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S." G. S. APPLETON. .=.
-- -.. -1- .... IP-AD I Ci------- RBSIDEBNOe RCHITEGOT Ten Years' Experience. All Work Guaranteed, Improved Properties To Rent Impiroved Properties For Sale _ ,.__--c EA.SY TERMS_- ------_ + 0 . S. T\PPLETO1N, + RooT-as 3, 4 and 5, Holter Block, Heleia, 1Vota-n a. WILD LIFE IN THE WATER Pretty Minnows Beset by Dangers From Other Dwellers in the Water. The Ravenous Pike, Slimy Snake and Awkward Turtle Hunt Them Down. The Cunning of the Pike Also Employed Strategy of a Sunfish to Protect Her Nest. (Written for THE HELENA INDEPENDENT.1 HE ANTELOPE HAS LESS REA son to fear the lion than has the minnow to fear the pike. We think of timid antelopes and roaring lions, but the former has good use of its limbs, and so a fighting chance for its life; but the minnows have little advantage in the strag gle for existence, and none at all when the predatory fishes are in pursuit of them." This was written in a notebook more than thirty years ago, and I let it stand as evi dence of how easy it is to be in error in matters of natural history. When I went to school there was but one teacher of the five that knew anything about such matters, and he had the old time views. Then a fish was a mere ma chine so far as intelligence was concerned. We were told of the cunning of foxes and instincts of ants and bees, but never a word of fishes. The truth is, I might very properly speak of wild "wit" in the water instead of "life," for there can be not the shadow of a doubt but that many of our fishes are really cun ning. We need but watch them carefully to be readily convinced of this. How else could they escape danger? The pretty peacock minnows throng the grassy beach at high tide, playing with their fellows in water just deep enough to cover them. and are, when here, very tame and careless. They even get stranded upon the airy side of floating leaves, and enjoy the excitement. They realize, it would seem, that where they are no pike can rush down upon them, no snake work its way unseen among them, no turtle crawl into their playground; but as the tide goes out and these minnows are forced nearer to the river's channel, they lose their carelessness and are suspicious of all about them. To call this instinctive fear and result of heredity sounds well; but the naturalist is brought nearer to the wild life about him when he credits them simrnly with common sene. 'lhe charm of watching such "small deer" vanishes if we lean too much to the learned and scientific solutions of the comparative psychologist, and possibly, too, we wander farther from the truth. All I positively know is, that when danger really exists the minnows are aware of it; when it is absent they throw off the burden of this cale and life for a few hours is a matter of pure enjoyment. Brief mention should be made of the pro. teotive character of the coloring of certain fishes. If such are simply fortunateenough to be protectively colored, there is little to be said, but are they conscious of this? Does a fish that is green or mottled green and gray keep closely to the weeds knowing that it is safer than when in open water or where the bottom is covered with white sand snd pebbles? This may be a rather startling question, but there is warrant for the asking. Float half a day over the shal lows of any broad pond or streaml study with care and without preconception the ashes where they lise, and you will ask yourself not only this question, but many a stranger one. If fishes are fools, how is it that the angler has so generally to tax his ingenuity to outwit them? How closely nature must be copied to deceive a trout! Having said so much of small fishes, what nowtot the larger ones that prey upon them? A pike, for instance. Probably many more people have studied how to catch a pike than have studied it scientifically. It is tiresome, perhaps, but if a student of natural history really desires to know what a fish actually is, he must watch it for hours, being himself unseen. At one time there were several large pike in my lotus pond. Under the huge cir cular leaves of this splendid plant they took refuge, and it was difficult to catch even a glimpse of them. At the same time the schools of minnows seemed to enjoy the sunlight and sported in the open water. More 'than once, however, I saw the pike rush out from its cover and finally learned that it systematically laid in wait for the minnows; and I believe I am justified in adding that the minnows knew that danger lurked under the lotus leaves, The situa tion was not so haphazard a one as might appear at first glance, and hours of patient watching convinced me that there was a decided exercise of ingenuity on the pat t of both the pike and the minnows, the former ever on the lookout for a victim, the latter watchful of an ever present danger. Allday long it was a t agedy where brute force counted for little and cunning for a great deal. Another very common fish in my ponds was likewise very suggestive in connection with the subject of animal intelligence. I refer to the common "sunny," or "pump kinseed." A shallow sand nest had been scooped near shore and the precious eggs deposited. A school of silvery-finned min nows had discovered them, and the parent fish was severely taxed iio her efforts top o tect them. So long as this school of nmin nows kept together the sun fish by a fierce rush kept them beck, but soon the former was it accident or design?-divided their forces, and as the parent fish daeted at one assaulting narty the other behind it made a successful raid upon the nest. This con tinued for some time and the sunfish was getting quite weary, when, as if a sudden thought struck it, its tactics changed and it swam round and round in a circle and sent a shower of sand ont into the space beyond the nest. 'This dazed the minnows effot nally. Little incidents like these rue forever oc curring and effectually set aside the once prevalnut idea that fish are mere living machines. Look a pike in the eye and you will detect something very different from mere instinctive timidity, But fish are not the only creatures that live in the water; there is one snake and several species of turtles, and frogs, mol luscs and insects inuuumerable. These are too apt to be associated with the land, and, except the two latter forms, are unusually thought of as taking to the water as a place of refuge and really living in the open air. This is a great mistake. There is a lively world beneath the surface of the wate,, and the tragedy of life is played to the very end, with here and there a pretty comedy, that wards off the blues, when we look too long. and see nothing but the destruction of one creature that nothing may live. Here is cuonning or wit in it water snake. A friend of mine was recently sitting on the banks of a little brook when his attention was called to a commotion almost lit his feet. Looking down he saw a snake holding its head above the water and in its month struggled a small anrfslh. Now, what wee the snake's purpose? It knew very well that the fish would drown in the acir, and not until it was dead could it be swillowed with that deliberation a snake loves. The creature was canning enough to kill by easy means prey that would otherwise be dimiult to overcome, for while crosswise in thee nake's month it could not he swallowed, and if put down for an instant the chances of its recaptuae would be slight. To supporse that a turtle, as you watch it crawling over the road, had any sense of humor in its horny head secrms absurd; yet naturalists have recorded their being avon at play, and certainly they can readily I;o tameil to a remarkable degree. Therir li telligence, however, shows out prominently only in the degree of canning exhtiited when they are in search of food. 'The huge snapper "lies in wait," and certainly this is a most suaggestive and comprehensive phrase. I believe, too, that this fierce tut tile buries surplus food and so gives further evidence of intellectual activity. To realize what wild life in the water really is, it must be observed where nature has placed it. It is not so much set forth by perhaps exceptional incidents that the student happens to witness as by that gen eral appearance of common sense which is so unmistakably stamped upon even their most commonplace movements. Writers upon animal intelligence do not needl to be constantly on the lookout for the special exhibitions of cunning to substan tiate the claims the, make in favor of life's lower forms. It is plainly enough to be seen if we will but patiently watch whence soever these creatures come and whereso ever they go, and the manner of their going and coming. Do not be so intent upon watching for the marvelous, that the ordin ary inicidents are not seen. It is in study ing wild life anywhere, and perhaps more particularly in the water, that to be rightly informed we must see the average indi vidual in commonplace surroundings. Do ing this we are not misinformed nor led to form too high an opinion. It is as in the study of humanity; we must not familiarize ourselves with the mountebank, but with man. Examine the new fall underwear at Fowles' cash store. Large line of fancy table comers just received at Il heo Ie Hive SUMMONS-IN THE DISTRICT COURT of the fi st judicial district of the state of Montana, in and for the county of Lewis and Clar ke. Beulah B. Myers, plaintiff, vs. Willis M. Myers, defendant. The state of Montana sends greeting to the above named defendant; You are hereby required to appear in an action brought against you by the above named plaintiff in the district court of the first judicial district of the state of Mon tana, m and for the county of Lewis and Clarke, and to answer the complaint filed therein. within ten days (exclusive of the day of service) after the service on you of this summons. if served within this county; or, if served out of this county, bous within this district, within twenty days; otherwise within forty days, or judgment by default will be taken apainst you, according to the prayer of said com:nlaint. The said action iL bought to obtain a judgment and a decree of said court dissolving the bonds of matrimony existing between the plain tiff and defendant on the ground that since the marriage of plaintiff and defendant, defendant has treated plaintiff in a cruel and inhuman manner, by striking, beatina, pounding and wounding plaintiff at divers and sundry times, and particularly on the 12th day of April, 1891, at a ranch near Three Ferks, Montana, and also on orabout the 15th day of December, 1891, at Phil brook, Montana. Arnd also on the ground that the defend ant disregarding his duties as a husband towards the plaintiff, has been guilty of habitual drunkenness for more than one year immediately preceding the commence nment of this action, all of which appears more fully in plaintiff's complaint on file herein, to which special reference is hereby made. And von are hereby notifled that if von fail to appear ani answer the said com plaint, as abeve reounred, the said plaintiff will apply to the court for the relief de mended in the complaint. Given under my hand and the seal of the district court of the first judicial district of the state of Montana, in and for the county of Lewis and Clarke, this 19th day of Sep tember, in the year of our Lord, one thon sand eight hundred and ninety-two. JOHN BEAN. Clerk. By H. 11. 'rlTOMPSON, Deputy Clerk. E. L. 1(nowles, attorney for plaintiff. STUDY LAW AT HOME. Yta a a Couesa a uSn Ipregue O.mrrespeaieee Peboee of Law. (lneerporated.) uend ten ceats (etamps) for particulart to 5. Oetner, Jr., $sc'y. e. 5 Whiatey Sleekl. hsrett. Ma . l ALIAS SUMMONS-IN THE DISTRICT court of the First judicial district of the state of Montana. in and for the county of Lewis and Clarke. Second National Bank, of Helena, plain tiff, vs. Silver Lead Mining Company and O. A. Turner, defendants. The state of Montana sends greeting so the above named defendants: You are hereby required to appear in an action brought against you by the above named plaintiff in the district court of the First judicial district of the state of Mon tana, in and for the county of Lewis and Clarke, and to answer the amended com plaint fled therein, within ten days (ex elusive of the day of service) after the ser vice on you of this summons, if served with in this county; or, itf served out of this county, but in this district, within twenty days: otherwise within forty days, or jad. ment by default will be taken against you, aecording to the prayer et said complaint. The acid action is brought to recover a judgment in favor of the plaintiff end against the defendant for the sum of five hundred dollars ($5100), with interest there on at the rate of one per sent per month from the 22d day of September, 1891, upon a certain promissory note for the sum of five hundred dollars ($1500), dated at Hel ena, Sept. 22, 1891, due sixty days ftom the date thereof, payable to the plaintiff herein at the Second National bank, of Helena. Montana, providing for reasonable attor. nev fees, and made, executed and delivered by the defendant, thie ilver Lead Mining company, O. A. Tur ner, its president, the payment of which said note was by the said 0. A. Turner in consideration of one dollar ($1) to him paid, guaranteed; also for the sum of seventy-five dollars (675), alleged to be a reasonable attorney's fee, provided for in said note, and for costs of suit. And you are hereby notified that if you fail to appear and answer the said com plaint, as above required, the said plaintiff will enter your default, take judgment against you for the sum of $500, with inter eat thereon at the rate of one per cent per month from the 22d day of September, 1891, and for the sum of $75, and costs of suit. Given under my hand and the seal of the distriot court of the first judicial distriet of the stats-of Montana, in and for the county of Lewis and Cla:ke, this 20th day of Sep tember, in the year of our Lord, one thous and eight hundred and ninety-two. ' JOHN BEAN, Clerk. By H. H. T'.orrrson, Deputy Clerk. MOCONNaLL. CLAYrrrlru GI UNN, Attorneys for Plaintiff. -PROPOSALS FOR IBRIDOES-OFFICE - of county clerk. Helena, Mont. Sept. 20. 1892.-Pioposals will be received until Oct. 20, at 12 o'clock noon, for an iron com bination bridge over the Dearborn river near the Roberts Ilace. Said bridge will rbe 180 feet long, and to be securely anchored to the rook at the north end with iron piers, in center and south end with wooden approach to reanch grade of road. Also one on l'rickly Pear above Kissel pe .h's, eighty foot span with iron piers, wit., wooden approaches on piles. Also for two wooden bridges above Mitch. ell's. Also bids for grading and fill at Dearborn bridge will be received at the same time, plans and specifications on file at this ofiese. The commissioners reserve the right to reject all bide or to let each bridge separ ately. J. B. ToontaR, County Clerk. "HENRY'S SPECIFICS." The Renowned English Remedy. e INFAILIIILE ('UIE FOR e NERVOUS DEBILITY, PREMATURE DECLINE, BRAIN TROUBLE AND ORGANIC WEAKNESS, Ne matter from what caues ('ontaine no mlin ertle. I'rloR S. Whulieale and retail drllirsll supply tile deliand, Ileposlttirp for tIri ITilrtd ltates and c'anala. 1 iFet Thlirtiela b t et b sIlr . w srerk. 'I he Ipecllo can be sent by mal sealed on re ceipt oi money. I. L. ISRAEL & CO., :::: WHOLESALE :::: LIOUORS AND CIGARS. Have just received a large consignment of the following -CHAMPAGNES! Which will be sold at Eastern List Prices: Piper Heidsieck Champagne. Moet & Chandon (White Seal) Champagne Jules Mumm (Grand Sec.) Champagne HIave a large lot of choice Old Whiskies which will be sold at less than market prices, among which we mention: Monarch ................. 88o Bond & Lillard.......... x887 Hermitage ................1886 Old Crow .............. z886 Nelson .................. 88o W . H. McBrayer........ 887 1. E. Pepper ..............1887 Guckenheimer............887 In Store, the Finest Brands of Imported Champagnes, Clarets, Rhine Wines, Sherries, Ports, Madeira, Whiskies, Cognac, Gins, Cordials, Etc. IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC CIGARS. Just Arrived from St. Louis CARLOAD OF EXPORT PILSENER BEER Families, Attention Families can find the best Liquors in the city by the bottle or Gallon, at very low prices. Orders promptly attended to and delivered to any part of the city. I. L. ISRAEL & CO., TELEPHONE 122. NO. 3 SOUTH MAIN 8T.