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PART, 2. PAGke 1 49dena912
VOL XXXll.NO. s28 HELENA, MONTANA. SUNDAY MORNINO. OCTOBER 2, 1892 PRICE FIVPE ORE! THE SPANISH PIONEERS, BY CHARLES F. LUMMIS. WRITTEN ESPECIALLY FOR THE HELENA 1NDEPENDENT. HERE WERE three reasons why bhe Spanish pioneers had so mucsh harder a time in America than we Saxons did. The first was be eane. they were first. When they came, the Americans were not IN only unknown but All unguessed. ' They were like men grop i T ing in she dark amid danger and suffering. By the time we same --. the new world was r . very fairly under stood, and there were maps and geographies and histories, and had been for a hundred years. It was a great moral advantage-we knew where we were and what was beyond. Second, the nature of their wilderness was incomparably more forbidding.. We never had to undergo any physical hard ship to be compared for a moment with their sufferings In the desert-for the desert itself and alone is far more terrible to man than were oar wildest forests taull of savage beasts and men. The forest may contain dangers, but the desert is a danger-and a more fearful one than Indians. And as much worse as deserts were than our north ern woods, so much more deadly were the tropical forests than the desert. Third, the Indians whom the Spaniards encountered were far more numerous, more organized, more skillful and more danger ous than any or all tribes with whom our forefathers ever came in contact. How petty all the Indian wars we ever had, all put together, are by the side of the one re bellion of Tupao Amura. And that was only one of the boat of Indian wars by which the Spaniards have been beset for two centuries longer than we have been a nation. Why, the war between the pioneers and the Arauean indians lasted for 200 years; and after three centuries and a half the Yaquis, safe in their fastnesses, are not even subdued; and all over two-thirds of the whole hemisphere the Spanish solo nists have had for centuries to bear Indian wars worse than oen s with the Apaches. the Modoos or the Sioux. The rebellion of Tupae Amaeu was by far the greatest and most disastrous Indian war that ever took place in either Amerloa. It was in Bolivia, in the years 1780 to 1784, and almost shook the foundation of the Spanish empire in South America. It called to the front some remarkable Indian leaders and brought about not only the greatest victory that Indians ever won, but a military maneuver which is entirely unique. No other city was ever so strangely bombarded as was borata, and none more effectively, and yet the aboriginal Napo leon who besieged it had neither cannons nor any other applianee deemed necessary for bombardment. The cause of the rebellion was a curious one. It was not of quite such strange trivi ality as that which had already almost caused a revolt, but of somewhat the same nature. As 1 have said, the policy of Spain towards the Indians was always humane, p ogresaive and kind. The design was al ways to teach and uplift these savages un til they should befitted for citizenship; and the voluminous and noble laws of Spain provided at all points for this worthy ob ject. Of course these good laws were some. times violated and sometimes evaded by bad officials; but they were always punished as promptly as possible. Still, justice was a long way off; anld to reach the offenders was a matter of time, some died before they could be punished; and others man aged to do a deal of harm before the day of reckoning came. The law of the second repaltimiento was devised by the crown to protect the Indians from being robbed by unscrupulous store keepers. It was a well designed measure, but in some cases illy executed by individ nals. The correjidor or corrector- a sort of a judge-sometimes misused the power that had been given him for a humane pur pose to further hisbwn ends. One correji dor, for instance, received through some body's mistake in making up the goode sent to him for distribution, a whole cargo of seeotacles. To get rid of this unexpected and useless stock of goods, he gave orders that every Indian in his jurisdiction should wear glasses. 'that came very near causing a rebellion; but the trouble was fortunately averted by wiser measures. But it was a oorrejidor who did start the great Bolivian insurrection, and by his foolish injustice, in a somewhat similar re partimiento. iHe was the correjidor of Chuquisao, in Bolivia; and having re ceived an Immense stock of goods, he or dered the Indians to buy his wares to the amount of $340.000. It was precisely what the mother country did to our colonies in the stamp act and similar measures, and was no more to be endured. The Indians rose at once, and being still too uncivilized to go the wise way abort righting their wrongs-an appeal to the Spanish e. own would have settled it -they resorted to the wild oldeourt or war. 'their leader in this natural but unneces sary and deplorable appeal to arms was Tupac Amaru, the "Shinirng Snake." 'I'he origin of this redoubtable Indian is not ab solutely certain; but of his surprising abil ity there is no doubt. According to a conm mon report he was a descedant of the In can-that renmarkable tribe of organized warriors who had almost achieved an inde nendent civilization in Pern before rr white man ever saw America. Ilis baptismal name was Jose (Garial Conturcanqui; Tu pan Arurru binrg his nludian name. liis frather a said to have been the cacilque Thungasucs, and his mother an Indian Tupao was born aRout 1737, and was therefore in the pnim of his emarhood at tie time of the revolt. A tall, imposing figure he was, strong and active, and with an en erpetic face the flash of whose eyes was not easily forgotten. Though not a sollier, Tupac sprang to the frontr whlren hrs people revolted. and siarowed that hie belonged there. No matter how great a orisr mary arriveo i the affaire of a nation, it seems to breed thie rman to meet it, and in tha crisis Tupao Anraru was the marn of the hour, Desavite his lack of training, this sudtden Inoian general swert the Spaniards off half of I|uliovia, shorok them evern Cuzoo. Uloon the breaking out of this anvae re volt, in which the Indians followed their cruel passions end devastated a whole prov Incue, the Srnish v'iceruy sent lnsprctor 1)Dl Vails to the scenrre of lnarrrt ctrrn with aforceof2,(00 old0lror. irt hie was ut terrly unable to conr with thie insurgents. Then the vireroy dispatched Jose de Aeche a speoalal commissary with special .owere to the seat of trouble with an army. 'i nan Amern had captured and destroyed Chuanlto, and seurslnwInrg el.stlss .down his blood-stalaed way, was marching upon Cuzco, the second city in Peru. Upon reaching Cuzco, Arsehe received what Techudi calls a remarkable letter from Tupao Amara, setting forth his claims. The victorious insurgents were close to Cuzco, the Indian leader, and his family were camped on the hill Piahaco, only five miles distant from the city. Areehe, nothing daunted, answered calmly to T'upao Am4rn's conditions: "I was not not sent here to treat with renels, but to put down rebellion. You must lay down your arms before we can talk of oandi tions," Turrae Amara refnsed to yield; and on the 1ilth of April, 1781, he and his family were curp; iced and captured in their camp by Areche's dragoons. The leader of the insurgents was tried and found guilty of high treason, and in May was executed with hie family-in oue of the dreadful fashions which all the eivilized govern ments of that day thourrht necessary. IHis military career was a short but startling one, and he died like the Indian stoic he was. 'lie death ef Tupac Amara did not long leave the Indians without a leader. His son, An:ires 'ru Amara, and his brother, Casimiro, sprang to the head of the rebels; and with them was associated that obscure but remarkable Indian genius variously known as Tupae Catari or Niea Catari. Andrea and Casimiro shared his victories; but the startling inspiration which led to the bloodiest Indian massacre in history seems to phave been born in the brain of this really great aborigine. Pushing on with merciless vigor, leaving a broad trail of blood and devastation, the rebels at last laid siege to the large and important cite of Sorata. There the Span ish troops and colonists made a desperate stand; and. as the city was very well forti fied for those days, they seemed safe. borata was surrounded by a strong, high adobe wall, itself utterly impregnable to Indians or to light firearms, and de fended by artillery, or which the besiegers had none. But Catari was equal to the emergency-and as brilliantly so as Cyrus the Great, whose ruse at Babylon is famous for ell time. How break down that strong wall, with neither cannon nor battering rams at his command? The Spaniards could not see how, and felt secure. But Catrli knew. -Adobe walls are hardly pregnable to can non. As worst they merely erumble to an earthwork which no missile can break, and which is as easily defended as the former wall itself. So if Catari had had cannon even modern eannon- they would have done him little good. But he had invented the strangest bombardment that ever wreaked a city-bombardment by water. Sorata stood in the level of a pretty, bowl-like valley, with mountains all about. COtari quietly set his followers to digging trenches and throwing up bars of earth. 'Ihen he had a huge wall built all around the outer wall of Sorata, and at a safe distance from it. And then he turned all the streams from the mountains into his ditches and began to flood the spane between the walls. Slowly but surely the water rose, and surely it did its work. An adobe wall that will resist cannon must yield to the slow, treacherous soaking of a puddle that can reach it. The bottom of the wall drank and drank the water like a great sponge, until it was too soft and wet longer to sup port the weight above it, and the under mined structure collapsed and fell head long. 'Ihe ruin was complete, and the In dian rebels, rushing over the fallen fortifi cations, made massacre of the whole city. In that awful day 22,000 cltizens of Sorata were wiped out by their savage foes. So many Saxons have never been killed by In dians in the whole United States. That may give you an idea of the greater dan gers of the Spanish pioneers and borata, though the worst of their losses, was only one of hundreds. Catari had a brilliant career, in which Sorata was not the only remarkable achieve ment. He even blockaded the city of La Paz, and had he succeeded in oapturing it, that would have been the end of Spanish dominion. But such a setback to oiviliza tion was prevented by the timely arrival of Colonel Flores from Tucuman (now the Argentine Republic) with a force of 7,000 men. He raised the siege of La Paz and conquered the rebels. It is said that an In dian named Ha-ola-wa-si betrayed the place where the Indian chiefs met in coun oil. At all events they were surprised, cap tured, convicted of treason and executed, and with that the backbone of the rebel lion was broken and the outbreak ended. It was a needless and a frightful war; but is of double interest as ai comparative study. It shows, by its one exampl, among so very many, how much greater were the Indian wars in hpantioh America than in Saxon America, both in numbers and in amilitary importance. Things never got tp such a pass anywhere in our part of the continent that Indians could even buil.,pe a city, much less take it. It was one dear price that Spain paid for her humanuity-a price which exacted bloody interest for centuries. Her sons spread over an area so enormous that they were few at any one ilate. Instead of exterminating the In dians she labored to make-and did make- Chnis tians and citizens of them, it was a noble philanthropy and one that must nake every manly man prouder of humanity, but the few teachers among their swarming and savage puvils had often to cement the great work with their own blood. And here I rny properly add a word about a much lisaanderstoodsnbject. Early Spanish American history was eover blackened by any such dishonor ts our long national dieurace, of human slavery. It is true the encomienda and the original re partimionto have given , ie to many foolish ytllhs about how the BSraniards made serfs of the Indians, but the myths have sprung from entire ignorance of those two Spanish instltutions. Simply seeing that the in dinns were divided among the conquerors the reoader has at acie jumped to the con cluelon that it we ais division of slaves. But the repartmiionto allotted not hslave., but pupils. The division tells, in its other name of enoornienda, what it really was-a "giving in trust." rThe encomienda has been a knotty ques tion itself, and it was one of thie solutions of a knottier and greater one. P'rolbarbly no other nation lhand over so vIst anld serious a question on its hrneds. Stainu was not a populous country, nor a rich ourne. It had just emerged front nmore than 700 years of war, and was still far from safe. The Moorn were still a nrenace-the dainer to Spain from that warlike mace by ino mennus ended by thie fall of (Granada. All Europe, too, wnae uncomfortable. The tan gle of wars. above all the religious bitter nees roused by the reformatioll, made every country doubly fearful ot its neighbors and onxious about itself. No other nation felt able to atfford any blood to tie new world ahen, and evetn patn must draw a limit to emrigration. lhie usave t, America with un paralleled generosity, but she could not ab solutely depopulate herself. With her few thousands of eXplorers she spread over a bewilderintug area-her little ipat buttered a conlttinent atnd a half. 1lt in such a spread iu the burtter nrunst be very thin. She had tot only too tarsch religion to etortutlnate the aborigines, bint too muoh tattesmanshirp. Sbhe realieand. that rnot only had the nludians a right to lave if they would only let othere live, but that they werea the real wealth of be country. Here were millions of the reown first Americans; murderous, ignorant, scy savages at the start, but eapable of eaing made Christians and useful citirens. Why should not they be led to help develop Amerloa-a development by which they would benefit fully as mach as bth Spaniards? And that was the clew on which Spain worked steadily and consist ently from Arst to last. The eneomienda was a temporary expedi est to this end. The very first attempts of Spain in the Antilles had demonstrated that the Indian would not volun)srily work for his own advancement. no some means must be devised to help him to better thibes. The encomieada or the repartl miento were exactly parallel politically with our own present policy of taking the Indisas into our regular army to be in structed as soldiers. Blst the idea of Spain was to make them not soldiers, but farmers, and house-dwellers, and eitizens. The Spaniards were very few, the In dians enormously numerous. The teach ing seemed a hopeless task, unless gone at as we are now going at the instruction of our few remaining Indians-by schools at their very hom-s. 'that is what the en comienda was-a home school for Indians; a sohool not only of "the three R's," but also of religion and manual training. A Spaniard was given in charge a certain tract of land with the Indians upon it They were not his serfs, but his pupils his servants, in a way, but his apprentices, and not in any sense his slaves. At the longest an encomienda could be held but three generations, and presently only for one. The encomeundero, or Spaniard Ia eharge, could neither abuse nor sell the Indians. He could not aven sell the land on which they were. Indeed, he merely had the use of it for a certain time, in re turn for the benefit the crowa was to geot from his turning so many of its worthless subjects into good ones by ed ucation. He was bound under strict laws and severe penalties to treat them consider ately and to educate them at his own ex pense. How far the eneomienda was from a system of slavery may be gathered from this fact; so serious were the obligations of the enuomenderos to the Indians and the crown that they could hardly be endured, and a grant or lease of this peculiar sort same to be considered rather a punishment than a reward to the grantee. No, it was by no means a slavery-it was rather an ap prenticeship to civilization. To see that the laws were carried out, there was always an official protector of the Indians. If any aborigine was set at work that was too hard or too unhealthful, he had only to com plain to the protector or nearest priest, and Don Inuoomendero was apt to find himself in very hot water. I do not wish to pretend for a moment that the Spaniards were superhuman. They were men with the weaknesses and passions of the rest of us. There were bad men among tham-some thorough brutes-as among all nations; and as many, perhaps. It would have been strange if many bad Spaniards had not got to the new country. Our own frontier was and is to-day largely peopled by a class of characters not the most admirable. But what do say without hesitation, and what fieo mn can successfully contradict, is that no other nation ever made such noble laws for the protection and elevation of In dians, or executed them so well, nor pun ished offenders so conscientiously. In other words, no other nation was ever so manly to a conquered savage race. The occasional individual outrages were the fault of neither the Spanish government nor the Spanish blood-they were merely the sets of bad men; and the Spanish government officially and severely punished them. Where there was one Spanish ofleial who was recreant to his duty, we have had probably a dozen thiev ish Indian agents, and we have never pun ished one of them as the Spanish punished such offaeers, and while our attitude as a nation toward the Indians has been such that one of the noblest women that Amer ica ever produced felt constrained to write of our "Century of Dishonor," the Spanish government was never guilty of such an at titude at any time. It is not pleasant to draw such compari sons. But I feel that when we have done broad injustice to a gallant race, and have all our lives called them "cruel extermin ators" and then enddenly see by plain proof that they have been more humane than we, the manliest and therefore the most American thing to do is to say: "Well! you were brave fellows, and manly ones, and I'm ashamed to have called you nahmes in my ignorance that I much better de served myself. You are Americans as well as I, and good ones, too. Let's shake hands and be friends." Copyright, 1892, by the author. Quleer Food. The hedgehog figures frequently in sylvan repasts, thougnh he is hardly big enough to be sent to table as a piece de resistance. The primitive manner of cooking it super sedes the most costly refinements of bat teries de cuisine. The elephant's foot, or rather the slice below the pastern, which is a famous dainty in eastern hunting camps, is treated on pecisely similar principles, which shows that the simplest cookery of all nations has much in common, like their folk-lore. Shakespeare's British hedgeplg, like its cousin the poreupine, is shrouded in a plastic tenement of clay. 'hen he is laid to temporary rest in a bed of smoldor ing cinders. When supposed to be done to a turn, the dwarf pig is dug up, and then the prickly skin is detached with the split tint of the case of clay. All the generous juices, with their bouquet, have been con fined and transfused.-The Saturday Re view. A Man Attacked by lIlrds. Bailey Hoover. a young mon employed on the OnCtise ranch, reports a strange exper ience with birds, save the Woodland, CA., Mail. He was driving a single horse and buggy from the Fair ranch Tuesday after noon. When about two miles from Knight's Lending he was suddenly startled ourt of a dloe by mvrireds of birds which swarmed down upon him, screaming angrily and flying at him. .Tle air was literally black with them, rnd they viciously attacked the horse, which was frightened into a frantic effort to run away. lThe young IOil was sared revorld hlis powers of description. He fought the birds off with his whip,, and diresting the horse as beat he could was soon beyond their pUrsUlt. lHoovr enter talans a superstitious fear that the inoident portends evil for him. Aaother Clalimuart or the lroon. Tl'horo isr a wrangle over a llmoon. says the Chicago Jonrnal. Prof. Blrner,r of the lick Observatory, announced lately that he had disorvered Inpiter to have five mroons inetead of four, and the astrounomioal world was delivhtrd. T'hat w:e roiV ly toew days rgo. Now collies Ilawrer Thomas S. Coeley, of Washington, D1). C., who declaltes that he dinecovered that eamer moon four yoUIrs ngo. Furthe morne, he produces a letter written tLo l'rof. Newiron, astrouinomer nt the, navy riepal tleut. in which hiis dircovery wes an uo.nced. The date of the letter is laune 8, 188.. Mr. (Coaley is a lawyer of standing, hut an enthusinrtio astronorll'er'. Whiat is P'rof. ilariared going to do abrou t it all? "ltog" IIstlaln An island in the Telarlues, now a part of London, is called tile "Isle of Dous." Uarlyle alludes to it when he saye: "'ell as first whether his voyage has been around the globe or ionly frolim r tlrrit -te to the 'Is!e of h)ogs.'" 'I lrre Iofty and rook Islands near t. 'lTholaad ( Virgin islands) are knoir n ,e thne "Great )Dog." (irorge Dog" sud the "West l)og." lThere are Dreg island.s in the Maolan Arrchipelago, oni the a, ast of Maine, oIt the euoast of Franklin county, I"lorida, and suotrer ill the Serawati roup. On the coast of Kamnohaltka there San island known as "'thl Island of 'Talk lug l)omg."--Ms. Lole trpublis. WINTERI FLOAL CHARMS A Wealth of Bloom All Through Cold Weather for Five Dollars. What to Grow and What Not to Try to Grow in Winter. Advantae o nd Charms of Bulb Culture- How to Cultivate Them Successfully- Practical Informuatlon. [Written for Tax HajLNA INDoEPENDENT. HE BUSY SEA. son for the bulb fanciers has just commenced and it is gratifying to ob serve that the nom bar of amateurs ee saying floriculture in the winter sea iy son increases with ea c h succeeding ,4 year. At the same time, it is speaking well within bounds to affirm that no one person in ten buys a bulb who should do so, and that there is still a lamentable lack of knowledge among Americans concerning bulb culture. In one easy lesson, sneh as I propose to give, can be imparted all the knowledge necessary to enable akyone to fill a home with fragrance and beauty during the bleak season of the year, when domestic delights are most keenly appreciated. If you have two sunny windows you can fill them with ninety.five plants, of sixteen distinct varieties, all produning the most exquisite flowers imaginable, maintaining a constant succession of bloom from Dec ember until May, at a oest of less than $5 for bulbs and a few coents more for pots and possibly earth. And if that is too much you will' be able to pick out readily, from the list I shall suggest, such as you think you would prefer, and may be assured that you cannot possibly go wrong, even if your B LE tIYACIN C ___/ ___ 'LA-'2 9 /1 J Aj BUY BBF BU BLB F HEE choice is confined to a single bulb. But remember one thing: Once a bulb-grower always a bulb-grower. Taste this pleasure once and you will never be able to aban don it. Primarily, a few words about the selee tion of bulbs generally. If you go in for "named varieties" your taste is going to be costly, and it is at least questionable if the outcome is commensurately satisfactory. Minute and hardly perceptible differences in the shape or tint of even one petal of a ilower, faintly distinguishing it from oth ers of its kind, will be to the dealer sufi cient warrant for branding it with a big new name, placing *a fancy prlice on it and putting forth glow ing descriptions of its tranus cendent beauty, for he is a guileful crea ture. But if von do not happn to be a specialist or "crank" looking for new things just becameo they are now. you can get more eatisfrrction for much ieen money by invest ingr in "mixed sorts." Excent in lilies and certain other classes not good for amateur oulture under ordinary conditions, size is not an object. Pick out bulbs that are heavy and hard, whether big or little. Fi nally, don't buy oddities just because they are odd, for you will soon grow tired of them. The culture of the hyacinth bulb may be taken for a descrirtion as that Ibent uadapted for all, with somnie iighit moditicatrorns in certain cases, which will be noted. D)on't try growing your hyacinth bulbs in water. it can be doile, of course, but is vanity and Vexation of spirit. 'I hlie flower spikes are sure to be intferior to those of plants rooted in earth. lae four or live inch pots, the latter preferably. I'nt in each an inch of pot fragmenlits or charcoal lulmpni for drain age, and halt f1ll with sandy loam enriched by addition of a littlo well rotted cow manure or pulverizedl eheep muaucre. If you can add soime leaf mould or iearth contain lug grass roots pared trout undier sod, all the better. Set the bulb lightly orn the earth, fill in more earth around it until its toir just shows above the surface and gently iprse the earth, enolugh to settle it and no more. )Do not press tlhe nlb down, even a little bit. In planting Ito man hyacinths the pressure on the earth mast be firmer, for they lift themselves whben they start growing and, if negleoted. will sometimes climb entirely out of the soil. The earth should be noist, not wet, and its surface nearly an inch below the edge ot the pot. While the bulb is making roots, say for from four to six weeks, it mast be kept in a cool, damp, dark place. A collar Is beat, but a closet or a big dry goods box in a garret or even the enclosed space under a statiouary washbasin, will do. Set the pot on a bed of damp weather beaten ooal ashes and cover it four or five Inches deep with the same material, or with osoa-fibre, leves, straw, or old gunnr Iseks, on which you can sprinkle a little water from time to time. If you cannot Ax it that way, pack crumpled damp news papers under and around it and throw the sacking over it. When you think it has had time enough to make roots, examine it. Turn the pot upside down, tap it gently and the contents will eome out together in a ball, when, If the rooting has been good, the fact will be readily apparent. If so, bring to the light gradually, and as the foliage appears water freely. If you rush it into strong sunlightat onee, its flower spike will be poor. If you give too much water before the plant is ready to use it in making foliage your bulb will rot. should the spike threaten to be short and stubby, surround it with a white paper tube and it will grow tall. Once a week while the flower spike is form ing, give it tepid water containing a lit tle dissolved sheep manure, but stop that as soon as the bloom is perfect. Be shy of patent "fertilizers." Sprinkle the flowers daily with clear tepid water and they will last a long time. When they fade eut the flower stern off or the bulb will weaken itself in the effort to nur ture seed, so that it will bloom badly or not at all the next season. Then water sparingly while the leaves are ripening. When the foliage turns yellow take up your bulbs and lay them in a cool dry place until the leaves wither and dry up; then put them away until the next planting season. A good.way to keep them is in a net or basket suspended in the cellar where the mice can not get at them. Now let us see what we can have for our i$i. Every one has his preferences, and I am well aware this list will not include some very desirable flowers, but those in it will please every one. and if you want oth ers-get them. All these are easy of ealti vation-with perhaps one exception; some are very fragrant, and when they are all in bloom their glorious wealth of oolor will rival the chopped up rainbows with which the little angels play. I suggest as follows: ouls.l, Couting. Allium Neapolitanum ............ $ .10 Sparaxis, mixed .................. .40 ('roeus, irl.m o d .... ..............12 ... Ixias, mixed...................... 12 .2 hIabisna, mixed.................. .2. Oraith,,gallum Arabicum ....... .25 reesia refracta alba............. 2 .25 Ila llclllu . ........................ .2!5 ly3aciutls ......................... 0 .50 holmaen iyacinthe................ m .05 Joneq ils .......................... 0 .25 Tulips, Parrot ...................4 .20 Tuliti. , prblocene n.............. .1s b 'Tulips. (ijesueriana ............... 2 .2 Iri Iaempfer il ................... .50 Chinese bacred Lil ............. 2 .0 When I restrict tulips to those mentioned I refrain myself with difficulty, for a love of tulips is my pet weakness. At a cost of 70 cents you can bloom two dozen splendid tulips in a soap box. Do as you like about it. The parrot and bybloemens varieties I put in because of their fantastio and-in the latter-delicate beauty, both of form and coloring. And the gesnerliana. al though rather tall for house culture in mass, will make a splendid effeot in a lim ited disolay, lifting its enormous crimson scarlet bell near the allimn and ornitho gallum in single specimens. The ornithogallum produces great clus ters of pearly white flowers with jet black centers, deliciously fragrant. which endure surprisingly. Plant your three bulbs in separate four-inch pots, at intervals of two weeks and they will give you constantbloom for at least two months. Or you canl put the shiee together in a six-inch pot and have all their sweetness at once. A five inch pot will acoommonante four Roman hyacinths, three jonquils, or six to eight crocus bulbs. Give your erocuses abund ant light, but carefully keeu fire heat away flomu thenm. The whito flowers of Allium N. are borne in cluster on stemt twenty inches ligh and last very well. luant in tctober-throu to live in a five inch ptot--and they will be out in Januatry. Nothmig will be mto a likely to pietse you than the fretemti. 'I heir pure white low - ers have a deliciouts perfuLne. remain fresh a long time and are borne in great abuld anice. You can grow from four to six bulbs in a tive-inch pot, nUd by planting at in tervals-in different pots, of course--may prolong their season until apt ing. hxias, babianas and sparanie afford an infinite variety of the brightest colors im aginable, often tn istrange and always bean ttal combinationus - wlhtest,scarlet. rise, crimson, pink, tuagenta, cold, blue, etc., there being very many sorts of each. Thet all need rich soil, plenty of sunshine and ale not so imlpatient of beut as the crocuses. Five or six of elthir will do well int a five inch tot. And rnuunoulue is like unto thelm in its wide range of epleutdidt color, alhough of wholly different fortu, assumingll the rose shape, while they are flat stars, opent bell:. gladiolus like, etc. Five of its bulls go tit a live-iuch pot. You may not get the uris to hlotomi tr you the first season, but I have picked out its grandest variety to ri juice you if it does, or teward amply yolur patilence if you have to wait until next year to see it, Whether it blooms or not, do not take it out of its put. Like lilies in the gardn,. it must not be meddled with. When it blooms you will have the most magnificent flower that grows, with the pos sible exception of certatn orchids, six to eight inches mnl diameter, presenting a bte wilderiug glory of combined diversified tints and shades-crimson, blu,, white, rose, lilac, violet, lavender, and gold. 1By tll mIueans try the iris, even if it is not e=sy. We always achieve most in striving for that which is dilctiult to oltain. The Chinese sacred lily you grow in clear water, aupporting the bulb by piling cletan pebbles about. It is extremely easy of cultivation, andits luxurious abundance of handsome fo liano and beautiful delicately fragrant white and yellow blossome are sure to please. I have found it good to cut three deep g.ases in the sides near the top of ea.h bulb, having learned that trick from a wise Mongol who seemed to have great luck with his "jose flowers." It gives a great deal more fowers stems, and the bulb would be no good for a second season, anyway. Unless you have a greenhouse in which you can acoourately regulate the tempera tare and maintain a humid atmosphere do not attempt the culture of the amaryllis, the oyclamer or lilies. Finally, the cooler you keep the tempera. tore about your bulbous plants when they are in bloom, so long as it does not get down to the front line, the longer they will keep in bloom and the better they will be, J. H. (CONNlr,LY. IN TIF I'ARIS GE31 MAILKET. Connoissel rs Whose Memory for Jewels Almost 'assese itellef. On the second floor of a cafe in the Boule. vard Montmartre, in Paris, the market or bourse of preeious stones is held, always in broad daylight. Very few strangers to the trade can penetrate this sanctuary, not be cause the access to it is difficult, for the door is always open, but because the port folios close and the stars disappear the monment an unknown face appears at the threshold. Instead of animated traders the stranger finds only a few men onrulessly playing a game of bezique. Ah, but there is a Turk there, too; the Turk who looks so much like Coudero of the Opera (omique, except that he is yellow and wears very loose trousers. lot these trousers are full of diamonds. Don't believe for a moment that these dealers in precious stones are afraid of robbers. 'I hat is the smallest thing that bothers them. What they dread is to let the small jewelers know the real value of their goods. As soon as the stranger departs the arms stretch out and the portfolios reappear. The greater number of these portfolios are made of tin and are closed with a look and key. In a moment the tables are covered with little bundles of white paper formed like those in which the druggists put rhu barb or sulphateof magnesia. These pack. ages are opened, and in less time than it takes to tell it the tables, inoluding the billiard table, are covered with precious stones which might startle the shah of Persia. A strange spectacle is presented by those sordid old men quietly taking from their pockets many thousand dollars' worth of gems. Each one of perhaps 10,000 pack ages contains a large number of brilliants. After they are disposed of the rare stones are introduced, Here, then, are sapphires as big as nuts. There lies a black diamond almost as large as the twelve pearls that surround it. Here, again, is a necklace made of fifteen emeralds that would make as many snuff boxes. "Here is a rare bargain," shouts one of the merchants, "one of the finest pieces of ancient jewelry known! It is a necklace that belonged to Madame Ia Princess Gue menee. Mounting, diamonds and all are an-. cient. Prince Proisetoiloff refused 75,000 frs. for it twenty years ago." The necklace is passed from hand to hand. The mer chants gaze at it with attention. The eye glasses come into play. Indecision and doubt are painted upon some faces. At last the necklace is passed to Michel He is the great judge. He takes it, weighd it in his hand, looks at it with an indifferent air, and says: "The two brilliants are ancient. They come, with their mounting, from the Count ess de Prejean. The two others, still finer, once formed part of a necklace which was stolen in Venice in 1804 from Mie. Moro sini. This necklace belonged later to Lady Temple, whose husband purchased it at Candahar of Isaac Lieven. Lady Temple gave it to her daughter, who sold it three days after her marriage. As for the sap. phire in the center, that comes from the sale of Mlle. Schneider. The rest is new and comes direct from Hamburg. But, after all, it is well preserved, and 75,000 fre, does not seem to be too much for it." As extraordinary as it may appear, there are now living five or six individuals who know most of the costly diamonds and rich jewels in the world, and they are able to recognaze them after a lapse of thirty years, even when they had first seen them only a moment, as certainly as a tailor would re cognize at thirty paces the customer who forgot to pay him. When a burglary is committed in the house of a well-known jeweler, which often happens in Paris, Lon don, Vienna and St. Petersburg, if there is among the objects stolen a stone of more than ordinary value it is almost sure to he found and returned to the owner. The Ball and the llattle of Waterloo. The duke of Wellington told Sir Wil. liam Napier that he found the prince of Orange at the duehess of Richmond's ball on the evening of the 15th. He was sur prised to see him becaume he had placed him at Binche, an important outpost, for the purpose of observing and giving notioe of the movements of the enemy. He went up to him and asked him if there was any news. "No, nothing but that the French have crossed the Sambre and had a brush with the Prussians. Have you heard of it?" This was news; so he told him quietly that he had better go back to his post, and then by degrees he got the orin eipal officers away from the ball and sent them to their troops, This was done, I think he said, about 11 o'clock. He then went to his quarters and found Muffling there, coming from Blucher with the news. He ought to have arrived long before, but said the duke to me, "I cannot tell the world that lilucher picked the fattest man in his army to ride with an express to me, and that he took thirty hours to ride thirty mlles."-Waterloo Letters. The Papers of Two Seectitos. I am sometimes asked how neowpaper work in the east and west contrasts, writes Col. John A. Cookerill, formerly of the New York World. The methods are much the same all over the country, except tha. the western paper tries to )be a more gen eral newspaper than the New York daily. iThe reasoln for this is that New York has so much news of its own that it cannot pay touch attention to general news outside. Somrr of the papers in Chicago and St. Louis print more news, more special di patches from other cities and towns then anv Ire ,or in Now York. This is beo.tuse in New York and vioirrnty we have three mill iorus of people to look after, and the illm ironse emount of local news letaves little roomu for anything else. In the west are newspaper workere just as bright and able as any here--many of them sumerlor. Nettes Thrift. An event which caused muoh stir In the ittle ormnmunulity wrIe the iutroduction of ga. P'reviously oil of a course kind, or cannel coal placed on the frontof the grate, had been used for lighting purposeos. Can dlles were uxpensive, and their light feeble, and so to a groat extent the sqlaair was iin a state of darkness, tor nrrecessity or thrift re duced the use of artificial light to the mint soum. An old woman of frugal habit, who had mseanse and apllianoee superior to her neighbors, and who rejoiced in the posses ston of a servant, used to say to that do mestic, as the shades of evening began to descend, "Noe. Nanric, yeo may pit the lamp on the table, an' if onybody o' oon sequence ea's ye can licht it."--'l'he oots man. New WYay it, et Watches. Nicholas Jensen, of Washington, has pat. anted a simple device that greatly faoilit tates the aoonrate setting of watehes. It consists in a lever, whiuch when pulled out stops the second hand at the sixty polnt. After this the other hands are set, and when the second hand of the regulator reaohes the sixty point the lever on the wato.h being set, is pushed in. This releases the second hand and the other two at the same moment. The three hands thee march la staep-.-Pitthbrg Dipateh.