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Ott, MONDAY IN DEPENDENT~ JfBO4J you Can't Heed °s~tel Vtlolt I. C * INDEPENDENT JOB oF0O'~ VOL XXXII.-NO 104. .,HELENA, MO MAY 11 1891,-TW.ELVEI PAGES PRIORI PItC Steele & Clements, Real Estate bLoans. Real estate is the basis of all securities. If you would make solid, safe and paying invest ments buy real estate in Helena Stop paying rent. Buy and. own a home of your own. We can sell you a residence on easy terms and price to suit, any where from $630 to $25,000, or a lot on which to build, at any price from $4 per front foot upwards. We have the largest list of property for sale. We have the largest and most convenient offices. THE JARVIS- CONKLIN Jlortgage Trust Go. PAID UP CAPITAL $1,500,000, Loans money on real estate mortgages at lowest rates of in terest. We have known no hard times. Our faith in Helena is such that we have loaned money on property in Helena, every month during the so-called hard times. Our loans are closed promptly and borrowers given every ad vantage consistent with sound business principles. Steele & Clements, ;MAhNAGER~S. THE DEFECTIVE CLASSES, Extracts From a Very Interesting Paper Read Before the Char. ity Conference. Proportion of Men and Women Among Pauper and Crimi nal Olassea. Does Education Increase Insanity and De crease Crime ?-In Large Cities and the Country. INDIANAPOLIS, May 16.-Attendance and interest in the national charity conference continues. The committee on place of next meeting decided upon Denver. The custody and care of idiots was the topic at the morning session. Dr. W. B. Fiph, ou perintendent of the Illinois school for im beoiles, made an extended report. A. O. Wright read a paper on "The Defective Classes." In the evening was heard the re port of the committee on co-operation of women in the management of charitable, penal and correctional institutions, with Miss Clara Barton as chairman. Mrs. V. T. Priest, of Connecticut, read the report and it was followed by interesting discus sion. In the course of his remarks on the defective classes Mr. Wright said: The defective classes form a series of small, but very tronblesome tumors upon the body politic. For various reasons, ranging all the way from the imperative need of protection to society up to those humane influences for which our country is distinguished, these classes have fallen un der the more or less effective guardianship of government in all civilized countries. Private effort is also doing much to palliate or to prevent the evils which the defective classes bring on themselves aod upon soci ety at large. Men and women are about equally af flicted with insanity. Either the causes are the same in men and women which produce insanity or they are equivalent. Heredity, worry,overwork,underfeeding, sickness, and the weaknesses of old age affect men and wemen equally, and the perils of childbirth and of loneliness for solitary farmers' wives are about equal to the dangers from acci dent and the vices to which men are ex posed. But crime and pauperism are lia bilities of men much more than of women. There are generally about forty times as many men as women in our prisons. The disproportion is not quite so great in some states, and is still less in European coun tries. In Europe there is no sentimental pity for a woman on account of her sex. But even in Europe the proportion is per haps ten to one. Women do not commit crime as readily as men do; it may be from principle; it may be from cow ardice; it may be from lack of temptation. And women do not become paupers as readily as men. In getting out door relief, it is true, women are a little ahead of men, but that is because it is easier for a woman to get poor relief than for a man. And in fact, where out door relief is laxly admin istered, though it is usually the women who usually apply for it, there are often lazy men behind them. sending them for it or else drinking up all their earnings in the comfortable consciousness that the public will support their families. So thateven in out door relief it is probable that the men have a good share of the pauperism. And in the poor houses there are about twice as many men as women. About an equal number of each sex are born idiots, and remain so all their lives; so that the question of age in idiocity need not be taken into account, except that idi ots are not long-lived. But insanity is a defect of mature years. Going through an insane asylum, you are struck with the gen eral age of the patients in contrast with the youth of the attendants. This, of course. is partly caused by the fact that insanity is not very curable. Only about one-fourth of the insane recover, a few die, and the rest end their days as chronic insane. But it is also caused by the fact that most of the insane are middle-aged or elderly be fore they become insane. Crime is rarely committed by little chil dren, and when committed is frequently excused by the law or by the judges and juryt But every visitor to a jail or state's prison must notice the comparative youth fulness of the prisoners. The average age of the convicts in state prison is twenty seven. Or, to put it in another way, the majority of convicts in taoe prison are under twenty-five. The difference between twenty-seven and twenty-five is accounted for by the difference between an average and a majority. The direct opposite of this is the case with pauperism. The majority of paupers are over fifty years old. Criminals are mostly young men. . Paupers are mostly old men and old women. Youth is the age of passion, and perverted passions lead to crime. The au thor of the "Suke's Family" says that among the descendants of Margaret, the "mother of criminals," it is very noticeable that in youth they were prostitutes and criminals and in age beggars and paupers. The same perverted instincts which led them to prey upon the community took the direction of crime in the time of strength and of pauperism in the time of weakness. The question of education is often stated as if education favored insanity and opposed crime and pauperism. As a fact, I do not think that education has so great an influence either way as many seem to think. We were told half a century ago it was cheaper to build school-houses than jails and poor-houses. We have dotted the country over with school-houses and we find that jails and school-houses are just as necessary as ever. But some one may say that this is so because there is no effoc tive compulsory education, and because we have an unusual number of ignorant foreigners coming to our shores. But this is sufliciently answered by looking at Germany with its homogeneous population and comn pulsory education, and compulsory religions, as well as secular education at that. An in vestigation, which 1 moade a few years ago by personal inquiries fiom pior-house to poor-house in W isconsin satisfied me that about one-third of the paupers ale made so by idleness, one-third by liquor, and one- I third by all other causes combined. In my judgment the idleness which makes truants from school and therefore poor scholars, leads to crime or pauperism in matny cases, I and in those oases it is not ignorance which t is the cause of crimeo, but idleness, which is the cause of ,oth ignorance and crime. The advantages and disadvantages of city life have often been talked of. Many people sutpose that.the excitement and t strain of cities conduces to insanity. c Others say that the loneliness of country e life hits the same effect. An English phas- a cinn has taken the pains to tabulate the statistics of insanity for the city of London f for forty years and for several purely agri- t cultarel counties in the south of England 1' with about the samie ,population for the a samne period, and finds that there is no dif- t ference between city and country in the t amount ut insanity, liut for crime, all sta tistics show clearly that crime is concenit crated in the cities, which are the refuge of c the criminal trlases and the nurseries of f young ciinals i in the neglected street h children. Pauperisnt is greater in the city I than in the country, though this may arise r from rrupt municipal governments enuoursia pauperism to win votes. Thed I. of climate have not been much consfieBred. But I believe it will be found that warm climates do not have so great a proportion of insanity as cold climates. It is certain that in Europe Greece has a much less proportion of insanity than Norway. In this country there is less insanity in the south than in the north in proportion to population. A part of this is due to the negroes in the south having a small proportion of insanity and the foreigners in the north having a large proportion. But it is possible that climate has also something to do with it. I cannot discover that climate has anything to do with crime. Pauperism is increased in cold climates by the greater difficulty of getting a bare subsistence. In the United States insanity is obviously increasing very rapidly. In ten years in Wisconsin the insane under public care have increased from about seventeen hun dred to over three thousand. This is partly due to the causes discussed above. Bat it is also due to another fact, to which I thirck I was the first to call attention, that the ratio of insanity to the population is much greater in the older states than in the newer ones, and in the older counties of Wiscon sin than in the newer ones. lsut on the whole I believe that the meas ures we are taking to treat the defective classes are really reducing their numbers. For one thing, we keep them shut up in institutions, where they are not allowed to propagate their kind or to practice or teach their vices. A notable exception to this is the county jail system, where prisoners are herded together in idleness to constitute schools of crime and vice. Our methods do also cure many of the defectives. About one-forth of the insane are permanently cured. From halt to two-thirds of the criminals are never convicted a second time. Many paupers and tramps do finally drop back into society again. It is, of course, a struggle which may be made to apnear to be tending one way or the other according as we are optimistic or pessimis tic in the bent of our own minds. But I take the side of the optimist and believe that we are gradually healing up these ul cers upon society. B SWITCHMEN NOT SUSTAINED. The Supreme Council Says They Had no (Grounds for Striking. SCHICAoo, May 1.--The supreme council of federated railway employes decided against the Chicago & Northwestern switch men this morning. The council recom mended that the switchmen's offieors call upon the railway officials with a view to the reinstatement of as many of their old hands as places could be provided for. The proceedings of the council were prolonged an stormy. At the close of the session, which lasted nearly eleven hours, Sargent said that representatives I of the switchmen and their opponents had each been given a hearing, and the course of the former in demanding the dis charge of Yardmaster McInerny declared unjustifiable. From others it was learned that all of the out of town switchmen could be probably reinstated upon application, and the .same was true of many of the Chi cago switchmen. The switchmen appeared to-night somewhat embittered toward the firemen, neither Sargent nor Debs having voted on any question before the council, ostensibly because the order of trainmen had no quorum present, but really, it is asserted, from a desire not to be put on record. The anestion of sustaining the action of the railroad was settled by a vote of six to three favoring the company. A resolution introduced by the switchmen was adopted by the same vote, requiring trainmen's officers to request the comnany to remove trainmen who have been given the switch men's places so that the switchmen be re instated. The trainmen, however, voted against the resolution, and the secretary of the supreme council, who is one of the trainmen, refused point blank to sign it. The outcome of the action of the council, therefore' is far from settled. Yardmaster Brooks, whose name figured in interviews brought out by the strike, and who is a member of the trainmen's brotherhood, was discharged from the Northwestern railroad's service to-day with the switch men. BASE BALL GAMES. The Home Club Mentioned First In the Record Here Printed. LEAGUE CLUBS. Cincinnati 8, Boston 3. Pittsburg 14, Philadelphia .5 Chicago 11, Brooklyn 9. Cleveland5, New York 4. ASSOCIATION CLUBS. Boston 9, Louisville 3. Baltimore 9, Cincinnati 1; 7 innings; rain. Columbus game postponed; rain. Athletic 8, St. Louis 1. Louisville Races. LOUIBVILLE, May 16.--Track too dusty to be fast. Three years old and upward, mile and seventy yards-Milt Young won, Dick erson second. Harry Smith third. Time, 1:49. Three years old and upward. one mile Dead Heat between Comedy and Ed Leon ard, Rimini third. Time, 1:454. The run off was declared another dead heat. Time. 1.45%. The second run off was won by Ed Leonard. Time, 1:45-. Two-year-olds, five furlongs-Huron won, Gorman second, Farraday third. Time 1:03. Two-year-old maiden fillies, half a mile -Moberly won, Unadill second, Maid Howard third. Time, :50k1. Three years old and upward, mile and one-sixteenth-Glockner won. Jubilee sec ond, Response third. 'lime, 1:52. Gravesend Races. GRAvesEND, May 16.--Track too heavy for fast time. Three-year-old maidens, one mile-Hypatia won, Port Chester second, Mountain Deer third. Time, 1:45. Mile and one furlong, handicap-Sir John won, Tristan second, Lavinia Belle third. Time, 1:591g. Two-year-olds, five furlongs-Oppressor won, Laughing Water second, Lady Wash ington colt third. Time, 1:05. Three years old, one mile-Russell won, Terrifier second, Picknicker third. Time, 1:45, Two-year-olds, five furlongs-Mars won, Fred Lee second, Patrimony colt third. Time, 1:05!4. One mile-Watterson won, laldwin sec ond, struke third. Time, 1:46zy. BLAINE'S HIEAITrI. Improving Slowly and the Gout is Sub siding. NEW YORn, May 16.--Dr. Dennis, rfter his visit to Secretary Ilaine this morning. gave out tihe following: "Blaine had a very good night and is free fronm pain this motn ing. He seems much better, and while his feet are still slightly swollen, the attack of gout is subsiding, and in it few days he I ought to be able to be about the house. lie enjoyed i good breakfast this luorning ad I enoaIs very comfortable." Mrs. Blaine this afternoon said the ula1 for her husband's dep:arture for Wasning ton had been abandoned day after day. Tlhis weather was greatly against the sub 1 aidouce of gout. iloe concluded by saving , that in all probability it would be a week before Blaine could leave for the capital. t James I. Ward & Co., shipping iner chants of New York, received a cableram: froent luenos Avres stating that ohld ther tI had reached lIh0 premium. This is the highiest rate over known in the Argentine t republic. i AIDED BY A STRONG WIND Flames, Starting in a Barn, Lick Up Twenty-two Blocks in Muskegon. Most Destructive Fire Ever Known in the Michigan Lumb ber Town. A Sudden Shift In the Wind Carries Dev astatlon Into the Maln Resl dance Portion. MunsEaoN, Mich., May 17.-Twenty-two squares of business buildigs and dwellings were swept away to-nightby the most dis astrous fire Muskegon hal ever seen. The fire started at 7:30 in the Launkowell hotel barns, just off Pine street, and, aided by a strong wind, swept with lightning-like ra pidity ten blocks up Pine street, one of the chief business streets of the city. Then, by a sudden shift of wind the flames were driv en toward Terrace avenue, one of the finest residence streets in the dity, where they swept unchecked until the southern por tion of the city was reached, where build ings were not so close together. There the firemen, aided by men and engines from Grand Rapids, succeeded in getting the flames under control, although at a late hour some buildings are, still burning fiercely. Twenty-two blocks are devasted. Pine street business houses for ten blocks are entirely wiped out. Among the more valu able blocks are the Pine Street house, Philaborun block, Eckeri&an's drug store, Matthew Wilson's residence, Sedgwick's wholesale store, MoMichaelPs shoe store, thb Launkowell hotel. No less than 350 resi donces, including some of the finest in the city are in ashes. The $100,000 courthouse was gutted, but the public docu ments were saved. All prisoners in the county jail, which occupied the basement of the courthouse, were liberated. Several cows and horses were burned and a little child sleeping in the Latnkowell hotel barns, where the fire started, is missing. Conservative estimate placa the total loss as over half a million. -Hundreds of families who were rendered homeless are being cared for by people in the portions of the city which escaped the visitation. The scene on the stseets to night was terrible. Homeless peopa were running frantically about making endeav ors to save come little portion of their most valuable effects which had been dragged from the houses, but in most cases the spread of the flames was so rapid that as in the case of the great Chicago fire, little or nothing could be carried away. Above the cries of women and children and the shouting of men cocld be heard the explosion of dynamite used ly firemen to blow up buildings in the '.-6 of staying the progress of the flames, and again a heavy concussion as the boiler in some business building would explode, scattering debris in all directions. The tiremen la bored under difficulties from the start. The gale which was blowing scattered huge blazing brands far beyond where the men were working, and caused new fires to spring up constantly. A LATER REPORT. Great SuHfering Among the Victims Help Is Much Needed. MUSKEOoN, Mich., May 17.-Three a. m. Momen and children of the poorer classes wander homelessly along the streets, moan ing and weaping over their losses. If the city authorities do not immediately inter pose and make some arrangements to house the homeless extreme suffering will cer tainly follow. The first residence that fell a victim to the fire was that cornm monly called "The Sawdust," inhabited mostly by the laboring class people. This in a little while was completely devastated. At this point the wind shifted to the west and the basineso portion of Pine street was caught. The Cummins house was the first to burn, and all stores on east side of the streets were swept away. The fire crossed over Pine to Webster. and followed a di rect course to the south, leaving the Bett block behind. The magnificent residence of Matthew Wilson, a wealthy lumberman, was soon in ashes. The court-house was next to follow, and only the walls remain. When Apple street was reached every business house on Pine street was in ruins, with the exception of a few at the north end. At Courthouse square the path of the fire reached two blocks. The immense wind made it impossible to get the flames in check, and as at greater part of the buildings were wooden, everything was favorable to them. Appeal for help to outside cities was promptly responded to and firemen fought heroically but almost uselessly until the more sparsely built-up region was reached, when they prevented it from further spread ing. The territory now devasted is eleven blocks long and from one to two blocks wide. GRAVES INDICTED. Two Others Also Charged With Com plrcity in thie Itarnaby Murder. D).NvFi, May I.-[Special.]-The grand jury handed in their indictments in the Barnaby case to-day. One is against Dr. (Graves and another is supposed to be against his wife. The authorities refused to say either that it is or is not. The third is against somne one unllklown, even more secrecy being kept as to its object than in the case of the second. The oflicials refuse to say whether o: not it is against Sallie Ilancley, who has figured in the ease. De toetive IHanson left for Massachusetts this evening. John II. Conrad has left for his home in Montana. le positively refused to say ci word one the case. Once More at the Rudder. WVAsn.o'rov, May 16.-The president re sumed his otficial duties at the white house to-day. There are a number of important questions pending in ctath of the executive departments, and it is the president's pur pose to dispose of them ,as rapidly as possi ido. The ilerring ste question requires iia macdite consideratlon and the president will devote his attention to that first, with the view of having the government's policy in regard to the seal fisl:eries, so far as the present season is concerned, clearly defined, pending final settlmeent of the controversy by arbitantion. It is probable that the nailing orders of the revenue cutters ns signed to duty in Boring sea will be issued next week. The illness of Secretary Blaine uay necessitate slight delay in the plepr rntion of instructions, but it will be only temporary. A ciroular was issued by Vile-l'resident Clark, of the Union Pacific, announcing the nppointmuent of I Dieknson as assistant enllerl mantager of the rcad, vice Holt.,n:lb. resigned. D)lkienson assumes his duties BOTH AT ACAPULCO. The Charleston and the E.smeralda There, but the Itata ~tIlslg. WAsumorow, May 16.-After one week's waiting some tangible news was to-day re ceived at the navy department from the Charleston. First came a dispatch from Acapulco, stating that the Chilian insur gent cpuiser Esmeralda put out of Acapulco harbor yesterday and returned to-day. Later on, through the state department, a dispatch came saying that the Charleston had arrived at Acapulco, that the Esme ralds was still in port, but giving no news of the Itata. What the next step is to be no one at the department knows or feels free to tell. The Charleston is to take on coal, as her supply has probably nearly run out during the week's chase. Whether the Esmeralda is to have the privilege of taking coalaboard cannot be learned here, as it is a matter entirely within the control of the Mexican govern ment, but the presumption is that the de partmentisagainst it, as the neutrality laws would be strained by the Mexican gov ernment if it allowed anything beyond water and food supplies to be furnished a belligerent. The theory at the navy department is that the Charleston, whose commander is Captain Itemey, has orders admitting large discretionary movements, and will now lie at or near Acapulco for a time, trusting that the Itata, which is a slow seven knot ship, has not yet passed down, and will try to coal in that neighborhood. If she is sighted the Charleston will doubtless try to seize her. She cannot do this in. Mexican waters, so that it would be necessary to head her off outside the three mile limit, or if unsuccessful in that, to follow her to sea when she goes out. What the Esmerelda will do in the mean time, is problematical, The general im pression is that the officers of that vessel will rely more upon strategy than force to obtain the supplies carried by the Itata, end some officers believe that she is trying to lure the Charleston from the Itata's real course. itecourse to force to prevent the Charles ton from capturing the Itata, however, would, it is said, be the death blow of the insurgent cause of Chili, as the entire naval force of th6 United States in the Pacific would, if necessary, be promptly called into play to destroy the insurgent navy. A cablegram received at the department from Admiral McCan, announced that the Balti more and San Francisco were both at Iquique, Chili, to-day, so it appears The Baltimore has come north and the San Francisco has been stayed in her southern course just at the point where the Chilian insurgent navy is now nearly all together assembled. This point is almost in the extreme north of Chili and is where the Itata would naturally find her dgstina. tion if she eluded the Charleston. The Weather Crop Bulletin. WAsmeITon, May 16.-The weather crop bulletin says: Weather the past week was generally unfavorable for growing crops in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, owing to dryness of the ground, and reports from the principal wheat and corn states indicate that the continuation of the present condi tion during another week will cause a drought likely to prove of serious injury to crops. Small grains and grass are in dau aer, owing to the absence of rain, from Tennessee northward up to the lake region and in Minnesota. Although more rain is needed in the Dakotas, Nobrask, and Kan sae, the weather during" the past week was more favorable and frosted wheat is recov ering, but was probably somewhat fnijured by frost last night. Favorable reports are also received from Missouri and Colo rado. Reports from Eansas state that the lessian fly and chinch bugs are damaging wheat in places. In Oregon wheat pros pects were never better, and fruit is doing well. In California the cool weather has greatly benefited growing crops, retarding the rapid ripenening of fruits. Hay cut ting is in progress throughout the state, but curing is retarded by partly cloudy weather. Food Scarce in Peru. WASmINoTON, May 16.-The president of Peru has issued a decree admitting free of duty into that republic live stock and cat tie, dried meat, salt beef, dried, smoked or pickled fish, wheat and corn, potatoes and all other vegetables, eggs, cheese, chest nuts, peas, beans, rice, grape seed, herbs and spices, end has decreed an export duty of twenty soles silver per head on cattle ex ported, and two soles per head on sheep ex ported. This action is in consequence of the scarcity and consequent high price of food in Peru, caused by floods and enor mous demands for all forms of food, caused by war in Chili. Customs Regulations. WAsHoroINoN, May 16.-Secretary Foster has directed the collector of customs at New York to refuse to enter goods in the name of custom-house brokers or others who are merely consignees unless they dis close upon entry the name of the ultimate consignee or purchaser, file a certified copy of the invoice by which settlement for the purchase of the merchandise is made, and disclose all facts and circumstances neces sary to satisfy him that the transaction is free from taint or fraud. This is the out come of recent investigations. Advance in Grain and Stock. WAslimarToN. May 16.-The report of the statistician of the department of agrliul ture shows an increase since April of last year, of more than 100 per cent. in the price of corn and oats, 3f per cent. and more in wheat in the principal markets, 32 per cent. in Chicago for choice beeves, and 34 per cent. for Texans, and advanced values in all cereals and meats. In a Hurry to Get ilome. LOUISTILrt, May 16.-The Democratic state convention concluded its work this afternoon. The ticket as completed is: For governor, John Young Brown; lieuten ant-governor, M. C. Alford, of Lexington; attorney-general, W. J. HIendricks, of Flesmingsbure: auditor, N. C. Normrn, of Frankfort: treasurer, l. C. liale; register of the land oflice; G. B. Swango, of Comnp ton; superintendent of public instruc tion and education. Porter Thompson, of Owenton; clerk of the court of appeals, A. Adams, of Cynthiana. Just at the close a resolution endorsing Grover Cleveland and John G. Carlisle. and inaming Cleveland for president was offered by Travis, of Clin ton, but the delegates were in no humor to delay and a motion to adjourn was carried. Waterworks at Dillon. I)ILLON, May 16.-[Speolal. 1-The Dillon oity council, in spelcial session to-day, passed an ordinance granting to J. 11. Lawrence. and others, of Helena, ia fran chise to furnish the city with waterworks. 'he same parties about three weeks ago were granted an electric light franchise. ioth franchises run twenty years. The city rents twenty hydrants at $100 per year each. Work will cummence within sixty lays, and the waterworks must be in run ning order by ,Jan. 1, 1832. Withdrew Froms the K. of L. i'rsnuastu, May 16(.-T.'he Green Glass Works assembly of this district has decided to withdraw from the Knights of Labor sid affiliate with the AImeric.tn Federation if Labor. The assouilmlios at Alton, ill., cud St. louis have expressed their willing smss to join the movement. WALES HOLDS A LEVEE, The Manner in Which the Heir Apparent Greets His Future Subjects. So Much Handshaking Gives Him a Pain For Three Days. He Has a Fellow Feeling For an Amnerl lean President-Schaeme to Cement tihe Empire. [Special Correspondence of To Ixnarmtnmwr.1 LoNDoN, May 2.-If you want to see Lon don really look like a continental city, wander round the neighborhood of St. James palace on one of the days when his royal highness the prince of Wales is hold ing a levee. He really is holding a drawing room for men only, on behalf of the queen. and the Court Circular, when announcing the fact, earefully mentions that "preuncta tions to H. R. H., are to be regarded as equivalent to presentations to her majesty." The prince abhors levees; he says that he always has a pain in his back for three days afterwards, thanks to the continuous hand-shaking. He is credited with telling Mr. Schenck, when that poker-aocomplished gentleman was minister at the court of St. James, that he considered a oresident of the United States one of the most hardly used men in existence, because he had to shake hands so often. Levee usually begin about two o'clock in the afternoon. The prince travels a few yards from the garden entrance of Marl borough house to the garden entrance of St. Jame's palace, in a coach and four, with a fat coachmen and three flunkeys hanging on behind, surrounded by a ield marshal's escort of six-foot-high life guards. He takes up a position in the front of the throne in the "Presence" chamber of the palace, with all the great officers of state in at tendance, just as though he were the ac tual sovereign instead of the deputy, and then waits results. "The results" usnually consist of from three to four hundred offi cers of all ranks in the service, fifty or sixty peers, who have at some time or other enjoyed, or still enjoy, a more or less inti mate acquaintance with the prince, and the three or four dozen other gentlemen who happen to be desirous for some reason or other of being permitted for once to say "How d'ye do?" to royalty. All the avenues round the palace are meanwhile swarming with men in gorgeous raiment, for the levee dress of the British army is something even more dazzling than the Polish Hussars of an opera bouffe. The proverbial poverty of the army man is well illustrated by the number of officers who arrive at the palace on foot, and are carefully brushed down and polished up by lackeys in the ante chamber. Every now and thin there isan amusing contretemps on route. A man, not of the military caste, cots entangled with his sword when alight ing from his cab, and the roll in the dust so disfigures his court dress, that he has to forego presentation, greatly to the joy of the crowd who witness his chagrin. Some times an aide-de-camp, who is a mass of gold embroidery, gets splashed by i passing cab, and you see him solicit ing the good offices of a policeman, or friendly spectator, to polish him up with a piece of cloth, which is the best thing for burnishing gold lace. Then, again, you sne a little procession of admiring women with a plumed dragoon in their midst, escorting him in wrapt admiration to the palice, and waiting an tour or more for his return with the hand that pressed the royal palm care. fully ungloved to be reverently touched, and probably (in privacy) kissed by sisters, aunts and consins. In the palace itself the scene is splendid, and a general air of affability reigns throughout. The prince of Wales, with his fat little body and bald head, does not look imposing in the brilliant scarlet uni form of a Britannic field-marshal; in fact, at times, he looks even ridiculous when looking up at some tall guardsman who bends down to shake hands with him. Nor does the accent of his royal highness strikes one as Eng lish. Indeed, of all the queen's sons., the prince of Wales has the most pronounced German accent. But he does his best to make everybody feel comfortable, and shakes hand as heartily with the newest recruit of a militia regimentas he does with one of the captains of his own pet corps, the Tenth Hussars. An incident which usually evokes enthu siasm is when the colonel of a regiment, re turning or departing from or to a distant station, approaches the prince at the head of all the oldcers of the regimout. The grizzled old veteran in command always receives a compliment and a word or two of familiar greeting from the jolly prince. Then each otlicer is presented, and the whole lot for a moment stand in a group for royal inspection, be fore mingling again with the general assemblage. Some years ago, when what was left of the 'twenty-fourth regiment of foot returned from Africa, it was a pathetic sight to see the genuine emotion with which the prince of Wales greeted the half dozen otficers who survived the Zulu mas sacre. But a few years previously they had marched past him twenty-eight strong. After the first two hundred or so have shaken hands with the prince his weariness begins. Reads of perspiration chase them selves down his forehead, and more than once his highness has retired for a minute into an ante-chamber, where it is alleged that he revives himself with a soda and brandy. At the levee the other day the prince in vited a dozen of the senior colonels to smoke with him in the room of the palace which used to be the favourite of George ill. His highness someliow cot to talking about the great question that English poli ticians have so constantly advocated, the cementing of colonial loyalty. The prin a very seldom gives expression to anything approaching politics, but there is no doubt that he has boeen thinking greatly about the troubles in Neow Fouundland and India. So interested also has he been in the recent debates on Australian federation that lie has had excerpts on the subject taken from upwards of a hundred Australian papers pasted into ia scrap book for his pornsal. Chatting with the ollicers the other af ternoon, the prince said he believed that the only way to keep the colonies and dis tant portions of the empire in thorough union with the mother country was to treat them just the same as though they were part and portion of the Ilkitirsh isles, and all their inhabitants born Englishmnen. lie thinks that the princes of the English royal house should include in their titles desig nations representative of India, Australias and Canada. For instance prince of Wales should be described as "prince imperial" of India. Other sous of the mon arch should be made dukes of Madras, or Bombay, of Melbourne, Montreal, or tnuebee, and both princes and princesses should be described by the Herald's colleges as "of the Biritish em pire," and not as of Great Blrtain only. T'h prince also warmly advocates colonial representatives in huot houses of the Eng lish parliament. lie thinks that the eoigu in native princes of Indiashoul.l be created peeors of India and he elected Indian aepre sentative peers in thesame way aslrish and iooach noblea are elected. n regard to Australia and Canada should also be provided in parllament. A certain numberod elected by the bhoes. of Melbourne and Montreal e.u acrosn the sea to Wletmaietf could a given number of uhb parliament. "There ought to abing as distinctive natlionallits British crown," sayvs his royalf "My nephew, the emperor, r Germans,whether they be Pruselane, }lanovarians. or Hessianse why shola my mother's ubjeots, whether Cai Indians. Irish, or English, be mevrge one nation only-ritons" Th who told me the above sase it was ludicrous to see the earnestness wit the prince spoke, and yet to listen very German twist he gave to the "Britain." Copyright. THE CZAR IN ROMN, Tom Reed Expounds the MeKIhle. Iy ew t Listening Europe, Lownow, May 16.-Thomas B. Reed, en. speaker of the house of representat,.sY talking to a correspondent of the Asllog' ated press in Italy, concerning the Ma' Kinley bill, said, in part: "It will sita..( late our foreign commerce by a large nn'tS ber of articles on which duties have heet, reduced or added to the free list, It will stimulate our domestic industries by re.g aon of the reduction in duties on raw ma terial, and the increased duties on a very few articles of necessity which have bee largely imported, but which hitherto we have been unable to manufacture proslta. bly. It was extremely unfortunate that the bill went into erect in so abort a time, or was followed soon by a most severe Afnanoial pn(L when the- failure of Baring Br seemed to stare the foundations o! t strongest houses, when general inus . seemed to shake the whole oorerei world in the face. Going into e$et M such circumstances, it was not adio matter to convince thousands of votei that the flnanoialdilffluitlie were du0solely to inherent defeats of the measure. "Why, look at the ease of Austria, whpba merchants complain so loudly of ram that the McKinley bill brought to their trade. They complained that their industries wer affected to such an extent by the mesarae that through their efforts the Austrian gov ernment was forced to seek to draw other nations into measures of reprisal against the United States. Notwithstanding th.se complaints, the facts proved that eoport , for the first three months under the oper ation of the bill were increased 10 per erte over the corresponding quarter of O Here in. Italy merchants and the prps oe echoed the waifings of the rest of the En ropean press until they discovered that bd4 the bill been specially devised for the puysh pose it would not have been better adapted to increase her trade with the United ttatl for by its provisions 50 per cent of ouru pur chases from her are on the free list; 84 pet cent are admitted at a reduced rate of duty; 12 per cent at the same rate, while duty was advanced on but four per cent. IThe om. mercial alliance of the central states 0o Europe, which certain powers are endeav ing to bring about, is evidence that the commercial nations are not slow to te every precaution to protect and etimul... their trade, and that is exactly the ipoti on which the McKinley bill is,.foun. , am very confident that the next few year will be years of general prosperity to the. United States, and that they will, provýto be favorable both to our domestic m ac4ua' turers and to our foreign comnserce." HE SHOULD KEEP STILL. A Pamphlet, Credited to Bismarck, Speaks Openly to William. [Copyright. 1891, New York Associated Press.) BERLIN, May 16.--Negotiations for Ger. man-Austrian commercial treaty with Spain have become curiously involved with the reciprocity convention proposed by the United States. The German embassy at Madrid sent a dispatch to the effect that the Spanish minister of oreign ataire re ceived the overtures of a treaty with Ger many favorably and told the German ea) bassador that the cabinet meant to renew treaties generally on the principal of reai procity, as far as was compatible with the protection policy. Since this, however, the concession to the United States has becon known. This renders it difficult to neust ate with European powers. Spain 1ha agreed to' give the American impoorts in Cuba and Porto Rico a differential rate 25 peor cent against similar imports from e1 other countries, whether or not they con elude treaties with Spain. Such privileg* constituting a practical customs union b tween the United States and the Spani Antilles, blocks further negotiations i * the Austrian, Italian and Belgium minis. teres. Spain has been invited tosend a del egate to a customs conference at Vienna, where the difficulty might be disousned. German trafios with the Antilles is of no great importance, but the formation of i treaty recognizing exclusive Amerlen privileges is hardly possible. The Mad government finds that every country of Europe takes a similar view of she matter The resignation of Herr Maybach,?Prp sian minister of public works, removed from the public stage the last minister of the old emperor, except Iloetticher. Thb latter is now on the eve of departing. It reported that he will become president o the province of Schlesswig-Holstein, ..l von Bennlieen succeeding to the hneo. office, and Herr Miguel, imperial minis of finance, becoming vice-president of thU Prussian council. The impending ohanges add power to the national liberals in the ministry. The press is discussing apami . let, supposed to have been inspired by marck, assailing the emperor's tendences toward absolutism. The paper argues th ministers alone ought to be responsible, and that the sovereign ought espeoially 19 avoid rhetoric declarations, as in the proper. tion that his fallibility becomes obvioneu it, respect for him suffer. A chapter on "the kaiser his own minister" blames Chancellor Von Caprivi for not using his infuence to prevent the emperor's injudicious public utterances; compares Germany to a rudder less ship and accuses the emperor of eon esuting private advisers behind the back of his ministers. The misery of the defeated strikers at West Phalia is extreme. Over 0,000 who have applied for work in the Boohnm die. triot have been refused employment and are threatened with expulsion from theip homes. INSURGENT DEMANDM, They Will Maka Claims for Dmgs" It They conquer. PAins, May 16.--A delegate of the Chils., progressive party In an interview denies thl Now York telegram stating that fAryAe Saco was drowned by the sinklng of t_ ilanco Enoalada, and that his siga.t$n has been illegally employed sline. British consul at Iqueque he said that Suoo was alive. 'i'hdeelegate that Balmaceda's adherents have contracts to the Armstrongs to p. Runs for the cruiser President Pl that the congress party demanded h British government should not e j its to be delivered. If this dieregarded the conglress ars when the struIle is ended, e to claim similar to that in the se.s Alabama. Similar claims will also be upon France if tshe allows the new to depart. eloetallsts Attack tealef Lorson, May 16.-While Hetuy 3i ley was delivering hbl leotere tl last evening the ball w la o c w e a l gan g of ooenlts who b ga plorer. Tbhe oa *-.