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BUJTTE LN T MOUNT ALN
V(1.. XXI. NO. 265 BUTTE. MONTANA. PRbIA? G, JAN UARY 313 1902. PRICE FIVE CENTS JUDGE TAfT BEf R[ SENATE Ct MMITTIf ON 1111 PhILI~FINES IUiATOR LODGE ANNOUNCED THAT THE FULLEST INFORMA TION WAS DESIRED. HE VISITED THE PROVINCES Governor Taft Gives an Account of the 2stablishment of Civil Government and Ineidentally Draws Some Coon parisons Between the Pilipinos and the Spaniards. (By Associated Press.) Washington. Jan 81.-The investiga tion into the conditions of the Philippine archipelago apropos of the effort to se cure legislation for the government of those islands was begun by the senate co te on Philippines today. W: aft, elvil governor of the archi pelago, was the first witness called. There was a full attendance of the mem bers of the committee and Senator Lodge, its chairman, explained that the committee desired not only the fullest information concerning the islands. but any. advice that Governor Taft might ofer concerning the questions at issue. Governor Taft opened his remarks by saying that he had gone to the Philip pines in the spring of 1900 and had via ited almost all the provinces during the past year. Soros Are Friendly. He said that, in all the Filipino or Christian provinces, there is a form of civil government. There are 84 of these provinces. The Muros are all friendly, except a few who had never been otherwise than hostile to the Spaniards. Even these were not being brought over by the pros pect of trade of which they are very fond. Describing the commission's tour of the island, Governor Taft gave in detail the proceedings at the various places vis ited, saying that some 17 capitals of the provinces were visited on the first tour. At each place the delegates of the peo ple were met, the prescribed special act was passed and a governor appointed. who was authorized to organize munici palities. Native Officers Chosen. The provincial governments consisted. he explained, of a governor, secretary. superintendent, treasurer and a fiscal or prosecuting attorney. In all cases where the selection could 1,e made without arousing jealousies, ns tives had been chosen. All these ap pointments are temporary and next month their successors will be elected. When the factions were too strong, Americans were placed at the head of each provincial government. In all cases the treasurer and superin tendent were Americans. The commission had paid special atten tion to the Northern provinces and in April started South on a trip of 54 days. They had been received most cordially everywhere. This remark led the witness into a few discursive remarks upon the subject of Filipino hospitality. "The Spaniards," he said, "will al ways tell you that their house Is yours but they do not always mean that you should take them at their word, but the Filipinos will tell you the same thing. and they always mean what they say. They will turn their family out and in stall you in their habitations." Officers Took the Money. Speaking of the Island of Negroes, he said it was peculiar in its topography and that previous to the coming of the commission there was difficulty in the matter of government. There was so many officers in the gov ernment that of the $200,000 (Mexican) only about $10,000 was left for other ex penses than the payment of salaries. Governor Taft said the commission had had an interesting experiepce in try ing to recognize the province of Antikue. but that the people resisted vigorously. He mentioned that at San Jose. the capital, they displayed a model of lib erty enlightening the world, which was 30 feet high and had been dragged seven miles over a very rough road. On this monument there were statutes of Wash ington and McKinley. The Two Sultans. Governor Taft said it had been found impossible to put Filipinos over the Moros. They are subject to their chiefs and refuse to recognize the way of a Filipino. There were, he said, two sultans, one in Mlndanao and the other in the Jolo group, but the stultans tld not always control their datos, or chiefs. The sultan of Mindinno, h~e said was very poor, but the sovereign of the Jolos is a thrifty man, who is constantly try ing to increase his income and con stantly getting into a row about It. SUSTAINS FRACTURED LEG. Large Piece of Machinery Fell on Mat Wright. (Special to Inter Mountain.) Anaconda, Jan. 31.-WI le working in the engine room of the new works this morning, Mat Wright met with an ac cident that resulted in his being taken to the hospital with a broken leg. It was caused by a heavy piece of ma chinery falling on him. Wright Is a single man about 45 years of age. He has been a resident of the city for a number of years and is well known here. Solid Sleet and Ice. (By Associated Press.) Huntington, W. Va., Jan. 84.-A cov ering of two Inches of solid ice extends over the entire southern portion of the state and still the sleet continues fall ing. Business is at a standstill GETTING READY TO BLOW IN AT NEW CONVERTERS.. ® (Special to Inter Mountain.) * * Anaconda, Jan. 81.-Smoke from * * more of tte big buildings at the 0 $ Washoe smelters was seen to is. * ® sue for the tirst time trom the 'e * high stacks yesterday afternoon. 0 9 The converter and reverberatory 0 * buildings are being heated up and " * the furnaces being put in readi- 0 * ness to go into commission. 0 * It will take 10 days or so to get 0 .' things in shape for operation pre- O * liminary to blowing in in full <e * blast. 0 000000®000ý4m00®00004i NO TRACE Of THE BIDDLES MRS. 80 bFEL, THE WARDEN'S WIPE, HAS ALSO DISAPPEARED WITH TIP DESPERADOEB. WARDEN SOFFEL WILL RESIGN Reward of $5000 for the Capture of the Ercapes, Dead or Olive, Is Offered-Thought to Be in Hiding Near Pittsburg. (By Associated Press.) Pittsburg, Pa., Jan. 31.-Not a trace of John and Edward Biddle, the es'upe.l murderers, or of Mrs. Kate Suffel, the warden's wife, who, IL is alleged, ac companied them, has been secured by the police since the fugitives left the prison yesterday morning. Every policeman In the city, as well as every detective, As provided with a circular giving a desa.ription of tha escaped murderers and Mrs. Soffel. Every town of any size in the Unital States has been provided with these dr culars, which offer a ctsh reward of $5000 for the men's capture, dead or alive. The police believe that none of the three is more t'an five miles from the counthnus4 oud that 1'-, will remain in seclusion until the excitement over their escape subsides, when an attempt will be made to get south. It is not thought they will risk capture In Cleveland, Chicago or Eastern citiet where they are known. Warden Soffel is on the verge of col lapse. lie has male up his min' to tender his resignation as warden after the conclusion of the prison board's in vestigation. WAGES aRE ADVANCED. Glass Works leceive an Unexpected Raise in Salary. (By Associated Press.) Pittsburg, Jan. 31.-Acting independ ently of the combine, the D. 0. Cunning ham Glass company, which the largest manufacturer of window glass outside of the American Window Glass com pany, has voluntarily advanced the wages of all unskilled labor 10 per cent. Similar action was immediately taken by S. McKee & Co. and Cunningham & Co., limited, who, like the Cunningham Glass company, are members of the In dependent Glass company. The American Window Glass company and the Fed eration Co-operative Window Glass com pany will follow suit. The advance will affect 2000 men. This move on the part of the Cunningham Glass company was entirely unluoked for by the combines and is due to the ad vance made last week to skilled labor by the American Window Glass comprarry, the Independent and Co-operative. EMPLOYES MUST NOT SOLICIT INCREASE OF PAY. 4? (By Associated Press.) 4 4? Washington, Jan. 31.-The presi- U * dent has issued the following ex- 4? * ecutive order: 4 4 All officers and agents of the G 4 United States, of every descrip- e 4 tion, serving under any of the ex- 4 4 ecutive departments and whether 4 4 so serving or under an otllcial of 4? 4 Washington, are hereby forbid 4 4 den, either directly or indirectly, <v 4 individually or through associa tions, to solicit an increase of 4 4 pay or to influence or attempt to 4 4 influence in their own interests 4 4? any leglalation whatever, either 4 4 before congress or its commit- 4 congress or before its commit- 4 4 tees, or in any way, save through 4 4 the heads of departments in or 4 4? under which they serve, on pen- 4 4 alty of dismissal from th2 govern- 4 4 ment. 4? 4 THEODORE ROOSEVELT. 4 4 White House, Jan. 31, 1902. 4 4? 4? GALES IN CHANNEL. Steamers Cannot Cross From Dover to Ualais. (By Associated Press.) London, Jan. 31.-Continued gales in the channel are causing numerous ship ping casualties. The channel mail steamers were un able to start from France this morning, and the. mail steamer which left Dover for Calais was compelled to put back In a damaged c oo(oný (iR[AT DRE AT NORF 01 CONFLAGRATION STARTS AT TWO O'CLOCK THIS MORNING AND DOES GREAT DAXAGE. LOSS ABOUT HALF A MILLION? Greatest Fire in the History of the City? But Fortunately, So Far as Now, Known, No Lives Wore Lost -Two Hotels Destroyed. ( By Associated Press.) Norfolk, Va., Jan. 81.-A heap of smoking ruins is all that remains of the Atlantic hotel, the massive Columbia of. flee building, which adjoined the hotel the Albemarle flats and a block of stores in the center of the city. The conflagration, one of the greatest in the history of Norfolk, broke out shortly before 2 o'clock this morning and, when finally subdued, over half a million dollars' worth of property had been destroyed. The loss is believed to be fully covered by insurance. Whisky fraught Fire. The flames started in the Columbia, a six-story structure and the largest but one of Norfolk's ofllce buildings. Shortly after the tire broke out, 1100 gallons of whisky stored In the build ing 'exploded with terrible force, tear ing out the second wail. The firemen were driven back by the explosion and, before they could get a stream of water on the flames, the en tire building was on fire. Hardly 15 minutes later the north wall, which was over 75 feet high, fell In, completely annihilat!ng the home of the Virginia club, which adjoined the build ing on the north. From the outset. It was evident that the immense Atlantic hotil was doomed. J. Hull Davidson, its proprietor, per sonally made the rounds of the rooms and, aided by his assistants, arncoum every guest in the butlccncg. No Lives Lost. So far as known no Iives wire lIst, al though about :i00 people w( re tcleep in the hot'cl when the alacrm was sounded. The little army of half drecssctl men and women refugees from the fiances elbowed their way through the crowded streets. IIn their hands they carried such anmall belongings as they were able to grasp in their Iilght. The tlancs acon 'ommnunieated to the five-story Albemarle cp.c endr cO opposite t.- ",,cb... cii), which was quickly do stroyed and then to the en tire bloc k facing the Atlantic cand run ning from Plum to Main streets. Within an hour this bMock was an nih!latcd. WADE W AS NOT HAPPY OPMP WADS AND B. H. DALTOI BANGED THIS MORNING IN PORTLAND. 3 H RETAINED THEIR NERVE *eW Up and Killed a Man for aT. icing Ian They Today Suffer 3d the Ex treme Penalty of the Law for Their Crime. (By Associtnted Pross.) Portland. ore., Jan. 31. - Jo.,eph Wade and B. It. Dalton were hanged in the "ounty fallyacut title morning Atn the cbousder of James Morrow on November 14 last. Both metn retained their nerve, atl jus: before the rope was put ccmound Wadesa neck he oitdl: "You mcay think I'm happy, but I'm not." Joseph Wade and B. It. Dalton nu' dcred Jumes B. Morrow for 25 cvents. Morrow had heon calling on ci yoettcn; lady friend nod was on his way fehnm' about nildmght on Novenani r t when Wade and Dalton steppedl nt front ofi hint and octered him to throw up tih Morrow tmade a movetmtent towar! lactt ng his hands in his ptckets w noie Wade tired the fatal ehA t. The miurhcr'ers were etei thtrive ta}u later in a lodging haute, et itlly tihrugh informutton furirt ht I by thi etomtir who kept the house. Wade Finally Confessed. When arrested each mnn ice t e- tiid t I -tther of being the miurif're-c , biut', 1ft1 s i tew weeks Wade cntfetsed that he him self lie cd the shot. WV-riie itwar tuacr o' in'c iitcibttr, 1'a., 'nci Itilton it Atlrnt., lire. Witc anin his vijtimt were hi tn le'' 21 years of age, while I rtlton was t iy 2::. on Wednescay urigtht Wade, who hlea to,:teil his ippproacching exentitttn with let- ity, emhbrared religcit no, suid, ti'cording t, a i qmisseooary who hiai visited the. pris 'ner. tie' ionve'ralcn wa is due to the pray p-r- of his felIow-matrderer. IMlttn, ant a %ty to the relear's* ut m 5t -'se., to c,, , a,.r-ye to the Romans, "For I ctim t nshamvd t the gospel of t'hri't: it rs the-jfiwet of (Ind unto Oslvattoer every one tha't believoth." Wade troti-tme serioui ancd dectared hct he beloeve't in the words he had Just revel. Jcriton bcucd i'vi'ei' i spitritcant advice f"ir 1evt'c a: wecka. OBJECTION MADE TO THE NEW HEINZE BOND (Special to Into, Mountcin.) Helena, Jan. 31. -In the supreme "t. Irt trindy In the nase of the hI.iawin ar Rurety company, Attorney McHlAtton of Butte mlne it mnotion to haivi- the clerk instructed to turn over $350,000; tre nimount of the -ash boand on lihad. Mr. Melltatton dilsussed his motion nit length, iui ntutat ti that even .ritih out Mr. Heinze on the $400,000 bond P ed, it -reli- ented the full amnount. Attorney Evans of Butte, oppose I the motion, snut itrgued that the iii t should not release the cnsh until certin of a good boad i p n-,e of thin iu-i security. Mr. Evans taintatint d that the Pew bond was prepared so as to tie almost unintelliglhle. He objected to the sureties named nir the bond, with the exception of Lee Mantle, Henry Mueller, Chartes' 1. ('lirk, J. 1i. Maloney and Fnnay- tti Harrington. To the others Mr. Evans objected on the ground tihai they were mot worth the amount schoduled by them, and mnade it speeai obtjction to Mrn Heinze, who, the court he:d, was alrehdv on bonds whi-h atmounted to more than he was worth. Objection was made to H. L. Fn'ttrni. on the ground thit he in on a bond for $150,000 in the same cn-s, and is n A worth the additiunal amount called for in the new bton(d. BOERS ARE CAPTURED. Lord Kitchener Reports a Hard Fight and 'oers Repulsed. (By Associated Press.) London, Jan. 31.-Lord Kitchenc r, in a dispatch from Pretoria dated Thursday, January 30, reports that the camp of Colonel L. E. Dumoulin, of the Sussex regiment, was attacked by Niewhoudts' command, and that, after severe fight ing, the Iloers yere repulsed. Lord Kitchener also reports that Gen eral French captured 26 men belonging to Fouche's command in the northeast ern part of Cape Colony and that the command was completely scattered. STUCK IN THE ICE. Passenger Steamers Frozen in in Lake Michigan. (By Associated Press.) Chicago, Jan. 31.-The steamers At. laita and Iowa, on which nearly 300 peo. pie are on board, were still fast in the ice this morning. The passengers, whet. imprisonment began Wednesday night, were physically comfortable, but eager for the west wind, w'iich, it Is expected will break up the Ice. At 9 o'clock, the Iowa succeeded in breaking loose and headed for Racine. The Atlanta, however, was unable to move. EFFECTS OF THE STORM. Louisville Still Cu' Off From Gommun1. cation With the South. (By Associated Press.) ' Louisville, Ky., Jan. 31.-Thattaville still cut ofd from telegraphio oonmrnuris cation with the south: The effects of the storm are-still is evf. uIonre, the seir.etR iwing alrnost bluck aded in some portions of the city by the half-frtzen mass of sieet, while much damage has been done to shade trees. The temperature is rising rapidly, bowever, and there are prospcrts for r01i o(r snow. MEETS DEATH BRAVELY. Chinaman Displayed Great Nerve on the Scaffold. (lly Assaoclated Pct a.) Houth Bend, Wash., Jan. 31.-At 0:15 this morning Lum You, the Chinaman A ho murdered Oscar JBlouon at Hay Cn 0 -/, August 6 last, was hanged Jo the 'ofarthouse yard. He displayed remarkable nerve, bade ild friends good-bye and asked to be jilied quickly. ' Bin neck was broken and there was uarely a perceptible tremor. About 200 witnesses were present. SOHLEY IN LOUISVILLE. Rear Admiral and Hi.-Wife Leave on Private Car. (By Associated Press.) Louisville, Ky., Jan. 81.-Admira: tchley's last day in this city was speni quietly' at the home of his host, Marion ii. Taylor, preaident of the Louieville hoard of trade. This morning a committee of Nash ville citisens arrived in Loulville to es cort Admiral and Mrs. Schley to Nash yule, and, at 8 o'clock, the entire party bpft in the private car of President Mil. ton H. Smith. There was a large crowd at the depot p see the guests depal'ture. SHOT IN THE SHOULDER FOR DRIVINGTHROUGH A [IELD BUTTE CITY WATER COMPANY FILE NEW CERTIFICATE. * (Special to Inter Mountain.) Helena, , Jan. 81.-An amended '8 fl certificate of incorporatLon of the '0' ) Butte Water company was flied '. * with the secretary of state today. ' P The original certificate was filed '' 'P April 27, 1901. The company inear- r) + porates under the laws of New 'a ® Jersey, with the principal oftice in 4, ' Jersey City. e The capital stock is $1,000,000. * ON The incorporators re' Charles * @) N. King. Legrand linker and 'P Stephen C. Smith, all of Jersey "~ city.d JUDGE APPOINTS A RECEIVER JOHN ALEXANDER DOWIE MUST TURN HIS ZION OVER TO AN OTHER PERSON, CASE PUZZLED THE COURT It Took a Long While But His Honor Finally Made Up His Mind to at Least Temporarily Dispossess the Head of the Church. (Hy Anqecinted Pries.) Chicago, Jun. 31.--- Judge 'ulley today ordered a r pe ivership for the Zion Late, industries, and Monday will enter a te trec appointing ilmiier Wuabburn to thu poeltion of receiver under a bond of $700, l00. The court, In a lengthy discusalon of the vase which wias loatituted by 8umuel Htevennon, ai brother-in-law of John Alexander liowle, declared that I)owlei's church, tle I'hristeiaa te ('ateill churtthl w.e a curious mixture of religion and business. 11' held that Mtevenson had, through undue influence, exerted by bowie, head of theo chor, h a . I-n led tg torn ice r te Dowie jwactically everything he had and held that Stevenson was entitled to at least $100,000 from towl, or the lace in diptries, which he said were praeticully the same thing. Believed in Him. "l'ndue influence," w.a4 the chief toplc diIIseiild by the Judge in his diciaion. I)owle, hi mold, woe unq uetsctionbly lhe seilc'rior of 1tevennon, icrth in intellc'ct and icsoinca s ability. Diowe b, lie declared, wuni a reilgious '/e.''lit; S1tie ecca n it fullwe'r. Htevenson, ilk.' others In Zion, fol lowuccu t)Dwit blindly. 'ih' y believed him the igeint of the Almighty oil etih, detlied to bhlid up (Itile of Zion In ''very country of the worTit. None. wait more Ictuien'tncd by the ttechinge of "Iic( rcini arnci'cd Jljitjh" than Stevenson. It was the u'ovincev of the court, (e soid, to protect the weak ccgatinst the strinc g. It wats not cletIl Jiuct to what extent Mteve''w''i had cutf'red monetary loss, owinig to ie ;cruuetiir agc-reicit between ftockhliders lit the 1itcc Indusl riie and i)owlo. It Ia clato, however, that Stevenson wrac 'ntitlcd to $100,000 and alnec clear that the $50,000 which Mtevenson had I turned over to his wife (noc' Dowte) and tlie lattetr had turner] over to ])owl', could not be collected. "The 'ase needs more light," said the court. "I have studileI over it nlght and day fort a month, yet on the main points I ari in the dark. There should be a further hearing." An amended bill and an amended an awer will be filed by the parties to the suit Monday, when the decree appoint ing a reealver will be entered. Until then, by ei puulalion, Dowlie Is prevented from disposing of any more preferred stock. T)owle will pray for an appeal and Judge Tulley lIcnicaed tcct it would be granted, owing to the poc'ulatr points of law involved and the presence in the case of factore on which no law r iomed to hear. ST. LOUIS GRAND JURY. Suburban Scandal Is Being Fully In vestigated. St. Louil, Jan. 31.--When the grand jury reaurmId its Investigation of fIie Muburban h alh ley sctanda today, T. (2, Kimball, of the suburban railway, who was exUImIineid yesterday, was the first Witness ca fled. With him the examinatilo of the books was continuel in the endeavor to iind lby whom the $150,000 was placed in safe deposit boxes. The grand jury will remnt in In sessIon until a late hour Saturday night. ivcn then Its work will not be completed and a heavy burden of investigation will fall on the next set of grand Jurors em paneled. A subpoenae has been lesund for Chauncey Ives Filley, formerly chair man of the republican state comnilttee JURY IN THE BISHOP TRIAL UNABLE TO AGREE. (Special to Inter Mountain.) *0 a Livingston, Jan. 31.-At r o'clock t this afternoon the jury in the & Bishop murder case are appar ently s far from reaching a ver- W diot as thley have at any time & ® since the case was given to thom. J It loics very much as though they m would not be able to agree, . F. OAKLEY LIES IN A BILLINGS HOSPITAL FROM GUNSHOT WOUND. HE DROVE A LOAD OF SAND Charles Wyman Objects to People Go ing Through the Enolosure and He Ordered Oakley to Go Back and Upon Refusal He Pulled His Revolver and iheb-4No Arrest Has Yet Been Made. (Special to Inter Mountain.) Billings, Jan. 81."-J. F. Oakley lies In the hospital in this city with a gunshot wound In his left shoulder, which he al leges was made by Charles Wyman. The wound, however is not dangerous. Ac cording to the story of Oakley he was assaulted by Wyman while driving through the latter's field. t),kley has been in the employ of $. W. Houle, who lives two miles west of the city. The alleged assault occurred late yes terday afternoon while Oakley, who had been after a load of sand was on his way home from it point opposite the Yel lowatone river. He Was Trespassing. lie had occasion to go through a field belonging to Wyman. Hle had gone only a portion of the dis tance when he was met by Wyman, who demanded that he return and go another way. lie told Wyman he would go on and put up the fence after him, but this did not seem to satisfy Wynran, who after a few words, drew a revolver and shot Cnikley, the shot inking effect in the left shoubler. 1N fin no arrenst has been n1 de. LUCY BLACK'S TRIAL BEGINS MONDAY BOZEMAN WOMAN IS CHARGED WITH HAVING CAUSED HUS BAND'S DEATH. POISON FOUNtD IN STOMAACIt Promises to Be One of the Most In teresting Trials in History of Gallatin County-First of Kind in State. (Special to Inter Mountzrain.) Itozeman, Jan. 3I.-The celebrated came of the itate of Montana vs. Lucy 8, Biak will come up for trial nowt Mon day morning. In this case the defendant in charged with the orime of murdering John II. Black, her husband, last Octo be r. The Information Mates that "Lucy 8. Itllx-k, on the ith and front then until the 101i day of October, 1001, adminde tered or caused to be administered pIoisuots, with the intent to take the life of saii John H. itlluk, and that the said .John H. lauck died from the effects of such poisons on the 10th of Ootueber." The story of the alleged crime Is, bricily, as follows: Home time in July or August Mr. and Mrs. ISlack and Ira DelTsng went up to 191k creek to the homestead of Mrs. Black, and the two men after eating din ner became violently aiclt with vomit Ing. They recovered from the effects of what stt now supposed to have been poison placed in some of the food. On October 5 the three again paid a visit to the homestead and again after eating a meal became sick, or rather the two men did, Mrs. Black seemingly not being affected on either oc'a.slon. From the second attack Black did not recover. lie was brought to town the next day and consulted Dr. Chambllss, and the next day returned to his home ranch near twalesville. Malady of Mysterious Character. Prom 1"unday even$i 'ntil Thursday hi' grew steadily wvorse 'rinte unknown mnilaity. 'ihutrsday morning Dr. Chain bliie viiided the sink man and found ho i%:ui evidently suffering from ithe effects of tituijhine or 50ome litepal'tion of iplum. lHe uscd antidotea and otheir ucinedies ant sou iwt(ild in bringing hin out of his deep sicep. and then went to He' Alex itiack. John itiack's brother. It woe decdded to take Black to town, an.1 Miii. Black and the hired rnan drove him to 'town in u wagon. Mrs. Black kind been requested to take hcr 'busb.n4 toone or I he hosiuitais. but ittstead took him io the ('eniral beer itall lodging house and sent for Dr. datiey, who, when h" orulved saw at( once that Itlaok was In ithe lnatst ages of oipinnt in' mor'piline tiuisuining, a nd after administering some r"medics, had htm temuoved to Dr. Oham IIks' infirmary, where he died about aii * iii afler his tentovil. Poison Found in Stomach. Atn autopsy was held atnd the etoma~ch, :nteslines and liv'et subjected to several 'Mls by Lb. Tra'phagen of the college, A ho otated at the preliminary examina * mu that he had found arsenic and mor ptmIne in botit the stomach 'and liver. Mt's. Itiack was arrested soon after John Black died, and has been in jail imvet' since. She Is a woman about 40 years of age, and not at all bad look. lng. Tlbs trial will be one of the most In. terosting miurder trials in the h'etory of the ut'nty and' will be onun pf the gas of hi k:d in 11w 'criminal Itistory of the satat.