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The Helena independent. [volume] (Helena, Mont.) 1875-1943, October 02, 1891, Morning, Image 6

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83025308/1891-10-02/ed-1/seq-6/

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Chitn of the Chinese to th* Di.
oovery of the MagneUi
Polarity 6f the Needle Known in
the Fourth Contury Before
Development of the Compass From the
Old Nativity raper--iest Use on
Ronem hip.
A contributor to the North China Herald,
of Shanghi, discusses in a learned article
the claim of the Chinese to the discovery of
the magnetic needle. He says the Chinese
have great tracts of ironstone and of these
no small portion is magnetic. Every woman
uses a needle, and those of iron supplanted
those of stone commonly used before the
time of Ch'in Shih-Huang, or about twenty
cne censuries ago. When a needle hap
pened to be made of magnetic iron, its
peculiar properties might have been re
vealed by its accidental fall into water, say
with a splint of wood attached. It doubt.
less came to be known in some such way
that needles made of certain kinds of iron
were magnetic.
The great producing center of magnetic
iron is T'sezhou, in southern Chihli. This
city was early called the City of Mercy, and
the magnetic stone coming from there was
known as the stone of T'szohou, and so
t'asshih came to be the ordinary name for a
magnet. Later the Chinese came to speak
of the City of the Magnet, instead of call
ing it the City of Mercy.
The earliest author who mentions the
".south pointing needle," livedin the fourth
century B. C., and there can be no doabt
but that the polarity of the, needle was
known at that time, though when, where
and by whom first discovered is not now
known. It was, however, not turned to
practical ase until the Tsat dynasty, when
landscapes began to be studied by the pro
fessors of geomancy. The belief was gen
eral then that this needle had magical pow
ers. Kwo Pu, the founder of this system of
geomanoy, died A. D. 324, and it was not
until four centuries later that the peculiar
compass used in this art began to assume
its present form.
The geomancer's compass of the eighth
century *as made of hard wood, about one
foot wide, and had in its center a small
well in which a magnetized needle floated
in water. On the compass were inscribed
several coneentric circles which em
braced the twelve double hours, the ten
denary symbols, eight diagrams and other
marks. The compass was ased it preparing
a geomantio report of any spot where a
house or tomb was to be constructed, so
that the construction might not be an un
lucky site or planned in an unlucky man
ner. At the same time there was living a
Chinese who had studied Hindoo astrono
my, and was the imperial astronomer, and
also a Buddhist priest. He noticed that the
needle did not point exactly north, and that
there was a variation of two degrees and
ninety-fve minutes. This variation went
on increasing till a century later-that is,
till the ninth century. A professor of
geomancy then added a new circle to the
compass. On this improved compass the
first of the twelve hours begins on the new
circle at seven and one-half degrees east of
The eo rpass, it will be observed, grew
out of the old astrological report or nativ
ity paper, calculated from the position of
the stars, and prepared in the Han dynasty
by astrologers as the regular part of social
life, especially when marriages were about
to be solemnized. Some of the old astro
nomical circle. are preserved in the new
geomentic chart. This, was the compases
used when Shenkwa wrote on the south
pointing needle in the 11th century. 'This
author mentions that any iron needle so
quires polarity by rubbing it on a piece of
lodestone. He alludes to the variation as a
fact which he himself had observed, and
speaks of the goathpointing needle as an
implement used by the professors of geo
mnancy. By them it was employed in the
torm of a float unon water. After this, in
1I1, an ambassador to Coren describes the
use of the floating needle on board the
ship in which he made the voyage. This is
the Arst instance, the earliest by more than
a esatury, of the use of the mariner's com
SAss on board ship, found as yet in any
book. native or foreign. The existence of
the book in which it is recorded settles the
question of the first use of the mariner's
compass at sea in favor of the Chinese. At
that time the needle floated on water, sup
ported on a piece of wood, but in the Ming
dynasty some Japanese junks engaged in
piracy were captured by the Chinese, and
the compass in use on board was found to
have the needle dry and raised on a pivot,
while still pointing southward. The
Japanese had learned from the Portuguese
navigators to make a compass of this kind,
and probably the needles they used were
brought from Europe. From this time the
Chinese adopted the principle of a pivot,
and made their compasses without a well
of water in the middle to float the needle
in. Charts were probably used of a very
rough kind, but how far is not known.
What is known is that the junk master was
aware of the direction in which the needle
must point to reach the port to which he
was going. In the Bung dynasty, embrac
ing part of the 10th as well as the 11th,
12th. and part of the 13th centuries, Chi
nese junks went to Persia and India. The
Arabs trading to China direetly would
learn at that time the use of the compass,
and would apply it on board their dhows.
From them the Europeans learned of this
useful invention.
The credit of the discovery, both of the
polarity of a magnetized needle and its
suitability for use by mariners at sea,
mast, therefore, according to the writer,
be given to the Chinese, says Nature, in
commenting on the article. It is China
also that has the credit of having first no
ticed that any iron needle may be polarized
by rabbing it with a magnet. In the 13th
centary the Arabs used a floating Compass
on their dhows. The needle wos made to
float on the water by attaching it croreswise
to a cornatiek or splinter of wood. A mag
net applied to it drew it into a north and
south direction. They would use western
notation to rmark the quarters and interme
diate points on the horizon. When therefore
the mariner's compass was adopted from
them, the Chinese twenty-four points were
not communicated. In the European com
pass the notation of thirty-two points is
western, and rests on the winds and the
sun. In the Chinese primitive mariner's
compass the notation is that of the profes
sors of geomaney5 and rests on the old
astrological division of the horizon into
twelve double hours. From the Arab ac
count we learn, what the Chinese accounts
do not tell us, thet the Chinese floated the
needle by inserting it in a splinter of wood.
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All ,D. 8 . Baile x,1d
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Cunningham, C. J. Davis, M.
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*Edwards, Dr. F. Bi. Egan, Dr. W. Ls.
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Gerber iEdward F. Glibs, C. S.
Glass, ,tohn Griffin. George W.
Hall, Clnbb Hall, Noury
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a Harrison, Joseph Harrington, Wesley
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e Henry, S. E.
* Hemmann, Hermann Henton, C. H.
a Hilger, William H. Hobbs, Dennis
I Holm, Martin Honne. Lon
a Howard, Caty Kaufman, Johan
Keifert, Edward Keeney, Luther
Hehlo, James Kernan. J. J.
Kruger, W. H. Kumlin, Richard
a Laughlin, U. L. (3) Lewis .& Clarke
Liljedahl. John E. Lundeen, Henry
Manddin Joseph Matsh, George P.
r Mlo hienry Merriman, Patrjek
Miller.ddie Morris, Marvin
º Montana Invest. Co. Mont. State Lottery
Morrell, Geo, T. Murphy, John 1.
McCaffrey, John McClare, Samuel
MoKay A. H. MeLeod, J. G.
MouMeein, J. Neal, O. L.
New York Dye WorksNelson, A. G.
I Nelson, David Nay, John E.
Nilson, G. F. Norton, Henry D.
O'Brien, Stephen Offard, Johnney
O'Grady, James Patterson, Robert
Peet, E. W. Perkins, G. L.
Peters, Otto Patterson, O. W.
Peterson, John W. Porter, W. G.
Rand, John Raynor, J. C.
Rector, J. E. Reeves, A. J.
Rice, Frank Rieder, John
Rideout, Willmot Riklr, K.
HRos, Petrs Robertson, Jno. J.
i Rodda, G. Soarborough, M. A.
Schmitiger, Peter Simington, J.
Slater, A. E. Stefani, Pasquino
Stein, Robert Stoneberg, Gust. G.
Street, Frank Sutidberg, P.
Swails, H. F. Swanton, P. J.
Sweitzer, H. F. Taylor, George
Thoren, C. A. Weinliardt, H.
Wenstrom, A. E. Wiedel, E.
Worthington, Thos. Wood, C. E. S.
Zeirman, J. H. Zindel, C. H. (2ý
Argall, Miss Minnie Banpehaup, Miss M.
Brewer, Miss Linna ]iokey, Miss Minnie
Carter, Mrs. Ellen L. Chambers, Mrs. Win.
Conklin, Maud Fichmon, Jessie
Flemmiag, Miss - Hall, Mrs. J. (2)
Heavner, Mrs. H. M. Hutchison, Miss H.
Kleinen, Mrs. A. Lawrence, Estella
Lynch, Miss M. J. Miokleson, Miss A. T.
Miller, Mrs. H. A. Megn, Mrs. Tilde
McCallum, Mrs. P. MoHale, Miss Ella
Nugent, Mary J. Petetseeu, Miss Lena
Pierce, Mrs. V. Puoill, tdrs. Ellen
Robinson, Miss A. S. Reynolds, Mrs. F. B.
Rollins, Mise Estella Taylor, Miss Nora (4)
Tuttle. Miss Della Strube, Mrs. L.
Sweitzer, Mrs. Homer Warner, Mrs. M. E.
T. B. CLawEXLL, P. M.
For any cuse of nervousness, sleepleossnes,
weak etonrarh, indigestion, ,iyspupsia, try r. arter's
Little Nerve Pills. itoliuf is sure. 'The only
ervemcclicino for thu prico in miar ket.
ES ght,
ovror op of bar, " 1oearan @4e'
and b.y oane'es& i Rso1.ast es
tmafd oob k, en ad,
ig andtyo
lr lt o L o re - csm pictor
~em de fnd o a ofee for @sn.
GAtarr spprimedyte r non Drkl b
aarlly ltno aver , is ne
conly tahapei'lt b e r. a terre
Gotinanoitt srae' Sa ma
basly deaw mbtha' #l ta~ el cnn I arl
olve a *ýartHo, ili ig.- fo pll urf
Ttler..*t*ioea 1 Fi n Mfdia( ps.... Difc..
etryoit l Tat - - tsso we, a - isator 004e0
dunzto, , lla~e lida kalll allmoata. L llno
onaly, eaitf ait. ir4lug roei yoor a Ls usitio
fyeoed ifz to lisp yrirs p daz's. a on/
waotes allr th odiy funetou. tIsth ol
ier, bloos ad iuti r st asl by dof
usia, nils apo. fe gtty NW thtt
th1ses e -c pl ek ea
willf, do alhe t is rsozm*sastss to, or money
paid for It e astae r oLsapl reuat. A
seali op plu troblnomuroble eo
eld` ren"rtof Catrh Iow thse oea, av.
(Jmns nthe t arofriatcor of Dar.e aelua
(eorris site oedy. sonl foe cent blol ad pro
te i lr the fuifywtns .s f . It ro tine only
l eteod - od been rea o o lg that itt
admfor G o t et hbe reqatdof oostef oou tded.
tTsOCHOrbtl reE0 s ouffered orNNoA
Helen, oyee tt,,lt llfep J O that I toN.Secrtaryd
ltyesdltl Catarr hs alll the jtfaeddb
the on tih t gproiant~or of Dr. il
drgloras" Likywe tou.a iovsh o
ii enly th folrwasth yol Notie glccdInthueorl
Judg tratibl d wihb~eens grnf l or aoy dwo
reke tdItwa otou off1lied the rl~orfuoaeneo
four4 Y ht thla spr1,rr tSdisrt ook ll a yaýou tare'.
fsrrdteo give pyser po delsy; the/
kwatts reourd toy nafsf Mulra fuoloo; aond
he pasred pt~tlan swt. Tat ty staldMlf
tfhoe of eae at a su kes 1 f~~ y ~~des tCall
timel doslt ws S te ut ofelt e c$1 O peerl,.
Nitroied w stity betev n ra 1, li ore an ded
rnthloetroio of tie clots or Jtar Is eas
doan't Ihot proldc loated, I iau ryibit thou rewt
ilorcedtoeragyve t eitr, wtta hisofotorsosiha
wafter hou l t-at po etisa o fton utaslolt,, iii t
cats wuatiouiso t ae. br at tuo law ,,lw of ..
ste dsaste. at isue oiy of he the sto aili
lit tins fulr itsn6 toogreeetaso of Ithu 1olnere
soe d for nit.pe
Notie'is hoyt by 25, r byiia501.ige, d
mdeniolorator of tr,e si~totoro Jeo'1,. leeesle,d
tot'l~lt~lle t cr Mgi oan ltl Nfro--lhaing ANNclam
Itao niiogefttto tchoki, itoicir our tl teontis
afll thio tirt pubilictiso pion of wlill be held tot e
rae of tie hobo~. at ito law oteoi toof J. l.
ii elotn . ing thse it of I rstoe far th Pine being0
othe are nei the te-aseeotion ofauothr busaoeeas o
Delen,[ Mont, , 179t. Itlt
Ootohe* 1, 08~l r eeoliets soti ox;i.sa
1O. treoveie'tat to Nor. 5. z~ sit .semi
datea will visit Releaaehoh mouta theacofter.
The Oldest, Vst Becocieful, sand .O* leliable
Baa Nrenolsco Speclalists. Ut eoans
and Physiciaas,
Who have the majority of Patients under tree
meat in San Fraseleoo and on the Paollo
Coast for the following diseases,
are now in the city.
All requiring Export Medical or Sugical Serviosc
can be treated by the great Pacils' Coast
Doctors, now in Butte City, without;
having to visit Ban Francisco.
Entrance to Liebig World Dispensary, 8 East
Broadway, corner Male Street.
1Drs. Liobig A Ce. ore regular gredatlats in
medlicine~s asuargory mads aissll papt ttioaors
autherised by the states of MissourlCaelitornasi
and Mentana to treat all ehronte, nerveu and
private diseases lwh ter ca nosdbyimprunse,
moess or coo l oion tmisa weakness, eight
lolses. eexprles os sf esaeewerj
n etwass i [log ofnarveterse], Boo, ote as oi
ture l cerae lYrable adcas anbssa or mIasy
refunded. Charges low. te tr a s of cawse
cured. All meriiseas ars especially orparsd fe
oath individeal caos at laboratory.le, aonjrions
or poisonous compounds sled No time loot
from businoss. Pati gto 1*t a distaece treated by
mail and express. 7edaoies seat pmery
re from gaze er break e
1an uiseases Df Ith bloos, In heart s oo nomy
one system, as well as liver. kidntey and gravoi
complaints. rheumatism, paralysis and all other
chronic Aliceasee.
Writs for illustrated pasere on Deformitiee,
Club Pest. Curvature of the Spie. Piles, Tumors,
Ceacer, C atarrh. Bronositis, iaoIlat.ioe, Electric.
Blade, ye Iar Ainand Bleed and alidesg
cal operatises.
Dieeoesw of women a specialty. Book on die
oases fren.
The only reliable Medical sad Surgical Insti
tute making a specialty of private dieeases.
All bloodd~iesease suessefully treated. Syphi
litic Poisens renmoved frees the eyetem without
mercury. Now reetorative treatmenut for lose of
Vital Fewer, Poisons unable to visit ae may he
treated at haome bdy rorrespondenue. All corn
municatioans conlidntial. Medicinss or Iustru
mania sent by sail or exprees securely pecked.
One personal interview preferred. Call andt ssu
eslt as, or ustn histery of your case eand we will
seed ia plain wrapper our book free explaltnen
why thosesands cannot he cured ef i'rivats, Spe
cial and Nerveous tiseeaosn, Seminal Weaknese,
Spermatoirma. impotency, Syphilis, Gonorrhoea,
Gluat. yaricolsiss etc.
Drs. Lishig A; cs. are the only qualfiesd or ro
sposeiblal spascialiets left in Mtontana since the
now medical law.
Office hour. frem9tots~and 7to t p. mn.;or by
Agency fsr Dr. Liebig's Invigorator at Room.
1. East Broadway. Butte.
847.-49,-51,-63, N. Ewing St..
Also teparate departments for all Chroni die
Ottree of th sexes. Patisata ha. all i. facili
Lit Qf a es-iptal sad yet enjoy the esetforts
auAkm ha-ike rarregadisg. of a 'wd-ell qip ýed
Vh tcU tanoe s a t ptstty,
Tuekinsh, X ioal otrio Baths, perfoet
Dr. 0. H. DOGGE, Propr.,
Helena. Mont.
AIe S "Of f I LA
*RIWP3 ,' a.Um lr T .&j $
Kites P ?E 0W A~.'?7 SR ENFLy
EEZS ,A.V 1* coa O ali tONHCE -
BP 1 V!atY, PVA! TEE sIrTI.
N* ItEA*tV S?1TING O 0 ELOO, and
all diseases of the
--Leading to
DR. WE. HALL'S BALSAtI contains no
opiul, morph ALe, nor spy delerleua drug. IO
soothea and heaats the Membrane of the Lunge,
inSlamd bty. peiascen by diseeC., and prevent.
Right sweats ai a tightness cors the ghost, It
s pieaaaGet to taste Be ure and -a for D.
WM1. UALL'Ii 3AIL Ak., and take no other.
Traser eRplwed by f. M. Parches t Co..
PRICE a 5e., S Ox., $1.00.
Sold by H. H. Parch,. & Co., Helena, Mont,
Railw'ay Line.
I Great Northern Railway, I
Wismr ad SouxFalls Railway,
Duluh, Wtertwn &Pacific fly,
A selid through train of Sleopers, Dininl
Car. Day Coaches and Free Colonial
Sleepers to Ieinaeapelia, St. Pont, Du
luth, West Superior and flour City.
Clore connections for Chrcsgu, New
York, Roston and all Eastern Cities.
Until further notice Trains will run av follows
11:00 a. m . Atlanti Exprees.s. 111:10 a. ir .
2:40 p. m I o . Prpt.t ExrcaEN... 6:45 p. on.
6:0 . u. _ sinus h1 Rai L.,eal 8:401 a. m.
Sitleopiac car hewths, tickets. time, tables etc.,
at Mep..t sod City Ticket Office. Ito. 8. ~Nerth
main Street.
C. 01.f k'zv a, City Tieket Agent.
it. I1L xLANG (LE.tP. &T. AgI.K. C. Wy.
AE .titCi iiti l ýln; !U111 AREi INVITED
for the c,onstr:.'ti,, of to CwUoCode appuroac, to,
the asol, eot of tie cow br ll,;o ccroc.s tie roeth
fark of l une ricer moar P.u 0:u du;its: for con
atructito en ea~btoot,:eut ci fileto :1CcPlat,, to
procent. t1.0 river I "om changing it-: channcit, so
1,,i~yt pines iced :te"ltioiti:,ne on tile tn
thisoledie a, and t.' sin a Io p ni utile, at Aucoustis,
Side to hto adudruesse to il:, nle:.iegln, d; to he re
ceived until 12, I:oun, I, liiol. r I,10,1 ltit:I tyt re.
served to iejrcit roty ("all ite
Sty order of tiet t.:ofntp .j1. t'tt:t)llfIr1
Ifelena, Macit.. tary. 17. 19. I~uunty CtarkI.
LTiroK Ri~t,Dlib;l', i.1l.17l1'N 'I I lI~tANNU1Al.
mtoeting rit tv 'Ii.rltiiciur,ir of tie hfour
bou~in e e ,ioactino, 4l lt,' Epic ii, l.oo'lico of
thoetIeo.s 1,l.viuiero~.. Oiii::llincl. lieulvd::tn
aenepacy. tieleas, gleat.. o.ý TEesday. Out. ii.
1R5l, at three o,'clock P. mn, for the turneer of
olectin hoar a hnr c troreri- fer tthe onvetec year,
and the transaction of suct o~hor illoicees so ay
properly seine beotel itit.
Heea 0ot. C. It. ALeLEN, Secretary.
Heea SMn. ept. 2D, l0i1.
Setw . souI Garrison, H lin.,
Butte 'Cit Rbxaman, LlvingstOna
Billingsl _ Miles City,, and Glendlve
And all points
There is nothing better thanthe sorvice en
The Dining Car Line.
Through Pullman Bleoping Care and Furniehed
Tourist. &)lceper Daily between points
in MONTANA and
Pacifo Coast Tratas Passing through Minnesota,
North Dakota, Montana. Idaho, Oregon and
Washington, carry complete equipment. of
THROUGH TICKETS are sold at ael coupon
ocees of the Itorthern Pacifc R. R. to points
North, East. South and West ia the United
States and Canada.
In effect on and after September 10,1891.
We1 ~ a e1 weto nd . 1:81 p.ma
N4. 5, Loga sd H elena Passenger.
coonsof at Logan with train Ito.
Lalo Prose we a~nd ....... r
No. 8, His and at prcess l2:20 p, m
Sa. 5, viiis passengr .......11:10'a en
No. 10 . co Iq e n.. 6:80 p. a
N4. 101, 10k eq1zir, Eondaye, Wed.
N:.0a.ke an r .......... 5:00 V. m
passenger.............................10:35. am
No.1, Facle a west bound.h 1:5 . m
No. 2, Atlantia Mr . . east bound... :80p. m
No., S. 1 lena Mid Lotn passenger.
connecting with train rt. 4 at Logan.
Atlantic expCrese, c at bound. 4:40 p
No. 5, MiEaonl and GUtie Express..... 7:10 a. m
No., aryili passenger . :4.. m. :o a
N.9 vlaaceopemodation.5... :10 p am
No.1b1 Riinimiel, Mondays, Wed
nead a nd ridas ............ .8:11 a. m5
Passenger.........................58:10 p. m
For rats., maps, tnime tabiss or opeoilsitnfor
matlon, apply to any agent of the N orthsern Pa
clllR.Roro - CHAS. 5. FEE,
A. IS. EDGAR. Genul Pass. A T. AgL.
General Ageant, ST. PAUL MiRN
Cor. M(ajn & Grsnd ste., Helens. kfont.
-via tuh-
C. ST. P. If. & 0. Ry. C, & N.-W. ty.
The Shortest and Best Line From St. Paul
to Chicago, Sioux City and Omaha.
The only line running all its Passenger Trains
in less than 14 hours betwssn at Pawl and Chi
cago, and while this time is quick, trains do net
have to run at as high rate of sle?4 to make their
time as en other lines, because thbs line is shorter
than any sthsr line.
The Pullman and Wagner * esstbalsd Limit
ed,'. leaving Olt. Paul at 7:58 P. M., makes the
trip to Chicago In 114 hours. returning in 15
hours and he mienstes.
The Daylight Express." leaving St. Pant at
7:45 A. hi.. nia}cos the trip to Chicago in lit hours
and tO minutes, returning i 1i hours and 45,
Thieds is the only line by which onunection. are
assore in Chicago witb all inst line trains from
Chic go to lbs east and south in the mrning
and at night.
Close connrel ions are mode at St. Paul with
Northern Pacific and Gireat Northernutrains.
For rates, maps, soldersr eta, ap pl to
General W. T TIADALB,
GnrlPasseniger Agent. St. Paul, Mine.
.Dr. . C. West's Nferve and Brain Treatment.
a giarntosed srpecifo for Hysteria. Dit ase.
arnvuleus. Fits n Ner-rus esrpigia, Headache
Nervosa Prostration raised by the use of alcohos
or tebacce. Wakefulness. Metal Depeso
SofItening of the brain, resulting in pfiety saor
leading to misery. decay and eatkinmture
Old Age. Biaenness, Less of Pewer in either so I
rnvolantray Losses sad SteraOstorrhua cans
by ever-exrtlon ef the bran selt-abuse or over
indulgence. Each box contains a month'. treat
meat. 51.110 a box, or six bones for $5.00 semit
by mail prepnid en receipt of price.
To cure any ease. With each order received by
us for siz boxes. accoispasied by $5.00. we will
send the purchaser our written guarantee to re.
fund the money if the treatment dews net effect a
sure. Guarantees leoiied sonly ýbyy H. M. Parchesn
& Co., druggists. sole sgente, Helena, Mont.
$500 REWARD.
We will pay the ab1ve reward for any se of
Liver Complaint. Dh spepsia, Sick Headache. In.
digestion. Constipation ar Oosllveynee we cannot
curs with West's Vegstable Liver Pills, when the
directions are strictly complied with they are
purely Vegeisbisanud never fail to give ealisfac
ties. Sugar coated. large boxes, reataining A
t0 Pills., 25 seats. Beware sf counterfeit.s ad
Imitations. '!i'h genuine manulfactured onlyY by
Tan J0HN. C. Weav ComwAxy, Chicago, ill. Soldt
by H. B. Paruhen & Co., druggists,_Helena. r
Of -oflstannsin and for the county of Lewie a
and Clarke.
In the matter of the esinte of Nector S. Nor.
ton, deceased.
Order to show cause why order of sale of real es
tate should net he insoe.
F'. W. Ellis, te administrator of the estate of
Heeter I. Rorton, dHoased, having tiled his pe
titionherein praying for an order oitsal of theL
personal and nil lthe real estate. hf said decedent.,
for the purposes tioroto set forth.
it Is therstoro ordered by the judge of 'aaid
court, that all peresen interested in this estate of
sal4>} deceived, oppoea betere the said district -
eoidrt on Wedonsetiy. the 11th day of September,
151tH. aIlt 10ut-lock in ths Icreneca of said day,
at thes cocct roo,.. o! said dilstrict ceact, at the
cosrt house in lthe raid coenty of Lewis and
Clarke. to ahow .sues why on order should net
be granted to thissaid P. W. Elite. as adnisnistra
tar to sell the real estate of the said deceased
which shill hbs necessary.
An ht oyofthis so-dot- be published at
leat o" amee fo frsoicreessive wseke in
Tbe Helena Daily lsdeseiOent, a newep.per
printed and published in said coonty ef Lewis
sand Clarke.
Dated August 11. 1111. Judge.
* ----Dealer In
Headstones. a
" iCLXOA. - - Mont
J*Freight aid Transfer I~l
All kinde of inecehandlso and other freight.:
Ieluding ares, preimpily transferred froni the a
apet. Orders will receive prompt attention.
lfman-At J. Flfelsleg's Stoic and at the Depse..
a *2h91dsez'u oa Gen.ez'al- -
Gold Mills, Wet and Dry Crushing Silver Mills,
Smelting and Concentrating Plants, Hoisting and
Pumping Works, Cars, Cages, Skips, Ore tuck
eta and Water Buckets, Self-Oiling Car Wheels,
Corlies Engines, Compound and Condensing En
gines and Tramways.
Western Representative, Office and Works,
* MENNO UNZICKER, Hawthorne Ave. and Willow St.,
No. 4 North Main St.. Helena. CHICAGO, ILL
P iffrCalls, Slain8, Lace ad l ol 01 1 Unlessa
Wel Paper OFFICE &
A T' Furnitur
Nos. 112 and 114, 1 A fl,SANFO , * Broadway, Helena
Attorney at Law.
1oam 5, Ashby Black, Helena, Mont.
Physician and Surgeon.
SPEwALTrus-Eye, Ear and Throat.
Ofice: 100). Broadway.
(D. B. Carpenter, M. J. Cavanaugh.)
Attorneys at Law.
Rooms 9 and 10, Bailey Block.
Office Holter Bleek.
Residence 821 8th ave.
Attorney and Counsellor at Law.
Masonic Temple, Helena, Mont.
Attorney and Counsellor at Law.
Will practice in all courts of record in the
state. Oi1.. in Gold Bllck, Helena, Mont.
Civil and Mining Engineers.
U. S. Deputy Mineral Sarveyors. Mineral pat
Intl icured, Rtooms 12-18, Atlas Building, Rel.
Physician, Surgeon, Accoocher, Ocullet, Aurist.
Member of San Francisco Medical Society,
O n? Nevada State Mediral Society. Office on
amin street. over Steinrmets Jewelry Bltre
" *AND THE* .
Famous AIbeLea Route.
2 Through Trains Daily From St. Paul
and Minneapolis TO CHICAGO.
Withoat changefoncigwt h
Fast Trains aoalLne a h
The direct and only line running Through Care
via Albert Lea and Fort Dodge,
Solid through Trains between
and the principalcities of the Missiasippi
and contering in Union Depots for all
points Sooth and Southwest.
Many hours saved, and the only lice running
two trains daily to lanses City,h Lavenworth.
Atchison, making ceonnsotion wit the Union 1Io
rlifl ansi Atchison, To peka A Santa Fe ralwayts.
Close cenasotions made In Union Depot with all
trains of the S~t. Patui, Mianseapois & Manitoba,
Northern Pacifa, Si. Panl A Duluth railways.
from and to all points North and Northwest.
The trains of the Micneapolis & St. Louis Rail
ways are composed of ocifortable Day Coaches,
magnificent Pullman Sleeping Care, Horton Rte
shining (Thair Cars, and our justly e~lebrate i
1180 lb.. of Baggagss checked free. Fare always
es low se the lowest. For time tables, through
tickets etc., call upon the nearest ticket agent or
writs to
General Passengerand Ticket Ag., Minneapolis.
Second Floor Hlerald Bildinl,
4 Tb Order +e
the hoard of World's Fair Man agrs for the
slate or hlouts um will recei ve con. sf rtilvn designs
fur a building for cthe Mtats otf Montana at the
World s folumbian Exposition and will pay
thoresor a price of tou hundred (to20) dollars,
for the design selected, and sone hundred 151011)
doilars for the start host, in point of e~xcellence,
thte question of selection anl rejectiont to be tie
cidedhby the commicttee on hitildliugeand groculds
at the meeting of its u,~d board to ho held at
lisioen, Mont., Nov.., 181,
Designs soulsd eo drawn to 0epeigth (iii)
Inch scale, fisnishted with ten in ink and be forea
tbuilding ito oast. tnot mtorn thtan fifteen thtousand
(Sir, 1000) dollars comtpletedi (In vita's or in part
of hiontane material) audto rentals a raception
hail, foutr parlors. two stltoes, sod a hall for then
Hipayo ontatma prcdutcts.
'Itie around to he oo~upiyd is soveaty-five (711)
feet In widthL and two hunedced (085) feet long.
The architect whose design is selected will re
rcisc regnlar fees for plans, specifications and
letait drawing~s.to. .taay
Antlrrae atl commnmiecationsto.O.lasy
sacretary, aistens, Mont.WM.IC OD
Executive Volaoner..
the irs Judcia disricofthe. state of
Montana. in and for the county of Lewis and
Id. M. Brandeoae an4 E. N. Brandegee part.
ners l tWtdoind and ar
ero dol ani t inan tm busrnets under the
firm name ad style oo Brandegee Bies , pt-no
tidee, vs William L . 6beel, saeetor of the last
will and testament of hry Ain Rtoert, de
ceased, HLartha 'Taylor Feckert Schwabe. lied A.
hchwao., Henry (tebnerdt and Edward Wagitoer
defendonts-Ameaded summons.
The state of Montana sends gcrdetinrtothe
above named defendants.
You are hereby oc lrod to appear in an action
brongst against youry the above named plaintlif
in the stitrict court of the kirkt undiciat district
of the state of Montana, in and for the oeunty of
Lawis and Clarke, and to answer the complaint
filed therein, within ten days (exclusive of the
day of service) after the service on you of this
summon i served within this county; or. if
served out of this county, but within. this district.
within twenty days; otherwiso within forty days,
or Judgment by default wilt be taken arainstyos.
accordin to the prayer of said complatnt.
The seuh actione a brought to obtain a de
cree of tids court ferthe foreclosere of two sce
tain mortgages described in the said complaint
and executed by the said William 1. Steele se the
oeecutor of the last wilt and testament of Mary
Ann Eckert. deceased, Martha" Taylor lf ckprt
Schwahe and Fred A, Schwabs, on the listda
of August, 1889, the property embraced in anc
affected by said mortgages ceing all these certain
lots, pieces or parcels of land situaie, lying and
being in the lownaito of the city of Helena, ide
chs counety of Lewis and Clarke, then territory',
new state of Montana, bounded and particulary
described as follows, to-wit: Lets numbered
one, two, four, fourteen and fifteen, in block
number coven; lot nunmber two in block number
twenty-six, and let number four in block nun;
ber twenty-seven; as said lots and blocks are
numberesd, deesiuated and desrribed on the platt
of saisd towneite on file in the office of the county
recorder of said county of Lewis and Clarke.
Sid iots numAbered one and two, in bleck num
ber seven, having, subsequent to the execution
of said mortgages, been released from the lien of
said mertgagee by the plaintiffs. Eacsh of said
mortgagee having besn made to secure the pay
ment of a certain prouuiasory note dated Aug.
21, 1889, made by said William L. ýltesle as such
executor, and Martha Taylor Eckert klchwabe
and Fredi A. Scohwabe each of said motes being
for the sum of three thousand dellere, and each
being payable in gold, or its sequivalent, on the
hlat day of Annat, 1892, to the oeder of said H:
M. aud H. N. Ileandegeo, with inteteset thesesin at
the rate of ten per cent. per annums. interest pay
able seuui-anncualy, and each of said mortgages
provided thsat in easee of defanlt in the payment
of interestas in ouch note and mortgage pro
vided, the whole of the }principal and interest
should become, at the option of the mortgsgeee,
payable whsother the cams should at toch tsme ho
by the terms thereof due and payable or not; and
default having been made in the payment of the
lntecset of said notes and each of them, and said
nostee and each of them having become by reason
of such default payable, aned the amount due
upon esaid noiese and mortgagee in tse aggregate
at the time of the commencement of this action
being tbs sum of six thonoand dollars principal,
together with interest thereon at the rats of ten
per cent per anneim ftom the 2ist day of August,
18i0, and the esu of slxty-five dollars paid for
insurance as authorized by said moetgagee to
gether with interest on the sum of eixty-Svc dot
eas at thes rate of ten per cent. peor annum from
the 15th hay of January, 1891; that the psremises
conveyed by said mortgages may be sold, save
and except said lots nombered one and two, in
block number seven, orb as aforesaid released
from the lien of said mssrteagee,and Ithe proceeds
of the sae thereof applied to the psymeest of said
mortgages and "promisaory notes, with interest
thereon at the rate of ten psr cent. per annumn
as aforesaid, and five hundred dollars counnei
fees and costs of soil. And In case such pro
ceeds are net sufficient to pay the same, then to
obtain execution against said de-fendante, Martha
Tayler Ecakert Schwabe, Fred A. Stchwahe, and
the estate of the said Mary Ann IEckert, do'
ceased, for thse balance remaining due; end also
that the said defendants, and all persons claism
leg by. threugh or untlor them or either of them,
nsay be barred and foreclosed of all right, claim.
lien, equity of redemption end interoetin end to
said mortgaged psremisees, save end xoceelse re
leased as aforceaid; and also that any and all
claims of the said defendants. Henry Isiebisarsit
sand Edward Wagnser. in and to said, premiees, if
any claims they have, be ad 'edged and decreed
to be subsequent and cuberdlteats to the lien of
said mertgages; curl for general relief.
And you are hereby nottfied that if you fail to
appear and answer the acid comiplaint, as above
requeired. the said plaintiff will apply to the
court fssr the rolief deman;ded In said complaint.
Given nuder my hand and tuc seal of the dis
trict court of the .biret Isidicial dietrict of the
s'ats of Noatana. in and for the cihnty of Lewis
and h:arks, this twelfth day of September. in
the year of our Lord', one thousand eigtuthundredl
and ninety-one.
Wea] y H. R. Tontroreao Deputy Clerk,
Attorney foe Plaintiff.
Is the Fast Mail Short Line from St. Paul
and Minneapolis via La Grose and Milwan
kee to Chicago and all points in the East
ern States and Canada. It is the only line
under one management between St. Paul
and Chicago, and it is the Finest Equipped
Railway in the Northwe at. It is the only
line running Pullman Drawing-room Sleep.
ing care with luxurious smoking-rooms, and
the finest dining-cars in the world, via the
famous "River Bank Route." along the
shores of Lake Pepin and the beautiful
Mississippi river to Milwaukee and Chica.
go. Its trains connect with those of the
Northern lines in the Grand Union depot at
St. Paul. No change of care of any class
between ft. Paul and Chicago. For through
tickets, time tables, and full Information,
apply to any coupon ticket agent in the

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