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S:ST. VALENTIIE'S DAY.
Littl Birds Are Supposed to Mate and Lovers Plight Their Troth. Iaterestinrl aots Rtelti t to the Day and the Way It is Observed. elk Lere of Imporrt.see to Teaun Lev ers from a series of Very gQuast Issays. St. Valentine's day, which falls this year on next Saturday, Feb. 14, is an ancient festival once held in very high repute, but now rather lightly regarded, writes Oeof frey Willeston Christine in the San Fran oise Call. Its observanes, like those of Christmas, Easter and other holidays. may be traced to the ancient Romans, who, cen turies before Christ, held great feasts known as the Supercalia in honor of Pan and Juno during February, at whish tab lets bearing yonng women's names were drawn out of a box by yonng men. Each person drawing must be the faithful attend ant of her whom he has drawn until the next Superoslia. The close association thus engendered often resulted in a mar riage between the parties. This matrimon ial lottery was held during the Supercalls festival because the birds were believed to select their mates at that time of year, a tradition still attaching to St. Valentine's day and referred to by Shakespeare when be makes Theseus, in "'A Midsummer Night's Dream," say: st Vslentine is uet: egin these wood bir but to couple now. The hardest task of the early Christian fathers was to induce the Roman people to abandon heathen festivities. To do this they divested all such observances of undue solemnity while retaining all their social aspects and associating them with some person or thing pertaining to the churc.he They replaced the Supireals with St. Val entine's day, thus retaining the date of the ancient festival and connecting it with Christianity through a great saint, who suf fered martyrdom in the third century. He was first beaten with clubs and then be headed while a priest at Rome, where his remains now rest in the church of St. Praxedes. This excellent man never, either directly or indirectly, bore any relation whatever to the observances and ceremonies peculiar to the day devoted to him, and it seems very strange that his name should be applied to sweethearts, and to the written, printed and painted amatory addresses which they an nually exchange, as well as to the highly colored, comical and satiriaesl wood-cuts, with a few lines of doggerel printed be neath, which are now so liberally displayed in the stationers' windows. It has been stated that it was from St. Valentine's great reputation for love and charity that there arose the custom of choosing love partners upon his day and calling them by his name, but this was long since exploded. It is now well established that the only reason why these observances were assoct ated with St. Valentine is the one already given-that the early fathers desired to Christianize the heathen festival of the Supercalia and to have it fall upon a sacred day of appropriate date. The good churchmen found it impossible to persuade the common people to entirely abandon any ceremony to wiech they had become deeply attached. Despairing there fore of abolishing the matrimonial lottery of the Snpercalia, they modified its form and endeavored to give it a religious char acter by substituting the names of saints to be drawn as valentines, instead of the names of men and women. From this ancient usage is derived the custom, still occasionally observed in some Catholic countries, of selecting on lSt. Valentine's day for the ensuaing year, a patron saint who is called a valentine. But the young men and maidens, finding little amusement in drawing out the names of dead and gone saints, soon relapse into their old aestom of drawing each other, and even at the present time in many of the rural districts in England and Scotland, it is customary on the eve of St. Valentine's day for the young people of both sexes to draw lots for i a valentine. As the men draw from a bag containing the names of the maids, while the latter draw from one containing the names of the men, it generally happens that each person has two valentines, but the young men regard themselves much more strongly bound to the valentines they have draws them to the one who has drawn them. If, as sometimes happens, a young man and woman should each chance to draw the other, it is regarded as absolutely certain that they are destined to wed, and must not, under any circumstanese, permit their attention or afeotion to center else where, Admirers of Sir Walter Soott will remem ber that he also alludes to this custom of giving valentine presents, and will readily recall the passage in "The Fair Maid of Perth" in which he describes the little St. Valentine's day gift which the mighty arm orer. Henry Smith, had prepared for his valentine, the good and beautiful Catherine Glover: "It was a small rnhy cut in the form of a heart. transfixed with a golden arrow, and was inclosed in a small purse made of links of the finest steel, as if de signed for a haube:k to a king. Itound the verge of the puarse were thee. words: Lse's dartis Cleave hearts 'Ibrough mail shirts. This device had coat the armorer some thought, and he was much satisfied with his own composition, becsuse it seemed to imply that his skill could defend all hearts. saving his own. In many parts of England and cJootland it is still acustomary, as it has been for many centuries, for young men and women to regard as their valentine the first person of the opposite sex whom their eyes behold on the morning of St. Valen tinme's day, and they have a right to claim the said valentine with a kiss, which he or she is in honor boud to accord without re istanee or remonstrance of any kind. Saott, in his novel of the "Fair maid of Perth," already quoted, beautifully describes the manner in which the peerless Catherine Glover thus claimed the bold armorer Henry fSmsth, as her valentine after he had savett her from dishonor by his wonderful valor and strength on St. Valentine's eve. The English poet (Gasyalso allades to this custom as follows: last Valentine, the day when birds of kied Tbheir paramoar. writh mutual ctirpines fnd, I erly ruse just at thle break of day. -sf,,re the run had chased the Mars away, Afield I wenl amid the mlorning dew. To mili m ktin ,for eo ,hu d huooewives do), Th eerst Ispied. artd the test swain we me ai spite ',f fortcne shla:od r true love be. Shakespeare ala, alludes to this estom in "Hamlet," where poor Ophelia sings: To-merrow is St. Valentine's day, All in tro morainew intom., And i a mail n)sur window To be your isleatine,. In a series of quaint essauys published in 175i4-56, one who signs herself "A Forward Mise" thus writes on some of the observ ansces of the ocasion: "Lass Friday was Valentine's day, and the night before I got five bay leaves and pinned four of them to the four corners of my pillow and the fifth to the middle and then if I dreamt of my sweetheart Betty said I should be married before the yeasr was out. But to make it more sure I boiled an egg hard and took eut the yelk and filled it with salt, and when I went to bed ate it, shell and all, without speaking or drinking after it. We also wrote our lovers' names upon bite of paper and relied them up in clay and put them into water, and the frast that rose up was to be our valentine. Would you think it? Mr. Blossom was my man. I lay abed and shat my eyes all the morning till he erme to our house, for I would not have mseen another man before him for all the world." The estom of exchanging amatory ad drame betweeoo valentinesm on it. Valen tine's day, to which I have already alluded, is a ve*ry old oe. Chaucer has left some eoius models of this style of compsition, as has ls e the Lydgte, whodiedin 1445 A mos rir ofth valestines was Shooe tll b5 of thus etine sold i e stioner s mst p 4he its ne uotu e frs. One of she bee t desrtions of hese la.isr srod ldgiven Diom i hie o "Ple.whr a w Mr tells haow fa tW This rear nor thi sp for, t o a stationer's window on . Iaeo rt modern rith re-th r ase astl ag elad in p blue ot snd whitenaul nd thne lady in the etap onere' ple, mt Srm pl of the ne-w--wre nproea tasbes pale its inhfectal n re. One of he best decriplions of the gentleman prduion r of where of tells hre of the llr, h n Ians anto a stationer's window on S Valentine s eve, beheld "a bhgly colored repreeeata ion of a eouple of .human n t.r skew d ed together with an arrow. cooki before a cheerful Are, while a male and female era i'asl in modern attire-the gentleman beaing lad in aour own lanat and hite trousers nd the radully idyn deep red pelise, with a paras hol bof the same-wmoy of pproshing the mers all over with hungry es thp at the number f thravelse pa entimentl A decided lyhrindlicaugh the young gentleman a pair o hings falld nothing elsegan wth the ntrod as e numbperintnding the cooking Att ioneof the only ind thfor church in wona he plot a mppomerd in the ditance, abtw whole formed a valentine." But eveof n the sendin of valentines, the only oberabovae of t. Valentne'ioned day that is retained incur own land end time, seems to be gradualy anybodying out. otr some year. nick Headsehe sind rellov all the o t r.ble fcl, past It has been the testimony of pstmeas t all over this country that the number of thedse ysentimental misivrs peesin throughnt the m ans h steadily dweresed. Thi fallingrre o began with the introdution of Christmas, New Year and Easter cards, the number of which transmitted by poet hasven inf they just ony proortion to the aled ing of in valentinse. A sentimental valen tine, the only kind for which the word is not a miernomer, can only pm asbetween pi onr ond thoite sex, while try the hwill find cards above mentioned may be sent with pro theb bof nod many to hat here is wher .--.hd othrs rot CURE C arnach·rand relieve all thIV trouble mall izzineos, Nausea. Droweiness. Ditrese after eatingr Prain in the Side, Ac. While theirmost Sfor $ble succeve has bere, orn int curingby ml SICK Headache, yet sOrrsas Lrrtr Ltven PNIAs are equally valuable in Ceon eption. curino and preventing this annoying cdinplsule. while they also correct all disordersd bof the toach, etimul te the liver and regulate th bidoire Even if they only cured che the would be almost GAINcle, to ver who suger from this distressing complaint: but fortunately Ihoir goodness does not end here, and those who oune try them will and these little pills valuahle in s. m waythat they will not be willing to do wi out them. But after all such heed ACHE Ithe hane of so many lives that here Is where ae make our greot boast. Our pils cure it while Ither As d not. Car hoi Lrrs LIVER PIL vltry small and very easy to take. One or two Dills make a doe. They are strictly vegetable ad do not gripe or purge, hut bj thsir gentle action please all who use them. In vials nt 25 cents: refor $. Sold evemrwhere, or sent by masiL fAlTER HlICtINl CO., yev Tfttb ham w1inDa flhioi S)EtEi'VEH R ALFE--FOR THtY gNStI'dO Bridge St i. hided w fll reeo lSs by theIn.aer sign'u for pulDasing inT arl. of the stuck of furniture, sruekslry. et:c.. at oo. ttll. 113. 115 and vii risoidwa. furmariy ir~lonsgin to C. L.Whitr luhea. l'lbs i tht ts, roject ansy ani all hid" is re ese sod. i Jt. ~AIk, EIPr. tec.ier Ifriena Feb. 1Ith. iib'!i LY ON & HEALY .sWlreed at reed ratms. Saly sre em door res 7 ir Nae b, k. 8iDIA UN DERTADIG ER. Undertaker d teral Ditor. Aod Block d in Por ains, Pearre Fr lea tana Moudins Etc. 19 Pak Avenue. Telephone.0 l . iM M. RO t eMAN. s rideer of r Maim l S e.elTs e, -f5. WB ADWhAstMe MeAdIKEl octy. The reslk Setweelm& MYeretr PMrk ed isth ae.t Mee mcha I k Drke'hsee .o. HEL1FA'S LEADING BUSINESS HOGUSES, 4. N l lN 'U| II IIN rka l lllN ! = ll n~n uaI I .. ~ J a. $D1oA A srahe,. *Wa.l, U Is filfs !lssee Ne flntee, ea. 3 Osab iaitsueh1S be Man lM. AAi'' HAINlOOLI AND D3SE . Nos. 1L ysstb wurr·~ --' N, IL Keith Warne sinua CIOANI AND TOBA00O. p-l3ND in. · g j. Cl aal aI P DnuA a.... On . o.rth M .la sie.e, ma., Moat.... . N Aorth Ma eret. .ppete olu Iee. FraN Wigle.r, Dealer in Ie Imparted .d DomtL.le Clpnr, Chewing ..d snmoking Tebace. Pipe. .ts Mott.: Finest goode-lowest preM. WDIDNO3 KOUSE, Iron l reL rerck, 41 and 41$ W. Aa.n sthat. lThe entn ksselem pEe l the Iind In the ity. BELDVER E HOUSE. E.ropean Pls. No. 6114416 North Msin street. Helen, eont. D. A. McDonald, Proprietor. LOAN OFFICES. JAKE W IAN OFFICE, No. 1 Soeth Main street. Helena. Meat. Mest liberal loans on high-pditd diamond ('owlry. ee ogld reand TI wefth Aentclau . clothing. tct. rteed A r. sed. re speoatfll olicted. aeob. Yeud. P-ro ,pritor. GROCERS. BACH OORT & CO. Wholeisle and etall Groosr. Main street sand eith aenwe. LIVERY AND FEED STABLE. I1TT let DOUGRHRTY. Livery and Feed Stable. 21 Lower Main street First-lass, betiful ri rn hished at shert Telephone 27f. THE NEW HELENA STABLE, Corner Logan Stret and Twelfth Avenoe Helena. Montana. BOARDING AND SALE. First Clasis in Every Respect. Thoroughly Ven tilated and Fire Proof. Telephone No 239. A. P. Mo, Manager. FURNITURE, CARPETS, ETC. "U" T P' CURTIae 1u9 a iarfoadwar. ITAVR.AiIOTS. eallsgher A Gockrtetter, pr praltere. 37 W.A.r .. .trest Edema r. C pt It and sagretoe. Oelyii e e 11 Mlan sre selnas h ealtaa U 8. PUBLIC UAMPLINGCO. Casisnamten ef Ore Iellotted. Iseples snbmitted te the dif*rent Smeltere, and the ore amid to the highest bidder. Work at Mj C sd N. P. R S Jantion. Cltyoi .larc Pew.r bulldiag. Telephone 263. 3OO DINDERY. C. LEBKICBHU3 MARBLE WORKSF. JL. SMITH. Irelm Trsefr Line n~r uer ...iab..r Mes ta., me. All klds, meremL tmam oeee fLg I~ at Ur·J·~rY -mn-u--- n, --umL*-----------------.--:-. 1A41n' Ebiua ,ipeat. eko , natt, Ee a -ma ulaa. JoAMS W. AonlUoR. b.anTe Ier thor. I ;mm & KEEbL, Civil oad mining Eanirers., i.. tr Minn- Sers Dor.s Mite l Pat. 1orn12,Aat5s. it.b nalng Helen, hagt. AGRICUTUrRAL IMPLEMENTS. A. DAVIDSON B ER. WagSt, t. oppoull Implements.,l t Helns arvesn. A. - DAVIDSON AGO., SC. ASLIE & CO.. Wasgons. Agricultural Implements. Ete. main street and Slth asvenu. Ol .st rlty Bourbona isth msnus ansd -is saeet. L. ISRAEL IQ & CO., Wrme d Btl WIne. le md Telephone 123. OPENHEIMEUR & LIC. N o, I M d m D I ro.i d N no4 Wholeale dealers WinW quors sa Internmatioual Hotel block. Sli MisL stre.et Helena Monitsa. AUUiVr .Aquo. Wholesmle and Retail LIquers ad Cigar. Telephone 2L. lout Main stret. Helens. Wholesale rs raYtil dalr bla Bar Glasewa.re eto. Helena. Mont. r- Esa.dH Ished 18 HARDWARE. Mchlaiery and Mining Sgapplies. Ilt North Msain Itreea. sos B 1. TULLED. 163. Main st., opposite FIrst Nat. BIak. 0LAEBI, CO.RAD ACITIR. ol2 ad an South Main dteeS, F.ED. BOSCH. 22North Rodny Ba dsre. Gaar, r.o. - a nsi. n. iE st.blie. d lr. . ,, . - _-- -- --Y-- -"-- - -- -_- - 8. S. BU0 KEB HARDWABE CO. Macshinoe and Minirngopplo€ nd'... . R6 NMnt.e, oppo.ia lonu ant. B.a. Attorne md Cournrslror Lae . Iros n First4 an oU S Bat Mieattt" Attorne md Csellr at la. Counselorsmt law. r rart S Inalcat to record In tha stat.. Or.nce-Meniatsa lteioa Bank Building. COAL AWn WOOD. a. flUBNmA LMMBER CO. Deaes Ia Gals cGat l. AK- NND NATIONAL BANK. g Oue s 1maeors . s ad n dm j gpacox ua.oximsek MONTANA NATIONAL BANE, Soathwea Coaer Mala satd Edwars RC-ANTZS NATIONAL SARE. euortwest corn, Maila sad Edwardsd TRE 0S. CRUmS AVIrS BANK, AMERICAN NATIONAL BANK, Caorer ala sad 1Sith aveas. Power esoc. ran t arease sad rain, REAL ESTATE BROKERS Nsltte C Bseement Power bloek. Sr. AMOUR A LAMBIS Res Elatoe. oeam 18 Bailer block. WALLACE & THOBN3UEGE, eal Estate. Mortpse La..n and lsa. Iace, I sco.n soor ]s.* I wIs.l .eak >.041. WE. MUTH. eatl Potato. ooms , 2. 214 and 215, Power block. -I E x FRENCH A COa. Beal Eatate. ooms if and 17 Gold block. C.r. ELLI A CO., Real Estate, Intrauce and Loa. G oral Brokers. Power Ilock. MATEESON A CO., Real Estate and Investmenta. Housne for Neat. Iiunm and lhts on Install meat Plan. Beome 209-210. Power Itnilding, Second Floor. DRY GOODS, CARPETS. ETC. EW TONE DRY GOODS STORE, Corner Mais and State Streaks SANDS 33OS., SSouath Main ftre FOWLs Cass STORE Herald Bsidl~ . haredwv. JEWELERS. THE J. BTLINMTZ JrEWEL CO., Dealemn Watcbee. Jewelry. Dries Bras. SSoathb Min Stret. C. " JrcUerM a .O.. Watcesr., Silverware. Jewelry, Eto. 1 South Main strLeet. CHINe4ESE MERCHIIANT. HIP' TUENG & CO.. Custom TailUors n4 Dealer. in Fency 12 and 14 Wall Iret. DANJL MANLEY D cO.. rxelniv.. Jobbers in (Oragas. Lemon. and Appl'. lorsigN a.ar l Iknmasir lied Prun. ad Nut.. "lube.na and i'ar.. Sra-siLrwa 4rrst Nnrtmern I seulrir Potte. ealear ha Curd Wood. Telept ie L. *8.*, Mago s Seek Ba~ale DRUGs AND NU*DWIC . r . u OOhwooo - S1 . pab selre, INa. Telepban !e L ., BAL A CO., Wholasale and .Retai DreaIet., 0 Sloath Main trer . Telephone SL 301P A O'CONNOB,R Druggist. and Amsayr' MatelNe. IBaley block., Main street. M. PARCOEN CO., Drsp and Medicines, Paint. Oils, la . Corner Main and Broadway. BHE PAYNTER DRUG CO., Dealers In Drugs and Mediolne. No. 16 Bouth Main street. JiTI DBUG STORP. Drop jnd l(dsoise. Choice Perfnmes, aoy Moods and Stationery. iA untill2 p.. m CallsU promptly A<, tsMate and Water streets, elena. pnephon l. Eugene Meyer, Prop. Tel PECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT. The T ing Drug Store at Northern Pa. doo, do now ase competent h a oi ucharge of the precrption de _rtm. et ne but the tlest imedJoin Night callU Promptly An.wered MONEY TO LOAN, R. PALMR. R Loan Agent. a.e. 1S, Merchant. National Bank ban ldi I. BUNNEL4 , Loan Agent. Boom 17. Merchant National Bank building. CLOTHIERS AND GENTS' FURNISHERS. . HARBBIS, Clothier and Genti' Furnishing Goods. St. Loual block, Main street. ANS & KLEIN, Wholesale and Retail Clothiers, Gents' Furnishing Goods. Corner Broadway and Main. IREENROOD, BOHM $ CO., Clothiers and Gents' Furnishing Goods. Wholesale and RetaiL 2, 26, 28, Z0 a Main street. BARBNET. I. X. L. Clothing and Gents' Furnishing One door north Grand Central Hotel. THE BOSTON, Clothier and Gouts' Furnisher. Wholesale si Retail. M. Auerbech & Co.. Proprietors. 25 Main street, Helena· Montana LOEB BRO.. Establihod liM i Dealers in Clothing. Furnishin Goods Hate, Caps, Itoote and Shoes, Trunks, Valises, Etc.. S South Main street. SFELDBERO. Wholesale sad Retsi Dealer in bead stads Clothing. OGents' Furnishing Gocb. South Main streert, Helena. .LTMOUTH CLOTI NG HOUSE. Clotbhinsnd OGent.' Furnishing Goods. Hat., Cap,. Boot., Shors, Trunks, Valiae, Levy & Eli. Proprietors. BAOOCK & CO., Gtet' Fc.-niaing Goods. Frs, Ete. Mln street. Foot of Broadwar. PIANOS. ORGANS, ETC. G. W. JACKSON. Balin lock. Jekeon street, near Broadway.r . , JACQUmEMIT & .. Dealer in P.ina sad Orgmea wahea ld Ba.dl. SlSeeth Ma aiseeb