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The Helena independent. (Helena, Mont.) 1875-1943, October 02, 1892, Morning, Image 9

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PART, 2. PAGke 1 49dena912
VOL XXXll.NO. s28 HELENA, MONTANA. SUNDAY MORNINO. OCTOBER 2, 1892 PRICE FIVPE ORE!
THE SPANISH PIONEERS,
BY CHARLES F. LUMMIS.
WRITTEN ESPECIALLY FOR THE HELENA 1NDEPENDENT.
HERE WERE
three reasons why
bhe Spanish pioneers
had so mucsh harder
a time in America
than we Saxons did.
The first was be
eane. they were first.
When they came, the
Americans were not
IN only unknown but
All unguessed. ' They
were like men grop
i T ing in she dark amid
danger and suffering.
By the time we same
--. the new world was
r . very fairly under
stood, and there were
maps and geographies and histories,
and had been for a hundred years.
It was a great moral advantage-we knew
where we were and what was beyond.
Second, the nature of their wilderness was
incomparably more forbidding.. We
never had to undergo any physical hard
ship to be compared for a moment with
their sufferings In the desert-for the desert
itself and alone is far more terrible to man
than were oar wildest forests taull of savage
beasts and men. The forest may contain
dangers, but the desert is a danger-and a
more fearful one than Indians. And as
much worse as deserts were than our north
ern woods, so much more deadly were the
tropical forests than the desert.
Third, the Indians whom the Spaniards
encountered were far more numerous, more
organized, more skillful and more danger
ous than any or all tribes with whom our
forefathers ever came in contact. How
petty all the Indian wars we ever had, all
put together, are by the side of the one re
bellion of Tupao Amura. And that was
only one of the boat of Indian wars by
which the Spaniards have been beset for
two centuries longer than we have been a
nation.
Why, the war between the pioneers and
the Arauean indians lasted for 200 years;
and after three centuries and a half the
Yaquis, safe in their fastnesses, are not
even subdued; and all over two-thirds of
the whole hemisphere the Spanish solo
nists have had for centuries to bear Indian
wars worse than oen s with the Apaches. the
Modoos or the Sioux.
The rebellion of Tupae Amaeu was by far
the greatest and most disastrous Indian
war that ever took place in either Amerloa.
It was in Bolivia, in the years 1780 to 1784,
and almost shook the foundation of the
Spanish empire in South America. It
called to the front some remarkable Indian
leaders and brought about not only the
greatest victory that Indians ever won, but
a military maneuver which is entirely
unique. No other city was ever so strangely
bombarded as was borata, and none more
effectively, and yet the aboriginal Napo
leon who besieged it had neither cannons
nor any other applianee deemed necessary
for bombardment.
The cause of the rebellion was a curious
one. It was not of quite such strange trivi
ality as that which had already almost
caused a revolt, but of somewhat the same
nature. As 1 have said, the policy of Spain
towards the Indians was always humane,
p ogresaive and kind. The design was al
ways to teach and uplift these savages un
til they should befitted for citizenship; and
the voluminous and noble laws of Spain
provided at all points for this worthy ob
ject. Of course these good laws were some.
times violated and sometimes evaded by
bad officials; but they were always punished
as promptly as possible. Still, justice was
a long way off; anld to reach the offenders
was a matter of time, some died before
they could be punished; and others man
aged to do a deal of harm before the day of
reckoning came.
The law of the second repaltimiento was
devised by the crown to protect the Indians
from being robbed by unscrupulous store
keepers. It was a well designed measure,
but in some cases illy executed by individ
nals. The correjidor or corrector- a sort
of a judge-sometimes misused the power
that had been given him for a humane pur
pose to further hisbwn ends. One correji
dor, for instance, received through some
body's mistake in making up the goode
sent to him for distribution, a whole cargo
of seeotacles. To get rid of this unexpected
and useless stock of goods, he gave orders
that every Indian in his jurisdiction should
wear glasses. 'that came very near causing
a rebellion; but the trouble was fortunately
averted by wiser measures.
But it was a oorrejidor who did start the
great Bolivian insurrection, and by his
foolish injustice, in a somewhat similar re
partimiento. iHe was the correjidor of
Chuquisao, in Bolivia; and having re
ceived an Immense stock of goods, he or
dered the Indians to buy his wares to the
amount of $340.000.
It was precisely what the mother country
did to our colonies in the stamp act and
similar measures, and was no more to be
endured. The Indians rose at once, and
being still too uncivilized to go the wise
way abort righting their wrongs-an appeal
to the Spanish e. own would have settled it
-they resorted to the wild oldeourt or war.
'their leader in this natural but unneces
sary and deplorable appeal to arms was
Tupac Amaru, the "Shinirng Snake." 'I'he
origin of this redoubtable Indian is not ab
solutely certain; but of his surprising abil
ity there is no doubt. According to a conm
mon report he was a descedant of the In
can-that renmarkable tribe of organized
warriors who had almost achieved an inde
nendent civilization in Pern before rr white
man ever saw America. Ilis baptismal
name was Jose (Garial Conturcanqui; Tu
pan Arurru binrg his nludian name. liis
frather a said to have been the cacilque
Thungasucs, and his mother an Indian
Tupao was born aRout 1737, and was
therefore in the pnim of his emarhood at tie
time of the revolt. A tall, imposing figure
he was, strong and active, and with an en
erpetic face the flash of whose eyes was not
easily forgotten.
Though not a sollier, Tupac sprang to
the frontr whlren hrs people revolted. and
siarowed that hie belonged there. No matter
how great a orisr mary arriveo i the affaire
of a nation, it seems to breed thie rman to
meet it, and in tha crisis Tupao Anraru
was the marn of the hour, Desavite his lack
of training, this sudtden Inoian general
swert the Spaniards off half of I|uliovia,
shorok them evern Cuzoo.
Uloon the breaking out of this anvae re
volt, in which the Indians followed their
cruel passions end devastated a whole prov
Incue, the Srnish v'iceruy sent lnsprctor
1)Dl Vails to the scenrre of lnarrrt ctrrn with
aforceof2,(00 old0lror. irt hie was ut
terrly unable to conr with thie insurgents.
Then the vireroy dispatched Jose de
Aeche a speoalal commissary with special
.owere to the seat of trouble with an army.
'i nan Amern had captured and destroyed
Chuanlto, and seurslnwInrg el.stlss .down his
blood-stalaed way, was marching upon
Cuzco, the second city in Peru.
Upon reaching Cuzco, Arsehe received
what Techudi calls a remarkable letter
from Tupao Amara, setting forth his
claims. The victorious insurgents were
close to Cuzco, the Indian leader, and his
family were camped on the hill Piahaco,
only five miles distant from the city.
Areehe, nothing daunted, answered calmly
to T'upao Am4rn's conditions: "I was not
not sent here to treat with renels, but to
put down rebellion. You must lay down
your arms before we can talk of oandi
tions,"
Turrae Amara refnsed to yield; and on
the 1ilth of April, 1781, he and his family
were curp; iced and captured in their camp
by Areche's dragoons. The leader of the
insurgents was tried and found guilty of
high treason, and in May was executed
with hie family-in oue of the dreadful
fashions which all the eivilized govern
ments of that day thourrht necessary. IHis
military career was a short but startling
one, and he died like the Indian stoic he
was.
'lie death ef Tupac Amara did not long
leave the Indians without a leader. His
son, An:ires 'ru Amara, and his brother,
Casimiro, sprang to the head of the rebels;
and with them was associated that obscure
but remarkable Indian genius variously
known as Tupae Catari or Niea Catari.
Andrea and Casimiro shared his victories;
but the startling inspiration which led to
the bloodiest Indian massacre in history
seems to phave been born in the brain of
this really great aborigine.
Pushing on with merciless vigor, leaving
a broad trail of blood and devastation, the
rebels at last laid siege to the large and
important cite of Sorata. There the Span
ish troops and colonists made a desperate
stand; and. as the city was very well forti
fied for those days, they seemed safe.
borata was surrounded by a strong, high
adobe wall, itself utterly impregnable
to Indians or to light firearms, and de
fended by artillery, or which the besiegers
had none. But Catari was equal to the
emergency-and as brilliantly so as Cyrus
the Great, whose ruse at Babylon is famous
for ell time.
How break down that strong wall, with
neither cannon nor battering rams at his
command? The Spaniards could not see
how, and felt secure. But Catrli knew.
-Adobe walls are hardly pregnable to can
non. As worst they merely erumble to an
earthwork which no missile can break, and
which is as easily defended as the former
wall itself. So if Catari had had cannon
even modern eannon- they would have
done him little good. But he had invented
the strangest bombardment that ever
wreaked a city-bombardment by water.
Sorata stood in the level of a pretty,
bowl-like valley, with mountains all
about. COtari quietly set his followers to
digging trenches and throwing up bars of
earth. 'Ihen he had a huge wall built all
around the outer wall of Sorata, and at a
safe distance from it. And then he turned
all the streams from the mountains into
his ditches and began to flood the spane
between the walls.
Slowly but surely the water rose, and
surely it did its work. An adobe wall that
will resist cannon must yield to the slow,
treacherous soaking of a puddle that can
reach it. The bottom of the wall drank
and drank the water like a great sponge,
until it was too soft and wet longer to sup
port the weight above it, and the under
mined structure collapsed and fell head
long. 'Ihe ruin was complete, and the In
dian rebels, rushing over the fallen fortifi
cations, made massacre of the whole city.
In that awful day 22,000 cltizens of Sorata
were wiped out by their savage foes. So
many Saxons have never been killed by In
dians in the whole United States. That
may give you an idea of the greater dan
gers of the Spanish pioneers and borata,
though the worst of their losses, was only
one of hundreds.
Catari had a brilliant career, in which
Sorata was not the only remarkable achieve
ment. He even blockaded the city of La
Paz, and had he succeeded in oapturing it,
that would have been the end of Spanish
dominion. But such a setback to oiviliza
tion was prevented by the timely arrival of
Colonel Flores from Tucuman (now the
Argentine Republic) with a force of 7,000
men. He raised the siege of La Paz and
conquered the rebels. It is said that an In
dian named Ha-ola-wa-si betrayed the
place where the Indian chiefs met in coun
oil. At all events they were surprised, cap
tured, convicted of treason and executed,
and with that the backbone of the rebel
lion was broken and the outbreak ended.
It was a needless and a frightful war;
but is of double interest as ai comparative
study. It shows, by its one exampl, among
so very many, how much greater were the
Indian wars in hpantioh America than in
Saxon America, both in numbers and in
amilitary importance. Things never got tp
such a pass anywhere in our part of the
continent that Indians could even buil.,pe a
city, much less take it. It was one dear
price that Spain paid for her humanuity-a
price which exacted bloody interest for
centuries. Her sons spread over an area so
enormous that they were few at any one
ilate. Instead of exterminating the In
dians she labored to make-and did make-
Chnis tians and citizens of them, it was a
noble philanthropy and one that must nake
every manly man prouder of humanity, but
the few teachers among their swarming and
savage puvils had often to cement the great
work with their own blood.
And here I rny properly add a word
about a much lisaanderstoodsnbject. Early
Spanish American history was eover
blackened by any such dishonor ts our long
national dieurace, of human slavery. It is
true the encomienda and the original re
partimionto have given , ie to many foolish
ytllhs about how the BSraniards made serfs
of the Indians, but the myths have sprung
from entire ignorance of those two Spanish
instltutions. Simply seeing that the in
dinns were divided among the conquerors
the reoader has at acie jumped to the con
cluelon that it we ais division of slaves.
But the repartmiionto allotted not hslave.,
but pupils. The division tells, in its other
name of enoornienda, what it really was-a
"giving in trust."
rThe encomienda has been a knotty ques
tion itself, and it was one of thie solutions
of a knottier and greater one. P'rolbarbly
no other nation lhand over so vIst anld
serious a question on its hrneds. Stainu
was not a populous country, nor a rich ourne.
It had just emerged front nmore than 700
years of war, and was still far from safe.
The Moorn were still a nrenace-the dainer
to Spain from that warlike mace by ino
mennus ended by thie fall of (Granada. All
Europe, too, wnae uncomfortable. The tan
gle of wars. above all the religious bitter
nees roused by the reformatioll, made every
country doubly fearful ot its neighbors and
onxious about itself. No other nation felt
able to atfford any blood to tie new world
ahen, and evetn patn must draw a limit to
emrigration. lhie usave t, America with un
paralleled generosity, but she could not ab
solutely depopulate herself. With her few
thousands of eXplorers she spread over a
bewilderintug area-her little ipat buttered a
conlttinent atnd a half. 1lt in such a spread
iu the burtter nrunst be very thin. She had
tot only too tarsch religion to etortutlnate
the aborigines, bint too muoh tattesmanshirp.
Sbhe realieand. that rnot only had the nludians
a right to lave if they would only let othere
live, but that they werea the real wealth of
be country. Here were millions of the
reown first Americans; murderous, ignorant,
scy savages at the start, but eapable of
eaing made Christians and useful
citirens. Why should not they be led to
help develop Amerloa-a development by
which they would benefit fully as mach as
bth Spaniards? And that was the clew on
which Spain worked steadily and consist
ently from Arst to last.
The eneomienda was a temporary expedi
est to this end. The very first attempts of
Spain in the Antilles had demonstrated
that the Indian would not volun)srily work
for his own advancement. no some means
must be devised to help him to better
thibes. The encomieada or the repartl
miento were exactly parallel politically
with our own present policy of taking the
Indisas into our regular army to be in
structed as soldiers. Blst the idea of
Spain was to make them not soldiers,
but farmers, and house-dwellers, and
eitizens.
The Spaniards were very few, the In
dians enormously numerous. The teach
ing seemed a hopeless task, unless gone at
as we are now going at the instruction of
our few remaining Indians-by schools
at their very hom-s. 'that is what the en
comienda was-a home school for Indians;
a sohool not only of "the three R's," but
also of religion and manual training. A
Spaniard was given in charge a certain
tract of land with the Indians upon it
They were not his serfs, but his pupils
his servants, in a way, but his apprentices,
and not in any sense his slaves. At the
longest an encomienda could be held but
three generations, and presently only for
one. The encomeundero, or Spaniard Ia
eharge, could neither abuse nor sell the
Indians. He could not aven sell the land
on which they were. Indeed, he merely
had the use of it for a certain time, in re
turn for the benefit the crowa was to
geot from his turning so many of
its worthless subjects into good ones by ed
ucation. He was bound under strict laws
and severe penalties to treat them consider
ately and to educate them at his own ex
pense. How far the eneomienda was from
a system of slavery may be gathered from
this fact; so serious were the obligations of
the enuomenderos to the Indians and the
crown that they could hardly be endured,
and a grant or lease of this peculiar sort
same to be considered rather a punishment
than a reward to the grantee. No, it was
by no means a slavery-it was rather an ap
prenticeship to civilization. To see that
the laws were carried out, there was always
an official protector of the Indians. If any
aborigine was set at work that was too hard
or too unhealthful, he had only to com
plain to the protector or nearest priest, and
Don Inuoomendero was apt to find himself
in very hot water.
I do not wish to pretend for a moment
that the Spaniards were superhuman. They
were men with the weaknesses and passions
of the rest of us. There were bad men
among tham-some thorough brutes-as
among all nations; and as many, perhaps.
It would have been strange if many bad
Spaniards had not got to the new country.
Our own frontier was and is to-day largely
peopled by a class of characters not the
most admirable.
But what do say without hesitation, and
what fieo mn can successfully contradict, is
that no other nation ever made such noble
laws for the protection and elevation of In
dians, or executed them so well, nor pun
ished offenders so conscientiously. In
other words, no other nation was ever so
manly to a conquered savage race. The
occasional individual outrages were the
fault of neither the Spanish government
nor the Spanish blood-they were merely
the sets of bad men; and the Spanish
government officially and severely
punished them. Where there was one
Spanish ofleial who was recreant to his
duty, we have had probably a dozen thiev
ish Indian agents, and we have never pun
ished one of them as the Spanish punished
such offaeers, and while our attitude as a
nation toward the Indians has been such
that one of the noblest women that Amer
ica ever produced felt constrained to write
of our "Century of Dishonor," the Spanish
government was never guilty of such an at
titude at any time.
It is not pleasant to draw such compari
sons. But I feel that when we have done
broad injustice to a gallant race, and have
all our lives called them "cruel extermin
ators" and then enddenly see by plain
proof that they have been more humane
than we, the manliest and therefore the
most American thing to do is to say: "Well!
you were brave fellows, and manly ones,
and I'm ashamed to have called you nahmes
in my ignorance that I much better de
served myself. You are Americans as well
as I, and good ones, too. Let's shake hands
and be friends."
Copyright, 1892, by the author.
Quleer Food.
The hedgehog figures frequently in sylvan
repasts, thougnh he is hardly big enough to
be sent to table as a piece de resistance.
The primitive manner of cooking it super
sedes the most costly refinements of bat
teries de cuisine. The elephant's foot, or
rather the slice below the pastern, which is
a famous dainty in eastern hunting camps,
is treated on pecisely similar principles,
which shows that the simplest cookery of
all nations has much in common, like their
folk-lore. Shakespeare's British hedgeplg,
like its cousin the poreupine, is shrouded
in a plastic tenement of clay. 'hen he is
laid to temporary rest in a bed of smoldor
ing cinders. When supposed to be done to
a turn, the dwarf pig is dug up, and then
the prickly skin is detached with the split
tint of the case of clay. All the generous
juices, with their bouquet, have been con
fined and transfused.-The Saturday Re
view.
A Man Attacked by lIlrds.
Bailey Hoover. a young mon employed on
the OnCtise ranch, reports a strange exper
ience with birds, save the Woodland, CA.,
Mail. He was driving a single horse and
buggy from the Fair ranch Tuesday after
noon. When about two miles from Knight's
Lending he was suddenly startled ourt of a
dloe by mvrireds of birds which swarmed
down upon him, screaming angrily and
flying at him. .Tle air was literally black
with them, rnd they viciously attacked the
horse, which was frightened into a frantic
effort to run away. lThe young IOil was
sared revorld hlis powers of description.
He fought the birds off with his whip,, and
diresting the horse as beat he could was
soon beyond their pUrsUlt. lHoovr enter
talans a superstitious fear that the inoident
portends evil for him.
Aaother Clalimuart or the lroon.
Tl'horo isr a wrangle over a llmoon. says the
Chicago Jonrnal. Prof. Blrner,r of the
lick Observatory, announced lately that he
had disorvered Inpiter to have five mroons
inetead of four, and the astrounomioal world
was delivhtrd. T'hat w:e roiV ly toew days
rgo. Now collies Ilawrer Thomas S. Coeley,
of Washington, D1). C., who declaltes that he
dinecovered that eamer moon four yoUIrs ngo.
Furthe morne, he produces a letter written
tLo l'rof. Newiron, astrouinomer nt the, navy
riepal tleut. in which hiis dircovery wes an
uo.nced. The date of the letter is laune 8,
188.. Mr. (Coaley is a lawyer of standing,
hut an enthusinrtio astronorll'er'. Whiat is
P'rof. ilariared going to do abrou t it all?
"ltog" IIstlaln
An island in the Telarlues, now a part of
London, is called tile "Isle of Dous."
Uarlyle alludes to it when he saye: "'ell
as first whether his voyage has been around
the globe or ionly frolim r tlrrit -te to the
'Is!e of h)ogs.'" 'I lrre Iofty and rook
Islands near t. 'lTholaad ( Virgin islands)
are knoir n ,e thne "Great )Dog." (irorge Dog"
sud the "West l)og." lThere are Dreg island.s
in the Maolan Arrchipelago, oni the a, ast of
Maine, oIt the euoast of Franklin county,
I"lorida, and suotrer ill the Serawati
roup. On the coast of Kamnohaltka there
San island known as "'thl Island of 'Talk
lug l)omg."--Ms. Lole trpublis.
WINTERI FLOAL CHARMS
A Wealth of Bloom All Through
Cold Weather for Five
Dollars.
What to Grow and What Not to
Try to Grow in
Winter.
Advantae o nd Charms of Bulb Culture-
How to Cultivate Them Successfully-
Practical Informuatlon.
[Written for Tax HajLNA INDoEPENDENT.
HE BUSY SEA.
son for the bulb
fanciers has just
commenced and it
is gratifying to ob
serve that the nom
bar of amateurs ee
saying floriculture
in the winter sea
iy son increases with
ea c h succeeding
,4 year. At the same
time, it is speaking
well within bounds to affirm that no one
person in ten buys a bulb who should do
so, and that there is still a lamentable lack
of knowledge among Americans concerning
bulb culture.
In one easy lesson, sneh as I propose to
give, can be imparted all the knowledge
necessary to enable akyone to fill a home
with fragrance and beauty during the
bleak season of the year, when domestic
delights are most keenly appreciated. If
you have two sunny windows you can fill
them with ninety.five plants, of sixteen
distinct varieties, all produning the most
exquisite flowers imaginable, maintaining
a constant succession of bloom from Dec
ember until May, at a oest of less than $5
for bulbs and a few coents more for pots and
possibly earth. And if that is too much
you will' be able to pick out readily, from
the list I shall suggest, such as you think
you would prefer, and may be assured that
you cannot possibly go wrong, even if your
B LE tIYACIN C ___/ ___ 'LA-'2
9 /1
J Aj
BUY BBF
BU BLB F HEE
choice is confined to a single bulb. But
remember one thing: Once a bulb-grower
always a bulb-grower. Taste this pleasure
once and you will never be able to aban
don it.
Primarily, a few words about the selee
tion of bulbs generally. If you go in for
"named varieties" your taste is going to be
costly, and it is at least questionable if the
outcome is commensurately satisfactory.
Minute and hardly perceptible differences
in the shape or tint of even one petal of a
ilower, faintly distinguishing it from oth
ers of its kind, will be to the dealer sufi
cient warrant for branding it with a
big new name, placing *a fancy
prlice on it and putting forth glow
ing descriptions of its tranus
cendent beauty, for he is a guileful crea
ture. But if von do not happn to be a
specialist or "crank" looking for new things
just becameo they are now. you can get more
eatisfrrction for much ieen money by invest
ingr in "mixed sorts." Excent in lilies and
certain other classes not good for amateur
oulture under ordinary conditions, size is
not an object. Pick out bulbs that are
heavy and hard, whether big or little. Fi
nally, don't buy oddities just because they
are odd, for you will soon grow tired of
them.
The culture of the hyacinth bulb may be
taken for a descrirtion as that Ibent uadapted
for all, with somnie iighit moditicatrorns in
certain cases, which will be noted. D)on't
try growing your hyacinth bulbs in water. it
can be doile, of course, but is vanity and
Vexation of spirit. 'I hlie flower spikes are
sure to be intferior to those of plants rooted
in earth. lae four or live inch pots, the
latter preferably. I'nt in each an inch of pot
fragmenlits or charcoal lulmpni for drain
age, and halt f1ll with sandy loam enriched
by addition of a littlo well rotted cow
manure or pulverizedl eheep muaucre. If you
can add soime leaf mould or iearth contain
lug grass roots pared trout undier sod, all
the better. Set the bulb lightly orn the
earth, fill in more earth around it until its
toir just shows above the surface and gently
iprse the earth, enolugh to settle
it and no more. )Do not press tlhe nlb
down, even a little bit. In planting Ito
man hyacinths the pressure on the earth
mast be firmer, for they lift themselves
whben they start growing and, if negleoted.
will sometimes climb entirely out of the
soil. The earth should be noist, not wet,
and its surface nearly an inch below the
edge ot the pot. While the bulb is making
roots, say for from four to six weeks, it
mast be kept in a cool, damp, dark place.
A collar Is beat, but a closet or a big dry
goods box in a garret or even the enclosed
space under a statiouary washbasin, will
do. Set the pot on a bed of damp weather
beaten ooal ashes and cover it four or five
Inches deep with the same material, or with
osoa-fibre, leves, straw, or old gunnr
Iseks, on which you can sprinkle a little
water from time to time. If you cannot
Ax it that way, pack crumpled damp news
papers under and around it and throw
the sacking over it. When you think
it has had time enough to make
roots, examine it. Turn the pot upside
down, tap it gently and the contents will
eome out together in a ball, when, If the
rooting has been good, the fact will be
readily apparent. If so, bring to the light
gradually, and as the foliage appears water
freely. If you rush it into strong sunlightat
onee, its flower spike will be poor. If you
give too much water before the plant is
ready to use it in making foliage your
bulb will rot. should the spike threaten
to be short and stubby, surround it with a
white paper tube and it will grow tall.
Once a week while the flower spike is form
ing, give it tepid water containing a lit
tle dissolved sheep manure, but stop that
as soon as the bloom is perfect. Be shy of
patent "fertilizers." Sprinkle the flowers
daily with clear tepid water and they will
last a long time. When they fade eut
the flower stern off or the bulb will
weaken itself in the effort to nur
ture seed, so that it will bloom badly
or not at all the next season. Then water
sparingly while the leaves are ripening.
When the foliage turns yellow take up your
bulbs and lay them in a cool dry place until
the leaves wither and dry up; then put them
away until the next planting season. A
good.way to keep them is in a net or basket
suspended in the cellar where the mice can
not get at them.
Now let us see what we can have for our
i$i. Every one has his preferences, and I
am well aware this list will not include
some very desirable flowers, but those in it
will please every one. and if you want oth
ers-get them. All these are easy of ealti
vation-with perhaps one exception; some
are very fragrant, and when they are all in
bloom their glorious wealth of oolor will
rival the chopped up rainbows with which
the little angels play. I suggest as follows:
ouls.l, Couting.
Allium Neapolitanum ............ $ .10
Sparaxis, mixed .................. .40
('roeus, irl.m o d .... ..............12 ...
Ixias, mixed...................... 12 .2
hIabisna, mixed.................. .2.
Oraith,,gallum Arabicum ....... .25
reesia refracta alba............. 2 .25
Ila llclllu . ........................ .2!5
ly3aciutls ......................... 0 .50
holmaen iyacinthe................ m .05
Joneq ils .......................... 0 .25
Tulips, Parrot ...................4 .20
Tuliti. , prblocene n.............. .1s b
'Tulips. (ijesueriana ............... 2 .2
Iri Iaempfer il ................... .50
Chinese bacred Lil ............. 2 .0
When I restrict tulips to those mentioned
I refrain myself with difficulty, for a love
of tulips is my pet weakness. At a cost of
70 cents you can bloom two dozen splendid
tulips in a soap box. Do as you like about
it. The parrot and bybloemens varieties I
put in because of their fantastio and-in
the latter-delicate beauty, both of form
and coloring. And the gesnerliana. al
though rather tall for house culture in
mass, will make a splendid effeot in a lim
ited disolay, lifting its enormous crimson
scarlet bell near the allimn and ornitho
gallum in single specimens.
The ornithogallum produces great clus
ters of pearly white flowers with jet black
centers, deliciously fragrant. which endure
surprisingly. Plant your three bulbs in
separate four-inch pots, at intervals of two
weeks and they will give you constantbloom
for at least two months. Or you canl put
the shiee together in a six-inch pot and
have all their sweetness at once. A five
inch pot will acoommonante four Roman
hyacinths, three jonquils, or six to eight
crocus bulbs. Give your erocuses abund
ant light, but carefully keeu fire heat
away flomu thenm. The whito flowers of
Allium N. are borne in cluster on stemt
twenty inches ligh and last very well.
luant in tctober-throu to live in a five
inch ptot--and they will be out in Januatry.
Nothmig will be mto a likely to pietse you
than the fretemti. 'I heir pure white low -
ers have a deliciouts perfuLne. remain fresh
a long time and are borne in great abuld
anice. You can grow from four to six bulbs
in a tive-inch pot, nUd by planting at in
tervals-in different pots, of course--may
prolong their season until apt ing.
hxias, babianas and sparanie afford an
infinite variety of the brightest colors im
aginable, often tn istrange and always bean
ttal combinationus - wlhtest,scarlet. rise,
crimson, pink, tuagenta, cold, blue, etc.,
there being very many sorts of each. Thet
all need rich soil, plenty of sunshine and
ale not so imlpatient of beut as the crocuses.
Five or six of elthir will do well int a five
inch tot. And rnuunoulue is like unto thelm
in its wide range of epleutdidt color, alhough
of wholly different fortu, assumingll the rose
shape, while they are flat stars, opent bell:.
gladiolus like, etc. Five of its bulls go tit
a live-iuch pot. You may not get the uris
to hlotomi tr you the first season, but I
have picked out its grandest variety to ri
juice you if it does, or teward amply yolur
patilence if you have to wait until next year
to see it, Whether it blooms or not, do
not take it out of its put. Like lilies in
the gardn,. it must not be meddled with.
When it blooms you will have the most
magnificent flower that grows, with the pos
sible exception of certatn orchids, six to
eight inches mnl diameter, presenting a bte
wilderiug glory of combined diversified
tints and shades-crimson, blu,, white,
rose, lilac, violet, lavender, and gold. 1By
tll mIueans try the iris, even if it is not
e=sy. We always achieve most in striving
for that which is dilctiult to oltain. The
Chinese sacred lily you grow in clear water,
aupporting the bulb by piling cletan pebbles
about. It is extremely easy of cultivation,
andits luxurious abundance of handsome fo
liano and beautiful delicately fragrant white
and yellow blossome are sure to please. I have
found it good to cut three deep g.ases in
the sides near the top of ea.h bulb, having
learned that trick from a wise Mongol who
seemed to have great luck with his "jose
flowers." It gives a great deal more fowers
stems, and the bulb would be no good for a
second season, anyway.
Unless you have a greenhouse in which
you can acoourately regulate the tempera
tare and maintain a humid atmosphere do
not attempt the culture of the amaryllis,
the oyclamer or lilies.
Finally, the cooler you keep the tempera.
tore about your bulbous plants when they
are in bloom, so long as it does not get
down to the front line, the longer they will
keep in bloom and the better they will be,
J. H. (CONNlr,LY.
IN TIF I'ARIS GE31 MAILKET.
Connoissel rs Whose Memory for Jewels
Almost 'assese itellef.
On the second floor of a cafe in the Boule.
vard Montmartre, in Paris, the market or
bourse of preeious stones is held, always in
broad daylight. Very few strangers to the
trade can penetrate this sanctuary, not be
cause the access to it is difficult, for the
door is always open, but because the port
folios close and the stars disappear the
monment an unknown face appears at the
threshold. Instead of animated traders the
stranger finds only a few men onrulessly
playing a game of bezique. Ah, but there
is a Turk there, too; the Turk who looks so
much like Coudero of the Opera (omique,
except that he is yellow and wears very
loose trousers. lot these trousers are full
of diamonds. Don't believe for a moment
that these dealers in precious stones are
afraid of robbers. 'I hat is the smallest
thing that bothers them. What they dread
is to let the small jewelers know the real
value of their goods.
As soon as the stranger departs the arms
stretch out and the portfolios reappear.
The greater number of these portfolios are
made of tin and are closed with a look and
key. In a moment the tables are covered
with little bundles of white paper formed
like those in which the druggists put rhu
barb or sulphateof magnesia. These pack.
ages are opened, and in less time than it
takes to tell it the tables, inoluding the
billiard table, are covered with precious
stones which might startle the shah of
Persia. A strange spectacle is presented by
those sordid old men quietly taking from
their pockets many thousand dollars' worth
of gems. Each one of perhaps 10,000 pack
ages contains a large number of brilliants.
After they are disposed of the rare stones
are introduced, Here, then, are sapphires
as big as nuts. There lies a black diamond
almost as large as the twelve pearls that
surround it. Here, again, is a necklace
made of fifteen emeralds that would make
as many snuff boxes.
"Here is a rare bargain," shouts one of
the merchants, "one of the finest pieces of
ancient jewelry known! It is a necklace
that belonged to Madame Ia Princess Gue
menee. Mounting, diamonds and all are an-.
cient. Prince Proisetoiloff refused 75,000
frs. for it twenty years ago." The necklace
is passed from hand to hand. The mer
chants gaze at it with attention. The eye
glasses come into play. Indecision and
doubt are painted upon some faces. At last
the necklace is passed to Michel He is the
great judge. He takes it, weighd it in his
hand, looks at it with an indifferent air,
and says:
"The two brilliants are ancient. They
come, with their mounting, from the Count
ess de Prejean. The two others, still finer,
once formed part of a necklace which was
stolen in Venice in 1804 from Mie. Moro
sini. This necklace belonged later to Lady
Temple, whose husband purchased it at
Candahar of Isaac Lieven. Lady Temple
gave it to her daughter, who sold it three
days after her marriage. As for the sap.
phire in the center, that comes from the
sale of Mlle. Schneider. The rest is new
and comes direct from Hamburg. But,
after all, it is well preserved, and 75,000 fre,
does not seem to be too much for it."
As extraordinary as it may appear, there
are now living five or six individuals who
know most of the costly diamonds and rich
jewels in the world, and they are able to
recognaze them after a lapse of thirty years,
even when they had first seen them only a
moment, as certainly as a tailor would re
cognize at thirty paces the customer who
forgot to pay him. When a burglary is
committed in the house of a well-known
jeweler, which often happens in Paris, Lon
don, Vienna and St. Petersburg, if there is
among the objects stolen a stone of more
than ordinary value it is almost sure to he
found and returned to the owner.
The Ball and the llattle of Waterloo.
The duke of Wellington told Sir Wil.
liam Napier that he found the prince of
Orange at the duehess of Richmond's ball
on the evening of the 15th. He was sur
prised to see him becaume he had placed
him at Binche, an important outpost, for
the purpose of observing and giving notioe
of the movements of the enemy. He went
up to him and asked him if there was any
news. "No, nothing but that the French
have crossed the Sambre and had a brush
with the Prussians. Have you heard of
it?" This was news; so he told him
quietly that he had better go back to his
post, and then by degrees he got the orin
eipal officers away from the ball and sent
them to their troops, This was done, I
think he said, about 11 o'clock. He then
went to his quarters and found Muffling
there, coming from Blucher with the news.
He ought to have arrived long before, but
said the duke to me, "I cannot tell the
world that lilucher picked the fattest man
in his army to ride with an express to me,
and that he took thirty hours to ride thirty
mlles."-Waterloo Letters.
The Papers of Two Seectitos.
I am sometimes asked how neowpaper
work in the east and west contrasts, writes
Col. John A. Cookerill, formerly of the
New York World. The methods are much
the same all over the country, except tha.
the western paper tries to )be a more gen
eral newspaper than the New York daily.
iThe reasoln for this is that New York has so
much news of its own that it cannot pay
touch attention to general news outside.
Somrr of the papers in Chicago and St.
Louis print more news, more special di
patches from other cities and towns then
anv Ire ,or in Now York. This is beo.tuse in
New York and vioirrnty we have three mill
iorus of people to look after, and the illm
ironse emount of local news letaves little
roomu for anything else. In the west are
newspaper workere just as bright and able
as any here--many of them sumerlor.
Nettes Thrift.
An event which caused muoh stir In the
ittle ormnmunulity wrIe the iutroduction of
ga. P'reviously oil of a course kind, or
cannel coal placed on the frontof the grate,
had been used for lighting purposeos. Can
dlles were uxpensive, and their light feeble,
and so to a groat extent the sqlaair was iin a
state of darkness, tor nrrecessity or thrift re
duced the use of artificial light to the mint
soum. An old woman of frugal habit, who
had mseanse and apllianoee superior to her
neighbors, and who rejoiced in the posses
ston of a servant, used to say to that do
mestic, as the shades of evening began to
descend, "Noe. Nanric, yeo may pit the
lamp on the table, an' if onybody o' oon
sequence ea's ye can licht it."--'l'he oots
man.
New WYay it, et Watches.
Nicholas Jensen, of Washington, has pat.
anted a simple device that greatly faoilit
tates the aoonrate setting of watehes. It
consists in a lever, whiuch when pulled out
stops the second hand at the sixty polnt.
After this the other hands are set, and when
the second hand of the regulator reaohes
the sixty point the lever on the wato.h
being set, is pushed in. This releases the
second hand and the other two at the same
moment. The three hands thee march la
staep-.-Pitthbrg Dipateh.

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