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( p.Tree Bwetles and Borers Disbursed S P4of. Riley. i Uble, Facts in the Life His .ory of the Former, the S Aphides. he h.eln by Parthenogenesis - An Onrat Pest Is the Web Worm !me4tne for These Destroyers. foa Ta tErz Na INDUPESNDBNT. I QsT EVERYONE IS FAMILIAR ` I.'th someof the remarkable facts in Sthe life history of the plant lice of Sachide. ITbsee are small green or brown insects t oed upon the tender shoots and leaves of IlmosIt all plants, sometimes winged, but ~terally wingless. Pb' hoap the most remarkable peculiarity Sit gese little creatures is that through otoCs of the growing season they go on d. Iveloping and producing generation after Sretiatlon, by a process of budding, all the Idividuale being females. Moreover, the " ipoa are born alive and the insects do not lay eggs except on the approach of winter. 'hbe Winter ege hatches in the spring and the insect after growing two or three days begins to give birth to young at the rate of 'twyo or thlte per day. In a few days these young have grown sufficiently so that they begit giving birth to other young. At intervals throughout the summer there appears a generation of winged females which are able to fly to other trees and these spread the species. Upon the ap proseh of winter there appears a genera Sion composed of both males and females and the females of this generation lay what lre known as the wintereggs, in which con dition the inseets'hibernate. For a long tame the method of develop. ereat was considered to be without prece dent in the animal kingdom, but this phe nomenal kind of reproduction, which is known by the name "parthenogenesis," or bith from females only, has been found to oceUr oceasionally in other groups. not only of insects, but of other low animals. The numbers which result from this ,rapid multiplication of individuals are al most inconceivable. Thus Huxley, years ago, estimated that the tenth generation alone from the stemmmother (the female batching from the winter egg), if all the members survived the perils to which they are exposed, would contain more subtance by weight than five hundred millions of men, that is, more than the population of China! Fortunately, however, there are many checks to the increase of these insects. They are preyed upon very extensively by the little beetles known as the ladybirds and their larve, and by many other kinds of ,predatory insects, while one entire grotp of parasitib insects live within the iodies of the lice. The extremely numer ous and delicate little parasites belong to the sub-family known as aphidimnte. The female inserts an egg into the body of the plant-louse and from this egg hatches a small grub which soon destroys the aphide theebody of the latter turning brown and swelling up until it is perfectly round. The parasitic larva soon transforms to an adult and gnaws its way out of the body of the plant-louse, through a circular hole. There is hardly a species of plant-louse which is not attacked by some species of -Japhidiid parasites and the numbers whicn are destroyed in this way from spring to summer cannot be estimated. An interesting chapter in the life-history - of the plant-loose could be written about its relations with ants. The lice secrete, from two little tubes on their backs, drops of a sweet liquid known as honey dew. Of this substanoe ants are very fond. They may always be seen tunning about on the it }plants which are infested by plant-lice. tapping these little creatures with their ' antennae and greedily eating the sweet g liquid. n The ants watch over and care for the a plant-Lice, driving away the predaceouse i insects and parasites. They even carry yonng plant-lioe carefully from one point .to another where these would find better * and more tender food, and they store their eggs in autumn to be carried in spring to the plants on which the plant-lice feed. From this curious relation the plant-lice have been called "'the milch cows of the ants." As to remedies for plant-lice no better one can be found than spraying infested plants with a dilute kerosene emulsion, 'his emulsion is made by adding one part of strong, hot soap-suds to two parts of kerosene. It is then agitated violently, either by shaking it in a large bottle or by churning it through a syringe or force pump until it forms a thick, white emul sion. One part of this emulsion may then be diluted with from ten to twenty parts of water, which will not harm the tenderest foliage and will at the same time kill most of the slant-lice. In the eastern states from Charleston, S. C., nearly to Troy, N. Y., the principal enemy of the elm tree is the imported elm leaf beetle. This is one of a large group of coleoptera known as leaf-beetles (chry somelidre), and was imported into this country about 1850 at Baltimore, and has been spreading north and south. The inseot passes the winter in the beetle condition, hidden away in cracks in fences, under the bark of trees, under sticks and atones, and under the clapboards of houses, coming out in the warm spring days and laying its eggs upon the young elm leaves. The eggs are conical in shape, yellow in color and are laid in little double rows. The larvae hatching from the eges resem ble somewhat those of the grape-vine flea beetle, mentioned in the last article. They are yellowish bluack, growing vellower as they grow older, and becoming mrarhed withsmall black spots. l'hey feed atioa the leaves, gradually kekltouizing them. and when abundant cause the elm trees to present a sorry appearanue towards the middle of June. When full-grown they either crawl down the trunk or drop to the grouud and trans forcl to yellow pupi either upon the sur face of the ground or under any sticks or atones which they may be able to find. ''he beetles crawl in autumn into winter qUar. ters. This insect has parasites in Europe, but i none are known so far In thus country. The best remedy consista in si raying the i trees when the larv.. are abundant with 3'aris green or London puirle ia the pro portion of one-half pound to 100 gallons of water. H here a strong sprayiII arpparatus is not at hand many of the ilaosects may Ibe trapped by constructing a box about th, base of the tree in which the dr-rE.ending lsriu will transform and where they m[ay eaaily bhe killd with hot water flom tlnr, to time. At this tioe of the year a curious littlI maoth which somewhat resembles a warp r i hinet may be seen flying about the peach trees. ''l'is ls noe of the clear-winged usoths (fnallcly salidda) aid is the varetri of the peach tree borer. The ucne are laid singly upon thIe ruriril of the ,each tree, usually near the er can, end tile little white larva on butchliug boruer throutgh the bark and teunr-li up and Idown in the nap-wood, ndil win abrunroant e rionsl inujures the vitility of thi tiri. 'there is but onera annual reneratlon, and tihe larve transform to pupm at tIle outlet if their burrows in cells composedl partly if Rilk and partly of eawdust and excielrnrut. The insects can always bie dustinnishrli, ght a glance from thu fact that a yellow i brownish gum exudes froui the oleniug-, o *be burrows. Whole only a few tirees era to be pri seted, the best course will le to crut tie tlvne oat by hand, or to destroy thfln byI esertini a shary wire uinto their tuniiels. TIe earth should be removed frrmr about the base of the tree, all larrie killed, and then ashes and earth should be mounde.l tp about the trunk for some distance. i'hle. is best done in the early sprint, arnd Ah, trees can bo protected trumoo further p-ilig by aurrundling them with -tt J. STEINM7ETZ' -i- - 0ý" 0@. JEWE I LRY GO. ElENA, MONTANA. WATGM S.S ''DIAMONBS. STERLING SI L.LeRWaRB.. A Complete Line of the Finest Jewelry. RARE GEMS OF MONTANA SAPPHIRES. Largest Stock and Lowest Prices in the Northwest L argest Stock and Lowest Prices in the Northwest --.. . ---- - IL~ traw stood upon end, the lower ends being held to the earth. In large peach orunards it will be found desirable to wash the trunks of the trees early in May with soft soap in which a small amount of Parip green has been mixed. This will deter many of the moths from laving their eggs and the Paris green will destroy any larvae which may hatch in spite of the soft soap. The apple orchard is also infested by insects which bore in the trunks. They are two common species known as the flat-headed and round-headed borers. They are the leavie of two beetles, the former of which belongs to the family of bupresidie and the latter to the family of ceramby cidie. Their burrows may be recognized from the sawdust and exorement exuded from the holes, and the larve may be out by hand or pierced with a sharp wire. The beetles may be prevented from laying their eggs upon the trees by washing the trunks in May or June with soft soap reducned to the consistency of paint by the addition of washing soda. One of" the greatest pests to our shade and fruit trees is the so-called fall web worm. It is the larva of a small white moth and its most striking peculiarity con sists in the fact that many larie live to gether, forming a web somewhat as do the tent caterpillers. The eggs differ from those of the tent caterpiller in being laid upon the leaves by moths which issue in the spring from cocoons in which they h ave been hibernating in the pupa state. The larvae, however, live in much the same way, and, unless the early webs are destroyed, grow rapidly and will soon de foliate a large tree. In the latitude of Washington, D. C., there are two genera tions of these web worms, the first feeding from late May to until the end of June and the second from the middle of July to through August and September. These insects have many parasites and the observer will find great interest attach ing to the careful study of these interesting creatures, since here it will be easy to watch the curious phases of secondary parasitism, many of the insects which parasitize the web worm having their own parasites which destroy them and which are, therefore, fa vorable to the increase of the web worm. Many predaceous bugs and beetles also feed upon the web worm. Ihe beat remedies for these destructive shade and fruit tree pests consist in the Iurning of the webs as early as possible in tLe season bo means of a torch or by spray ilg with Paris green, as in the ciise of the irnoorted elm-leaf beetle. A very good im. proimrptu torch can be made by firmly wir ing a iemce of soft, porous brick to the end i a loan pole. The brick can be soaked in kerusene and will burn for a long time. C. V. lLETY. lucrklea's Arnica Salve. . he best a;lvr in the world for cuts bruises, sores, ulcers, salt rheum, fever i -res. tatter, chap1rpd hands, chilblains, icrris and all skin eruptions, and positively icure piles or no pnv rerquired. It is guar aiht ed to give perfect satisfaction, or money rI fndid. P'rie 25 cents per box. For sale iy i1. h. Hale , Co. hFo.t r kid Li,.. , t1h hook,. in all colors and , " r t.r r Ura hei, lire, only 11.5 oipportunalts M'iii. of hurnrrir destiny am I, Fiau,, Iovi and fortune on my footsteps walt, Citors iad fislds I walk. I penetrate Dcr, rti and seat remote, and passing by lovel and mart and palace, soon or late I knocl, unbidden once at every gate. If elepinr, wake; if feasting rise before I turn away. It is the hoar of state And they who followme reach every state Mortals desire, and conquer every foe Have death; but those who doubt or heal tale Condemned to failure, penury and woe Beek me In vain and uselessly implore; I answer net, and I Istarn no more. J"o. J. 1" l .L5. But fail ye not in this respect. heize every opportenity to travel Over the Chicago, Milwaukee I St. Paal railway. This is the advise Gae, H. Hairroan General Peassuger Agean Chicago, Ill WAIT FOR THE BEST. THE ONLY BIG SHOW TO BE IN HELENA. A Gala Day for the Multitudes! 1 r -/ Wednesday, JULY 6. John Robinson's WORLD'S EXPOSITION. 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