiarly distinguished by the
cognomena of "Tangle-leg," "Forty-rod," "Light
ning." "Tarantula-juice," etc., terms only toe truly
describing their acknowledged qualities.
The absence of good female society, in any due
proportion to the numbers of the opposite ,ex, is
likewise an evilof great magnitude; formen become
rough, stern and cruel, to a surprising degree, under
such a state of things.
In every frequented street, public gambling houses
with open doors and loud music, are resorted to, in
broad daylight, by hundreds-it might almost be
said-of all tribes and tongues, furnishing another
fruitful source of "difficulties," which are commonly
decided on the spot, by an appeal to brute force, the
stab of a knife, or the discharge of a revolver.
Women of easy virtue are to be seen promenading
through the camp, habited in the gayest and most
costly apparel, and receiving fabulous sums for their
purchased favors. In fact. all the temptations to
vice are present in full display, with money in abun
dance to secure the gratification of the desire for
novelty and excitement, which is the ruling passion
of the mountaineer.
of the mountaiseer.
One "institution," offering a shadowy and danger
ous eubmtitute for more legitimate female associa
tion, deserves a more particular notice. This is the
"'Hurdy-Gurdy" house. As soon as the men have
left off work, these places are opened. and dancing
commences. Let the render picture to himself a
large room, furnished with a bar at one end-where
champagne at $12 (in gold) per bottle, and "drinks"
at twenty-five to fifty cents, are wholesaled, (cor
rectly speaking)-and divided, at the end of this bar,
by a railing running from side to side. The outer
enclosure is densely crowded (and, on particular occa
sions, the inner one also) with men in every variety
of garb that can be seen on the continent. Beyond
the barrier, sit the dancing women, called "hurdy
gurdies," sumetimes dressed in uniform, but, more
generally, habited according to the dictates of in
dividual caprice, in the finest clothes that money
can buy, and which are fashioned in the most attrac
tive styles that fancy can suggest. On one side is a
raised orchestra. The music suddenlystrikes up, and
the summons. "Take your partners for the next
dance," is promptly answered by some of the male
spectators. who, paying a dollar in gold for a ticket. I
approach the ladies' bench, and-in style polite, or I
otherwise, according to antecedents-invite one of
the ladies to dance.
The number being complete, the parties take their
places, as In any other lancing establishment, and
pause for the performance of the introductory notes
of the air.
of the air. I
Let us describe a first class daincer--"sure of a e
partner every time"--:nd her companion. Thereshe I
stands, at the head of the set. She is of middle
height, of rather full and rounded form; her com
plexion as pure as alabaster, a pair of dangerous
looking hazel eyes, a slightly Roman nose, and a
sm'll anl prettily formed mouth. Her auburn hair s
is neatly banded and gathered in a tastefully orna- i
mented net, with a roll and gold tassels at the side.
low sedate she looks dluring the first figure, never
smiling till the termination of "promenade, eight,"
when she shows her little white hands in ixing her
handsome brooch in its place, and settling her glis
tening ear-rings. See how nicely her scarlet dress, I
with its broad black band round the skirt, and its
black edging, sets off her dainty figure. No wonder 4
that a wild mountaineer would be willing to pay
net one dollar, bet all that he has in his parne, for a
dance and an approving smile from so beautiful a
lHer cavalier stands ix feet in his boots, which
come to the knee, and are garnished with a pair of
dpani-h spurs, with rowels aild bells like young water
wheels. His buckskin leggings are fringed at the
=eams, and gathered at the waist with a U. S. belt,
from which hengs his loaded revolver and his sheath
knife. His neck is bare, muscular and embrowned
by exposure, as is also his bearded face, whosesdorbre
hue is relieved by a pair of piercing dark eyes. His
long, black hair hangs down beneath his wide felt
hat, and, in the corner of his mouth, is a cigar, which
rolls like the lever of an eccentric. as he chews the
end in his mouth. After an amazingly grave salute,
"all hands round" is shouted by the prompter, and
off bounds the buckskin hero, rising and falling to
the rythm of the dance. with a clumsy agility and a
growing enthusiasm, testifying his huge delight.
lis fair partner, with practised foot and easy grace,
keeps time to the music like a clock, and rounds to
her place as smoothly and gracefully as a swan. As
the dance progresses, he of the buckskins gets ex
cited, and nothing but long practice prevents his
partner from being swept off her feet, at the conclu
sion of the miner's delight. "set your partners," or
"gents to the right." An Irish tune or a hornpipe
_eenerally finishes the set. and then the thunder of
heel and toe, and some amazing demivoltos are
brought to an end by the aforesaid, "'gents to the
right," and "promenade to the bar," which last closes
tbedance. After a treat, the bar-keepsr mechanically
raps his blower as a hint to "weigh out," the ladies
sit down, and, with scarcely ali interval, a waltz,
polka, schottische, mazurka, varsovienne, or another
All varieties of costume, physique and demeanor
can be noticed among the dancers-from the gayest
colors and "loudest" styles of dress and manner, to
the snugly fitting black silk, and plain, white collar,
which sets off the neat figure of that blue-eyed,
modest looking Anglo-Snxon. Yonder,beside the tall
and tastily clad German brunette, you see the short
curls, rounded tournure and smiling face of an Irish
girl; indeed. representatives of almost every dancing
nation of white folks, may be seen on the floor of
the,llurdy-Gurdy house. The earnings of the dancers
are very different in amount. That dancer in the
low necked dress, with the scarlet 'waist," a great
favorite and a really good dancer, counted fifty tick
ets into her lap before "The la.t dance, gentlemen,"
followed by, "Only this one before the girls go
home," which wound up the performance. Twenty
six dollars is a great deal of money to earn in such5
fashion ; but fifty sets of quadrilles and four waltzes.
two of them for the love of the thin-, is very hard
As a rule, however, the professional 'hurdies" are
Teutons, and, though first rate dancers, they are,
with some few exceptions, the reverse of good
The dance which is most attended. is one in which
ladies to whom pleasure is dearer than fame, repre
sent the female element, and. as may be supposed, the
evil only coxMuwcra at the Dance House. It is not
uncommon to see one of these syrens with ay "outfit"
worth from seven to eight hundred dollars,and many
of them invest with merchants and bankers thousands
of dollars in gold, the rewards and presents they
receive, espeelally the more highly favored ones.
being more, in a week, than a well educated girl
would earn in two years in an Eastern city.
would earn in two years in an Eastern city. -
In the Dance House you can see Judges, the Ieg
islative core, Doctors, and every one but the Mi-is
ter. He never ventures further than to engage'in
conversation-with a friend at the door, and while
intently watching the performance, lectures on the
evil of such places with considerable forcs; but his
attention is evidently more- fixed upon the dancers
than on his lecture. Bom'etimes may be seen gray
haired men dancing, their wives sitting at home in
blissful ignorance of the proceeding. There neve
was a dance house running, for any length of time,
in the firt days of a mining town, in which "shoot
ing scrapes" do not occur; equal proportions o:
jealousy, whiskty and revenge being the stimellepts
thereto. Billiard saloons are everywhere vlile,
with a bar attached, aad hundreds of thoaumnds of
dollars are spent there. As might be anticl. i it
is impossible to prevent quarrels in these p ce at
all timues,ml in. the momW aimS whatever weapon is
handiest--foot, ýt, knites revo.er, or de.riager--i
is instantly used. The authentic and, indeed, arra
ALLT exact accounts which follow in the coarse of
this narrative will show that the remarks we bve
made on the state of society in a new minin-g con
try, wbfore a controlling power asses its ea, are
in no degre ezaggerated, bat fall sort o thereality,
as all description must.
Oae misted featmreof socal interomone, aa(dter
ind.ece in strongdrink) the mos fritftal asore
of a eel d baot is tLb all pervadia cuLm
of imtgesg ameg oen r, ee e. im
will say more tha the mean, sad t
code "t the minme, bqeion a wreag ,k
coastittle mahood, teamches them to ret by se
tat whitheeh be eanwed bisat d. eot
Another powerful baceti to wrong doi~a be
Iabolute fhlity of the c.ilw in meek -ea. Ne
matter wmst may be the poe, if the tdmial i
well liked in the tommuity. "Not uilts."
almost certain to be the verdie of the jury,
the eforts of the Judge ad s weetr. If tbe
ofender is a monied man, as as popular dcti
sea, the trial is oelf a fareegree a pre ged,
it is true, hat caphble of only one termlatdtt.-4
verdict of acquittal. In after days, when polioe
magistrate in cities can deal *ith mime, thbr dwe
promptly. Costs are absolately frightful, andr
tremendous. An assanult provoked by druaketeps,
frequently costs a man as me as thrashing f
different policemen weuld do, in New York. A
trifling "tight" is worth from $20 to $.0 in dust, all
ezpensee told, and so on. One grand jry that we
wot of, presented that it would be bette to leavo
the punishment of offenders to the Vigilante, who
always acted impartially, and who wouald not 'pelit
the escape of proved criminals on tecbhiel san ad .
surd pounds-than to have justice defeated, as in a
certain case named. The date of that docessnt is et
ancient, sad though, of coues, refmed sad deSoed,
it was the deliberate opinion, on otth, of the Osand
Inquest, embodying the sentiment of thousad of
good citiseos in the community.
good citiseona ii the community.
Finally, swift and terrible retribution is the only
preventive of crime, while society is organising, in
the far West. The long delay of jastite, the weari
some proceedings, the remembrance of old friend.
ship., etc., create a sympathy for the offender, so
strong a" to cause a hatred of the avengiag law,
instead of inspiring a horror of the crime. There
is something in the excitement of continued stam
pedes that makes men of quick temperamente meeoa
trollably impulsive. In the moment of passion,
they would slay all round them; but let the blood
cool, and they would share their last dollar with the
men whose life they sought. a day or two before.
Habits of thought rule communities more tham
laws, and the settled opinion of a nmerous clae iL,
that calling a man a liar, a thief, or a son of a b-
is provocation sumcient to justify instant slaying.
Juries do not ordinarily bother themselves about t
lengthy instructions they hear read by the coart.
They simply consider whether the deed is a crime
against the Mountain Code; and if not, "notgatlty"
is the verdict, at once returned. Thieving, or any
action which a miner calls xSan, will surely be vis
ited with condign punishment, at the hands of a
Territorial jury. In such cases, mercy there is none ;
but, in affairs of single combats, assults, sbootis,
stabbings, and highway robberies, the civil law, with
its positively awful expense and delay, is worse than
useises. -. -
One other main point requires to be noticed. Any
person of experience will remember that the untver
sal story of criminals, who harrexpiated thefrecries
on the scaffold, or who are pining away s sthe hbrd
ships of involuntary servatude-tells of habitual
Sabbath breaking. This sin is so general in newly
discovered diggings in the mountains, that a rmom
strance usually produces no more fruit than a few
jocular oaths and a laugh. Religion is said to be
"played out," and a professing Christian mt keep
straight, indeed, or he will be suspected of being a
hypocritical member of a tribe, toxwhom it would be
very disagreeable to talk about hemp.
Under these circumstances, it becomes an absolute
nec.ssity that good, law-loving and order-estainlng
men should unite for mutual protection, and for the
salvation of the community. Being united, thbe
must act in harmony ; repress disorder; punish crime,
and prevent outrage, or their organisatieo would be
a failure from the start, and society would collapse
in the throes of anarchy. N one but extreme penal
ties, inflicted with promptitude, are of any avail to
quell the spirit of the desperadoes with whom they
have to contend; considerable numbers are required
to cope successfully with the pugs of muearse,
desperadoes and robbers, who iufest mining coiu
tries, and who, though faithful to no other bo
yet all leagne willingly against the law.
tlyy must be, in comncil and membaekip, or they
will remain nearly useless for the detection of erime
in a country where equal facilities for the tranmsmi
sion of intelligence are at the command of the crim
inal and the judiciary; and an organisation on this
footing is a V oL.asca Coinrrant.
Such was the state of affairs, when five me in
Virginia, and four in Bannack. initiated the movo
ment which resulted in the formation of a tribuesl"
supported by an omnipresent executive, comprising
within itself nearly every good man in the Territory,
and pledged to render impartial justice to friend and
foe, without regard to clime, creed, race or polities
In a few short weeks it was known that the voice of
justice had spoken, in tones that might not be disre
garded. The face of society was changad, as if by
magic; for the Vigilantes, holding in one'hand the
invisible, yet effectual shield of protection, and in
the other, the swift descending and inevitable s*oed
of retribution, struck from his nerveless grasp the
the other, the swift descendng and inmevitable swo.
of retribution, struck from his nervelecs grasp the
weapon of the assasEin; commanded the brawler to
cease from strife; warned the thief to stealno more;
bade the good citizen take courage, and compelled
the ruffians and marauders who had so long maim
tsined the "reign of terror" in MH P to$ _ the
Territory, or meet the just reward
Need we say that they were at once 4. t0not
before more than one hundred valua ve be ts
pitilessly sacrificed and twenty-four miscreants bad
met a dog's doom as the reward of their crimes.
To this hour, the whispered words, "Vrgtan
Vigilantes," would blanch the cheek of the wild-t
and most redoubtable desperado, and necesitate a
instant election between bight amd certain doom.
The administration of a M nis by e4lf-cm
stituted authority is, ly, in civilised ad
settled communities, a rage on manakind. It a.,
there, wholly unneceessary; but the sight of a few
of the mangled corpses of beloved friends sad val
ued citizens; the whistle of the deeperado's bll
and the plunder of the fruits of the patient toil of
years spent in weary exile from home, an places where
civil law is as powerless as a palsied arm, from sher
lack of ability to enforce its decrees-alterthebelis
of the reasoning, and reverse the conclusion, b'
the case of the Vigilantes of Montana, it meat be
also remembered that the Sherif himsself was the
leader of the Road Agents. and his deputie wef the
prominent members of the band.
The question of the propriety of eststlihit a
Vigilance Committee, depends upon the maswes
which ought to be given to the following quries: Is
it lawful for citizens to slay robbers or murdrss,
when they catch them; or ought thbe to wait for
policemen, where thereare none, or put them apea
stentiaries not yet erected?
Gladly, indeed, we feel sure, would the Vi ilan-t
cease from their labot, and joyfully would they bil
the advent of power, civil or military, to take their
place; but, till this is furnished by Govamment,
society must be preserved from demaerlisatio ad
anarchy; murder, arson and robbery mest be pee
vented or punished, and road agents most die. Jm
tice, and protection from wrong to person or pro
erty, are the birth-right of every American ci.i..
and these must be furnished in the bet sad meat
effectual mannr that circumstances rsder padhie.
Furnished, however, they must be by oostitw-io.Sb
law. undoubtedly, wherever practical and *ecieu
provision can be made for its enforcemet. o~t
arm of the mountaineer must wield her sword) br
Sself preservation s the Irst law' of ature.,"
(Toe s sidasid)
IT should never be forgotte M tbt the
Southern Stiato, by the abolitieonf slaery,
obtain a great Iacrpeas of political pwl0e
over what they enjoyed prior to the rebel
lion. lion. John Sherman, ;~ hab exam
ined the matter, says they will gfa foartetu
teen new membes of ponqress, amd a rasyM
electoral votes. ThiieWome frnmi coastib
all the blacka in the basis of represel$ Mos,
and not threeu-tths, as before.
Tas eolored people are malSd- aL!
vancement toward the lig tt.g O. e it
journals have bees etablished by, tY
within a few months, a folkIow:,
Colored Citizen, Cincinnati, O.; theol
tor Cal . the Christian Reeord, l.
Cofored Tebneaseeea , NasbvilIe
buae, New Orleans; the tBaek '
New OInsq,and the Wesh'y
Baltimore. s. s "