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Mines and Mining.
GROUPIOf COPPERS CLAIMS ARE ATTRACTING THE ATTENTION OF MINING MEN. ARE STRICTLY IN THE BELT Several Are Being Developed and Will Give a Good Account of Them selves Later On-Are Rich in Ore. The last isiue of the New York En gineering and Mining Journal contains the following article (ji regar.1 to some of the mines of lutte. "A group of copper mines in the renter of the Butte copper d.Itirlt h'i' becoin'' very interesting of late. It was beleved formerly that the principal copper vi irns were further south, and no work t,, any extent had been done for the last 210 years on the group referr.'ii to, although it is surrounded on all sides by the best properties of the Anaconda 'oppi r lhni - pany, the Boston & Miontno, and the Butte & Boston L'noilper i'o nihs, "The group mentioned coip4ists of the following claims: The East (hin, the Lynchburg, the Jessie, the (au iiit Mountain, the Flat Iron, II irti' it twenty-fourths of the t'roisis, iine-half of the Pinufore, one-half of the Agnatw. The Anaconda (opper company owns the other half of both the Pinafire a ti Agnaw. They are all patented by the United States itud some of them ii among the oldest locations in the camp. All True Fissures. "The country rock I granite of the same character am in the balance of the Butte district. The different veins on all of these properties are true fissure; strong, well-defined copper veins, but carrying a higher percentage of sliver than the more southern veins; they are similar to those in the liii mine, 1tw Mountain Chief and the Adelalue, owned by the Amalgamated Copper company. "The principal work has been done lately at the East (ito mine, where ,t ahaft was sunk to ai depth of 700 feet, and sinking continued to the 1000-foot level. "The East (.em vein split between the 200 and 300-foot levels Into a south vein with a dip of 6O degrees to 70 degrees south while the main (Tin mine sIandis almost perpendliular at this point, but near the 500-foot level tkIies the regular southern dip, common to all Butte v.iSn, as depth is reached. Connection be A Bargain-$1,100 An almost new 4.room frame house in Gagnon addition. Will rent for $20.00 a month. Best renting property in Butte on account of proximity to mines. On Easy Payments. THE THOMPSON COMPANY Insurance, Loans, Real Estate 15 West Broadway. Butte, Montana Grin Into the Looking Glass Couldn't your teeth be improved? If they can, be sure it will also improve your appearance. Come in and let me examine your tenth, tell you what you need, and how little it will cost. I make teeth to match natural teeth so close as to deceive your home folks. DR. E. . GERMAN "&,e, Nr",t" You have tried every smart Some of the best people in Butte catarrh doctor, every catarrh rem- have tried the famous edy that came along, but "N. G." that is what you said. It costs you only $1,00 a bottle. Try it. Pile Cure 10 ol n C C e They pronounced it a success. They are full of praise about this easy and sure cure for these torturing A specific for Catarrhal Conditions ilet.$00complete for Local of the System. All druggists or at adn teraltratment. All drug. gists or at Posselman Drug Store, 43 E. Park Putting in A Motor Is just in our line, also dynamo and motor repairing, armature winding and anything else in the line of electrical work. We are always ready to furnish esttmates that you will find accurate. Better yet, if you consult us we will show you how you en put in electrical appliances and save money on what you. are now paying. s m on w you MONTANA BLECRIC CO. TIlepboue It 53 East Broadway. tween the two veins has been made at the 400, 500 and 700-foot levels. The copper contents vary from 10 to 30 per cent, with about 1% ounces of slver to 1 per cent of cqpper. From the 500-foot level, a cross-cut was run north into the Croesus mine for a distance of 425 feet and two very large and one small copper veins were cut through, It seems that these veins extend east through the Pin afore and Agnaw claims. The last one cut through shows remarkably good cop per ore and Is high grade in ilIver. From the 700-foot (hrm mine level another crone-cut into the Croesus mine was run north, hut only for a short distance; it struck one of the South Croesus cop per veins. High Grade Capper. "In the Jessie mine a good deal of work has beon done reeco tly, and the shaft has bhen cunk to a depth of 300 feet ol the south vein, which is identicao with that of the Mouintain Chief. Its ore is one of the highest grade copper and silver irea in the total area of Itutte The north vein of the Jessie has part of its aipex altnoAt for its entire length on the Jeesie, while it travernes the Agnaw in its coutrse and ultimattly runs itto the Adelaide. Lynchburg and Others. The Lynchburg is almost a full claim and shows a large ve!n on the surface, but there Is nothing deeper tthan a 50 or 0t-foot shaft. This shows good Indira tiorts. "'ihe IIn lfore is one-half owned by the An t tainia company. The vein in a con tinuation of the I roesuu veins. Only sirfuaci work has been done. "The Agnaw iin a continuation of the tiroesas wi-n. The south half of this eitani has the apex of the Adelaide lode for abott 250 feet. "The Flat Iron claim holds the apex of the Mountain Chief veii for its whole length, carrying the safene high grade copper and silver are as is referred to I under the Jessie. "The occurrence of the oren as al ready opened up and indications such as have proved everywhere else in the camp to lead to tre in quantity at depth, will Justify the statement that these prop erttes will undoubtedly make a big mine; and that the owners may expect to strike (lutntilies of ore from 700 feet down to ts deep a level ms any other mine in the IButte district." Russia's Regrets. (fly Ampo'ufated l rP ss.) TLrnlcrg, Aur~trta. Jan. 214.---The prov mInit golvernor hasq expressed regret to the hRussian eonnuI here for the occur rence (if last Truesday niight, when at Puu! Is i ilnc tn.t aion before the tuss~ian mutsui ate wits dispersed by a detachbment or Iluuuuauuu. O[NESIS Of VEINS M. DOWNEY TELLS HOW TZO$ ow REPUBLIC WERE FORM=D. ROCK WAS ORIGINALLY LAVA This, However, Applies Only to the Country Brand - Illusion That Veins Become Ricaer With Depth Is Hypothetical. M. Downey, superintendent of the TOMS Thumb mine at Itcpubilc and a practical iuiner, well versed in the ore character istis of the camp, has written the fl. lowing interesting article for the Spoken man-Iteview on the genesis of the vebns in that camp: Long before the advent of man upon earth the same agencies which cut aut the valley of the Columbia were engaged in eroding and wearing down the roans of the region known as Republic camp, in Ferry county, Wash. For contemplating the present surface we must regard our position as being Intermediate between the original an (lent elevation and the (assumed) gran ite foundation underlying the country rock in which the veins occur. Science will account for the eroded elevation, but in interpreting the hidden record the miners' assistance Is necessary. The purpose of science is to enable its to distinguish between what we know and what we think we know, and it teaches that not volcanoes and earth quakes, but thie and water were the agencies most essential in the creation of veins and ore shoots. The country rock of Republic was orig inully lava of different periods of erup tion, all of which has undergone consid erable change in its structural; physical and chemical features by the process known as metamorphism, a process dis tinctly understood and capable of ac curate application. Subterranean lava, given abundance of time in which to cool, will become a crystalline rock. More rapidly cooling prevents maturity of all its crystals and the rock is semi-crystal line. Still more rapid cooling permits development of all but a few crystas, and the rock becomes porphyry. With comparatively instant cooling the rodk is basaltic. Cause It to Crack. During the process of cooling undet ground the shrinkage of the mass and the pressure to which it is subjected cause it to crnck, thus bestowing strati graphical and structural features, and At the same time admitting the circulation of heated waters, containing in solutidn minerals foreign to the original mash, some of which are added while othes are subtracted. thus applying not only new features, but new constituents. The country rock of Itepublic having undergone all of the alterations from obsidian (volcanic glass) on one end of the series to perfectly crystalline rock on the other, exact definitions will there fore require chemical analysis and ml croscopie study by skilled mineralogists, who will give expression to the differe:t varieties in exact terms. in the absence of which research that very obliging word porphyry is engaged in designating between granite on one side and the sedi mentary rocks on the other, and as the rocks are somewhat porphyritie that term will be employed in this article. It is well understood that geology had plenty of time and that it required a long piriod and slow methods to perform the rock changes due to metamorphism. That during the process vein making agents were inaugurated will become clearer as we proceed. Little Structural Evidence. There re-tmains but little structural evi dence of the ancient crater source of eruptions, nor is there suggestive criteria indicating craters as being factors in ui ternilning the place of the ore deposits. Vein making begun after the period of eruption had subsided and was pro - ressing during the long interval of mete tIorphtistt. The veins at this time presented a shattered fault line, extending through the camp in a general northeast ar41 southwest course, corresponding prob ably to the axis of the valcanic vents and craters. The wave subsequeni4y shaped into a series of somewhat par#i lel fissures by mRovemRents which, in de fining the walls, at the same time gave to the vein filling a. banded irregularjy spaced thin sheets of country rock of the formations which they traversed. Evidence in support of this is afforded by veins and parts of veins still remaining in this condition; while others have been replaced by quartz; they are therefore repltenmernt veins. As to Replacement Veins. Quartz formed In an open vein or cav ity is readily distinguished from that re placing country rock. In the open veins accumulations begin from the walls, and the finished crystals having had their growing terminals free, become distinct individuals, while in replacement they grow by their power of crystalization, assisted by solutions, which, while dis solving the rock, at the same time are factors favoring precipitation of silica or quartz. Complete replacement of one rock by another is metamorphism of a more intense nature, and is known as metasomatic action, being analogous to the change occurring in silicifying wood, commonly caled petrification, and is a much more frequent and extensive occurrence in rocks than is ordinarily supposed. Many so-called low grade veins are formed by the deposition of metallic sulphides with the quartz, and remain so, whereas had there occurred a subsequent disturbance to shatter the vein and permit water circulation, dis solution of the primary sulphides and re deposition along fault lines or other cavities in the lode would create a sec ondary enrichment, resulting in mer chantable ore shoots, on the same prin cilple but at greater depth than had the upper zone of a vein become oxidised through the agencies of surface water's, and precipitated its metals to ground wa ter level, where there would occur a horizontal zone of enrichment. Fairly Well Understood, Between the upper oxidized and the lower zone of primary sulphldes tbip class of veins is the most common and their many complications are fairly well understood. The absence of sulphides in the Republic veins under consideration is remarkable, as we know that the solu tions from which the quartz was depos Ited had access to the Iron and sulphur as well as other metals included in the lava. Theoretical insight into fundamental laws permits the assumption that meta morphosis of country rock and quarts re placement In the veins were contempor ory. The conditions necessary to both were principally water circulation. Waters percolate interstices of exten sive areas of country rock and eventually find their way to tributaries, and finally to the trunk channels circulating in the veins. Patient investigation by eminent scientists has demonstrated that approx imately 260,0000 tons of llicious water are required to deposit one ton of quarts. But a Pleasant Illusion. The pleasant illusion that veins become richer with depth, based on the supposi tion that the metals of the ores are de rived from some central depot in the earth's interior, is in a very large major ity of cases but an unsupported hypothe sis. Volcanic rocks do not Indicate varl ous agencies as being active during vein enrichments, and, besides, it is very well suported conviction that the country rock in the sone of fracture and weath ering, that In, the upper zone of the earth's crust, was the source, and water the transporting agent of the ore metals contained in veins. Each ton of country rock in Republic during metmorphism contributed 1 cent in gold and silver to the waters which afterward circulated in the veins, and should but one-half of that amount have been precipitated with the quartz to form the ore bodies, there would still remain an abundance of unused country rock. The depth in the vein to which ore shoots are created under such conditions Is controlled principally by the limit to which descending waters penetrate and at what point the mineral bearing waters come in contact with the precipitating agent. Factors in Precipitation. A subsidiary stream, a change of tem perature, or of pressure, or the differ ence in wall rocks may be the factor in fluencing precipitation. The existence of ore shoots depends upon a combination of many circumstances. The absence of any one of them might cause the pro ceds to fail, or the process might be in terrupted at any time before maturity of the ore deposit. Each mine and each shoot in a mine presents complexities requiring special study, but that the foregoing principle roughly illustrates the conditions under which some of the deposits in the camp were formed will, I firmly believe, bear the crucial test of scientific investigation. Process of Enrichment. However, I wish particularly to em phasize the assumption that a prolonged period of subterranean heat prevailed during the growth and enrichment of the ore shoots situated along the axis of eruption corresponding to the strike of the principal veins. Testimony in sup port of this is afforded by the presence of a system of small intrusive dolerite dikes, some of which terminate before reaching the surface, and they in some Instances cut through the quartz, thus making manifest their introduction as being subsequent to the veins. Supplementary evidence of suspended but not extinct volcanic heat, is evi denced by intrusive lava sheets between sheer planes in the veins, and particu Iarly in the ore shoots. Those features have important significance in determin lig the genesis and presence of ore shoots of such intrusive lava sheets. They are not numerous. They are easily distinguished from the porphyry bands, which by reason of these larger dimen sions remain unaltered by metasomatic action, and those bands need not be con fused with the wall rock, which intrude the veins at points subjected to severe mctchantcal pressure. That there are barren as well as en riched zones of quartz confirms the fact that subsidiary agents to the quartz forming process were energetieally en gaged in the promotion of ore shoots. The fact that the principal, if not the only point of enrichment is along the numerous planes or bands (locally termed black streaks), sugests that it does not demonstrate the engagement of the auxiliary agencies as final factors in the-enriching process. The reactions occurring between un derground solutions and. between gases and volutions in the process of forming ore deposits form a part of the subject which we are obliged to leave to spe cially quallified investigators. All the evidence in the principal shoots indicate an enrichment along the planes in the veins. This enrichment occurred after the quartz had formed, and the longer I axis of the shoots being vertical indicate ascending or descending rather than lateral flowing solutIons as containing the ore metals. Unaltered country rock iIn the veins between tue different shoots is mute, but significant evidence of the feebleness of lateral circulation. Solutions Are Mingled. Solutions from various sources are mingled in these long underground jour ncys, and than conic in contact with sot ihurous fumes and volatilized minerals and gases, coming up from the mnagna, which would have had access to nature's stores of precious metals. The pressure due to the expansion of steam and gases generated from subterranean heat would lorce the liquids up in the fissures, where they were condensed and precipitated as ole. The location of the shoots In the veins depends enctirely upon the condi tions which -gave free acess to the as (ending solutions. That their course was erratic and the shoots variable in size and value is a natural consequence of their creation, However, data accutnu cated in accurate maps mnay yet indicate a harmonious system of arrangement. Veins and ore shoots are stable only under the conditions which formed them, and they change under new condi tiotns. ltepubiic veins are geologically an old record, and it is improbable that its ore shoots have remiained unmolested by the circulation of underground waters, which since their remote birth have robbed them of values in one place and added them in another, Thus a shoot origInally nearly homogenous in values from apex to great depth may contain barren as welt as enriched zones, I have endeavored to point out rather than demonstrate that the ore shoots of Itepublic resulted from a deep seated cause. Chile Presents a Claim. (By Associated Press.) Santiago de Chile, Jan. 24.-The Chil ean government will present a diplomatic claim against the United States of Co lombia because of the Chilean steamship Lautaro, belonging to the South Amer ican Steamship- company, which war seized by the Colombian government and sunk in the harbor of Panama on Jan uary 20, during the engagement with the Colombian liberals. SCORtS. TN! fIEIO INSTTUTIONAL CEARITY TES MINACI O THE AGE. NO ONE VISITS THE INSANE Bishop Potter Deplores the Fact That the Astor and Belmont Art Galleries Are Now Closed to the Public. (By Associated Press.) New York, Jan. 24.-Bishop H. C. Pot ter, in a speech against institutional charity, delivered before the Graduate club of Columbia university, said: "Think of the people in New York who have something that would cost them nothing to put in somebody's life and that would make life richer and fuller. Years ago there were five or six private art galleries in New York. Mr. Astor had one, the late Mr. Belmont had one, and three or four others. There gal leries were opened once a week, when the public were invited guests. This usage has perished, and I regard it as a very significant and mournful note. It is the tendency to institutionalism. " 'Get out of my home; don't soil my carpets; these pictures are mine and for my friends. Go to the museum for your art. I'll leave them to it when I die.' This, the modern note, is not a high con ception." "Our danger lies not in physical needs, but in social degradation and corruption, out of which comes ruin, which lies be hind these physical matters. I would speak of institutional charity in this re gard. On an island not half an hour's journey from New York are 4000 insane persons under the care of the state, and these people have not been visited by anyone but the state commissioners for the last four years. Menace of Modern Life. "The force of the appalling fact is made plain when I say that allenists and in sanity experts say that one of the most Will Place on Sale friday and Saturday 100 Doz. Men's Black Sateen Shirts Lined Throughout With flannel At $1.00 each. Sold everywhere for $1.50. These shirts have collars attached, felled seams and gus sets, hand-made button holes, with mother-of pearl buttons. All sizes, only $1.00 each, We are Overstocked With Boys' fine Clothing, Especially Overcoats, Ulsters and Reefers. In order to dispose of them quickly we offer, the entire stock-a most beautiful selection of serv iceable garments-at a third off regular price. LONG, loose overcoats, raglan effect, Irish friese and beaver cloth-grays and blues, 4 to 15 years-those that wore $0.00 reduced to $6.00; those that were $14.00 reduced to $9.35. Similar reductions made on all others. REEFERS, made of fine chinchilla, beaver and Irieh frieze, plaid linings, silk velvet collars and cuffs, double breasted, 3 to 15 years $7.50 Reefers reduced to - - - $5.00 $6.00 Reefers reduced to - - - $4.00 $9.00 Reefers reduced to - - - $6.00 A Splendid Opportunity for the Boys. SAVING money anti getting the right thing are two good reasons why prudent people should respond to our great annual clearing sale of winter goods. Women's fine suits that were $50 00 are now $25.00. Suits, jackets and raglans that were $25.00 are now $10.00 and $12.50. Our furs Must Go, Regardless Of loss to us. For obvious reasons the past season has not been up to the standard for the sale of fine goods, but at the prices we are now selling furs, seal jackets, beaver and otter coats, you can buy the best for the price of ordinary qualities. M. 3. Cooiell Company. 4np9rtant matters in the treatment of Se thpane is that of environment. "Wh6th the dread misfortune of In sanity comes upon any of us or our family they go to the private asylums, and every care Is bestowed on them. But when they are the wards of the state we are constrained to realise that conditions are wholly different, for there it is Im possible to deal with individuals. "The menace of modern life is in the growth of the surrender of the care of the sick, the maimed, the imbecile, to in stitutlonal vigilance. When men come to be the care of the state in such vast numb.rs it is impossible that there can be that note of personality considered the hest medicine for the sick man and the Insane man. "A lady with an income of $6500,000 wrote me recently that she was bored to death and very restless. 'You tell me to look after my children,' she said, 'but the nurses and governesses can do it all much better than I can. You tell me to visit the poor, but I am afraid of microbes. You tell me to study. I have studied Italian till I am dissy.' "I wrbte back to her for God's sake to lot the children see her once in a while and to remember that they were her children and not the nurse's children." RAILROAD IN ALASKA. Oompany Incorporated Under the Laws of Washington. (By Associated Press.) Seattle, Jan. 24.-The Alaska, Copper River & Yukon Railway company has been incorporated under the laws of the state of Washington to build a rail road from Prince Williams' sound in Alaska through the Copper and Tanana River country to a point on the Yukon river, near Eagle. Thp company proposes, in addition to operating a steamship 4lne from Seattle to Prince Williams' sound, to build and maintain smelters and refineries in Alas ka and to carry on general mining trans actions. The corporation is capitalized at $25, 000,000, all of which, it is claimed, has been subscribed by Eastern and foreign capitalists. The estimated cost of the railway is placed at $10,000,000. The incorporators are B. D. Bannister, Alfred B. lies and T. L. Parker.