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ver, and reeive one-tenth of Allth t
roStf. This raised a storm among tke ourtiers, and as Columbus refused to re eds teom his position, the negotiations are broken off. Tbhe friends of Columbus beheld his de rture with despair; to all aupearaneas the great project was lost to Spain. One pf them, tois de 8sntangel, receiver of the church 'revenues of Aragon, resolved to nake one lest effort, sought an sadiene with the queen. With wonderful seal and eloquence he stated the ease and pleaded that Spain might not lose the brilliant ad. vantages offered by Columbus. The generous spirit of Isabella was roused *-~1' -o r .·.4 I C. '-t -? _ RETURN OF COLUMBUS AND RECEPTION AT COURT. by thisilast appeal. She was eager for the enterprise, but she remembered that King Ferdinand looked coldly upon it, and that the royal treasury was drained by the war. Her suspense was but momentnrr. "'I will assume the whole burden of the cost," she said, "as queen of Castile, and if it is be lieved that further delay may jsorardize the undertaking, 1 will pledge my jewels to raise the necesesary funds." This was the proudest moment hi the life of Isabella; it stamped her renown forever as the pat ronees of the discovery of the New World. Her generous offer to pledge her jewels was not claimed, Santangel promising to ad vance the money as a lonn from his official treasury. The discovery of the New World was as oured. A courtier was dipnatched to call ____ (((I V17- I BIOBADILLA B3ETRAAYS COLUMBUS. back Columbus. He wag overtaken at the bridge of finas, about two langues from Granada. Learning that Isabella had pledged her royal word to undertake the enterprise, every doubt vanished, and he hastened joyfully back to conclude the ar rangements, his former demands being substantially granted in atticles signed at Santa Fe on April 17. 1492. The popular prejudice against the enter prise was so intense that great difficlnty was experienced in seeoning the necessary ships and men. At length Martin Alonzo Pinzon steeped forward an.l made good the pledge he had given Columbus at the con vent at La liabida years before. He was joined by his brother, Vicente Yanez Pin :\ r r1 COLUMBUS. zon. They supplied Columbus with funds to pay the eighth part of the expense, fur nished two of the required vessels, and engaged to sail in the expedition. The place selected for the assemblini of the ships intended for the expedition, by a strange coincidence, was the little port of P-aloe, close to the monastery of La ltibida, where we first met Columbus after hie ar rival in Spain, and where he received his first encouragement and aid in carrying his plans into effect. On the 12th of May Co Iumbus took leave of the king and queen and went to Palos to preptre for his de parture. The mon.stery of La IRibida again extended hospitality to him, and his arrival was a great festival for all the re ligious there, who loved him as one of themr own members, and lince the part their guardian bad taken in his ooncerns, re garded his triumph as their own, Early in August the three vessels were ready; but what vessels for such a voyage! Only the Gallego bad adesk with fo:;eautle and cabius the others had only a small bridge fore and aft, and the rest was open, while the Nina carried only fore and aft sails. Columbus hoisted his admiral's flag on the Gallego, which he plaeed under the speolial protection of the virgin, and chang ing its name, ealled it the .anta Maria. 'The banner displayed the image of Christ crucified. Everything being settled, he made his confession to his friend, Father Perez, and strengthened his soul by holy communion for the fresh battles he was to engage in. All the officers and the men followed his example, seeking strength and courage in religion for the fliahtful voyage they were undertaking, and the pious ceremony filled all hearts with'sorrow and anguish, for it seemed like the preparation for the last journey from this world to the other life. It was ea, ly in the morning of Friday, the i•d of August. 1492, that Columbus received on the wharf the final blessing of devoted Father Perez and sailed from the harlor. After crnising for three weeks among the Canary islands in the hope of finding a ves eol to replace the Pinta, whose rudder had been broken, he Out to sea on the morning of the Gth of Beptember. Owing to a pro found calm, it was three days befora he lost sight of the islands. On the 7th of Ootober they had sailed 750 leagues, a distance at which Columbus had computed that he would encounter land. On the evening of that day, he yielded to the solicitations of the Pinzou brothers and altered his cou so to the soathwest. There had been signs of land on the seynth, but these vanished as they proceeded. On the evening of the third day on the new course the seamen of the admiral's ship became clamorous and in eisted on abandoning the voynae. The crews of the other ships joined in the oat cry and a dangerous mutiny was imminent, Columbus, going among the mutineers, tried, by gentle words, to calm their minds and raise their spirit., and by the man) laign of the nearness of land, to renew thei hope of soon seeing the end and reward o h eir labors. But his words and promiser were of no avail; they laughed at both, and kept repeating that they would go no fur ther, but woeald turn back. He was now in the most dangereas position of his adven turous life. Many of the crew seoretly clamored for his blood, and with drawn swords and scowling faces demandei that the expedition be abandoned. Calm as the quiet sea aronad, yet Arm as adamant, Co lombus maintained his position as admiral, and with unruffled temper ordered the voy age continued towards the southwest. Murmurs of discontent and matterings of mutiny continued, but on the following day manifestalions of land were apparent to all. On the evening of Oot. 11 Columbus was certain that lanud was near and ordered a vigilant lookout to be maintained. About 10 o'clook. from his station on the top of the cabfn on the high stern of his vessel, Columbus beheld a light glimmering at a distance. He called one of hisofilloer, who likewise saw it, but doubtful whether it might not be a delusion of fanoy, he did met utler the cry of land! At two in the morning a gun fiom the Pints gave the joyful signal of land, which had been first deseried by a mariner named Rodriguez lisimejo. it was soon clearly seen about two leagues distant, whereupon tney tooe in saau ana wanlealmpaaieniiy for the dawn. When it came and the sailors saw before them a level and beautiful is land resplendent with tropical verdure, whose shore was lined with a hitherto un known people, they burst into the most extravagant tlansports, those who had been the most mutinous being now the most devoted, bowing in almost idolatrous submiasion before the man whose author ity they had so recently defied. When the sun was up, Columbus gave the signal to cast anchor, and to lower and man the boats. He entered his own boat, dressed in a rich costume of scarlet, and bearing the standard of the expedition, on which, as we have said, was the image of Christ crucified. The other captains, Martin Alonzo Pinzon and Vicente Yanez Pinzon, entered their boats at the same time, each carrying the banner of his vessel, on which which was a green cross, with the king and queen's initials, F. and I., on the aides, and above them the royal c:own. Columbus was tie first to land, and as soon as he touched that blessed ground he the:w himself on his knees and kissed it three times, with tears of joy, and returned thanks to our Lord for the immense favor grnnted to him. All the rest followed his ixample, and for a few moments they we:e too affected for worde. In the Chronologi cal Tables of Father Claudio Clemente, there:o is a form of prayer said to have been used by Columbus on this occasion, and which Cortez, Balboa, and Pizarro after wards used oflicially, by order of the king, in taking possession of new landt. It is this: "Oh, Lord, eterur:l and almiuhty God, who by thy holy word didst create the heavens, the land, and the sea; hal lowed and glorifod be thy name, rlarsed I ItIAtLiA, THI CArTIOOIC, Protectress of Columbus. he thy majesty, which has vouchsafed to suffer thy holy name, by the work of thy humble servant, tobe made known and pro claimed in this new part of the world." And, as a mark of gratitude to the P'rovi dence which had guided him so far, he gave o the flrst land that he diseovered, the amie of the redeemer of the world, and sailed it San Salvador. For nearly three months Columbus cruasod among the islands, discovering Cuba and Hispanilla. On the 24th of De comber he lost one of his ressels on the eoast of the latter island, and as supplies were noosenary hedecided to set sail. Learv Iag a garrison of thirty-nine men under command of Diego de Arana, he sailed for Spain on the 6tih day of January. The re tain voyage was extremely rough and dan gerous, but on the 15th of February they once mere beheld the Old World. After landing in Spain, Columbus pro ceeded to Iisrcolonn, whore the sovereigns were holdlug their court. Ilia journey was like that of a returning rictorious war lor. It was about the middle of April whlien he reached Barcelona, where a bril. liant, almost royal, reception awaited him. ie had brought with him seven Indians and every posslble thing that could attest the riohness of the new world he had dis covered. In a large hall, magnificently adorned for the occasion, seated on a throne, dnder a rich canopy of cloth of gold, with the heir apparent, Don Juan by their side, and surrounded by the high officials and digni taries of the two courts, and the first no bles of the kingdom, Ferdinand and Isa bella awaited the admiral. Columbus en tered the hall, accompanied by a brilliant train of cavaliers, among whom, says Las Casas, he was conspicuous for his lofty stature, the richness of his dress, and, most of all, for the majesty of his countenance, rendered still more venerable by the white hair which fell on his forehead, and gave him the august appearance of a Roman sen ator. A slight smile, as he answered the salute of the applaudiag multitude, was the only sign he gave of the joy which swelled his heart at that just and well-deserved triumph. As he approached the sovereigns arose, and would hardly suffer him to kiss their hands as he bent his knee for that set of homage; then immediately raising him, they made him sit before them in an easy chair irepared for that purpose-a rare honor in that proud court so strict in all matters of etiquette. In this necessarily brief sketch of the life of the great discoverer, it has been our aim to show the process of reasoning and edu cation by which he conceived and devel oped his wonderful plan for reaching In 4 J~ DE-TH OF COLUMBUS- VALL-DOLID, MAY 13, 1ro0. dia by sailing to the westward, and the d train of events that providentially led to its R acoomplishment. After struggling against and overcoming difficulties that to an or- a: dinary man would have teemed insur- tI mountable, Columbus had now achieved h the highest honors and loaded with bene- i fits the people of Spain and the entire a world. But the trials and disappointments it that he had thus far encountered were not ti great r than those which awaited him. On the 25th of September, 1493, Columbus sailed from the bay of Cadiz on his second voyage of discovery. He found the garri son he had left scattered, many of them having been killed by the Indians. From this time forward the life of Columbus was one of toil, trouble and disaster. In the midst of quarrels and insurrections he con tinued his explorations. On the 10th of March, 1496, he again set sail for Europe. Enemies had arisen against him, but con I. 1I, i FATHIER Dir tO, Protector of Columbus at Salamanca. t cry to his expectations, ho was well re ceived by the sovereigns. It was not until the 30th day of May, 1198, that Columbus sailed from the port of Fan Lucar de Bar.ameda, with a squadron of six vessels, on his third voyage of die covery. After his departure intrigues de veloped against him in the court of Spain. Every vessel that arrived from the New World brought complaints against the ad miral, it being even claimed that he de signed to cast off his allegiance to Spain and make himself sovereign of the conn ti es he had discovered. At this juncture, the sovereigns ap pointed Don Francisco IHobadilla, a com missioner, to visit San D)omingo, iuvestl gate the charges aud under certain condi tions to take charge of affairs. Upon his arrival Bobadilla assumed authority und acted in a very high handed manner. Columbus was at Fort Conoepation in the Vega when he heard of this, and soon set out for Nan Domingo. When he heard that Columbus was on his way to San Domingo, Bobadilla called out all the troops and made areas preparations for defense, pretendiuc to believo that Columbus would provoke a sedition and r call on the caciques of the Vega and their vassals to aid him in resisting the orders of the o own, taviung, i a measure of safety, arrested the psaceiul Don Diego, brother of c Columbus, he loaded hint with chains and a confined him on board of one of the cars I vele. As there was no ground whatever for his suspicion, it Is clear that his object in s all this was merely to give a pretext for the violence and insult he meditated. In the meantime Columbus had proceeded a towards San Domlngo without guards and s attendants, and although he was aware of - the hostile intentions of Bobadilla. and his r threats of violense, he decided to appear r in Ban Domingo in that modest manner, to show his pacific feeling, or, at least, to re m ove suspiclon. y A soon as lobadilla was informed of his arrival, he ordered him to be put in irons and confined iu the fort. This outrage on a man so venerable and of such eminent y merit, seamed atrocious even to hisenemies; and when the irons were brought every one 7 drew back in horror at thbo idea of having to put them on him. But one was found willing to perform the odious task, and to inerease the aged admiral's grief, it was one of his own domestics, a wretch named Uspinoen. To refute the oft repeated I statement thatColumbus treated the na- c tives in a cruel manner, it may be noted that an Indian prince and his devoted wife remained with and sustained the admiral in this most trying hour. Columbus was sent home in chains. Upon his arrival in Spain he made such a clear defense that the sovereigns were con vinced of his innocence. and he was kindly received. On the 9th of May, rla2, Coluim bus sailed from Cadiz on his fourth and last voyage of discovery, fromn which be re turned on tihe 7th of November, lr504, sick at heart and shattered in body. On the 9I'th of May, iW)l;, the admiral himself poerceived his hour approaching, and carlm and tranquil, with the faith and resignation of the righteous, he prepared for the great passage. After scrupulously fulfilling all the obligations of loyalty, af fection and justice, he turned all his thoughts to heaven, and asking, of his own accord, for the consolations of religion, with the calm resignation of a saint, he awaited his end. His last words were those of Christ expiring on the aroass: "lnt, thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit." Hie died May 20, the feast of the Asc:,nsiou, 1506, at the age of about seventy years. The oblivion with which the malice of his enemies succeeded in surrounding his person was soon dispelled by the brilliant splendor of his fame, to which time gave ever increasing strength and vigor. '1 he discoveries in the New World constantly grow in importance and extent, and the reports of every new country discovered shed additional rays of light on the name of him who first pointed out and opened the way to those regions. King Ferdinand himself was forced to yield to the growing influence of his fame, and ordered a monu ment erected to the man he had permitted to expire in poverty and anguish in a lodg ing house at Valladolid, with the inscrip tion: POn CASTILLA Y POR LEON NUEVO MUNDO IIALLO COLON For Castile and Leon A New World found Columbus. Copyright. CIHE LEADING DRY GOODS HOUSE. 'hat of Raleigh & Clark Holds That Po. sition n Helena. In all lines of business in Helens, whether It be dry goods, hardware, gloogries, drugs sr what not, there is some one establish ment that leads in its particular branch. This leadership is only acquired after years af hard work, and does not consist in the house claiming it leads all competitors, but it is becasae the people themselves put it ahead of all others. In the dry goods line the house that oecupies this enviable posl tion in lelena is that of Raleigh & Clarke. It did not suddenly jump into that place. but it has been accort)d it by the consum ers of this and other counties in the state, because they have found by experience that whether in the extent of the stock carried. in its variety, or the quality, the house of Raleigh & Clarke was far ahead of all local compotitors, and ranked with establish ments in the same line in the east. When the history of the firm of Raleigh &Clarke is recalled and its methods of do ing business are considered, there is little reason for surprise at the position it ocnu ties, not only in Helena but in eastern and northern Montana. It is among the largest dry goods houses in the city, and has from the very beginning carried tihe largest stock of straight dry uoods of any house in town. Not only that, but it is the only exelusive dry goods house in HIelena, and has always secured each season, direct from the man fecturers and importers, the choicest lines of goods and of the latest patterns and styles, whether in cloaks, wraps or dress goolds. In addition to the house in Helena Raleigh & Clarke have two branch houses, one at Bozeman and another at (reat Falls. All the purchases for the three establish ments are nlade for cash, direct from the imrporters and manufacturers, thus saving jobbers' profits, and giving their customers not only the benefit of the latter, but also of the discounts allowed on cash purchases. Blaying for three stores, they certainly buy in larger quantities than any of their com petitors, and consequently cheap. These facts and also the additional one that Raleigh & Clarke handle nothing but the best quality of goods, never carrying any shoddy goods, have convinced the peo ple that they give not only the best values, but that their charges for the quality of goods they carry do not exceed those of any other establishment in the United States. One advantage this firm enjoys over all competitors is that they have the benefit of the services of the most experienced and best buyer in this country. 'This is W. B. Raleigh, who has been a buyer of dry goods for twenty years, and all purchases for the Helena house are made by him, personally. Every season he goes east and thus kseps fully posted on all the new styles and makes, and with ample capital is ever pre pared to take advantage of any bargains that may turn up. The stock recently received of fall and winter goods, is an excellent illustration of the justice of the claims made for the house by its friends, that it leads all com petitors. lRaleigh & Clarke are also the agents for many lines of goods that cannot be found elsewhere in the city, and as these goods are all standard, it accounts in some meas a ure for the continued growth and asucess of their business. RALEIGH & CLARKE Would respectfully call your attention to their large and varied stock of Seasonable Dry Goods, which they are now showing- in all departments. A superb stock especially adapted and carefully selected for this section. The following departments are worthy of special mention at this time. DRESS GOODS. French, English and American dress fabrics in great va riety of new, stylish patterns, high novelties in superior dress goods for ladies' and children's wear at popular prices. CLOAKS, WRAPS AND FURS. VWe show an exclusive line of ladies' plain and fur trimmed garmentý. Nobby, new styles in all popular shades. A beauti ful line of tailor-made garments, misses' jackets and ulsters. No better line of these goods to be found west of Chicago. A full line of fur capes, imuffs and boas, children's sets, etc. Call and inspect this stock if interested. UNDERWEAR. We are sole agents in celena for the justly celebrated Munsing underwear. Single garments, union suits and tights, approved styles of wool and merino underwear for ladies and children, all grades and colors. ,See our line before buying. CORSETS. A full lute ot tihe vetl known Hoya.l Worcester W. C. C. corsets always in s:ock, of which we are at.lnts in Helona; C. P. & P. D. corsets and other well knownl popullar i'ranil:. Our daily sales in this del-artilt'nt justify the usertilt l that vte sell th1 Ccorsets best adapted to all classes. HOSIERY. Wool, c ichlin lt'', -: , ieruo anId l sll e th rea hoetery for all ages. Ouir blcks ire g lllu init ilacks, L 'xcoepltiucal values iro offered in this dopar.tleiintt. VEILINGtS AND LACES. Seoventy-tive de,,irable styles of veilhlol., all now an. sitylish novet tes; also black andI seasonsOllo shttIes-;. )Oulr lace stockt is very lartie and contains all the new novelties. DRESS SILKS, ETC. Attention is specially called to our large lun of warranted iblaclt dress silks in popular woaves, platil an.d tigured silks in all colors. Velvets anid ilutshes in all dutruable shades. A better assortlellll' of these gloods at lower prices tLtal can be hound elsewhere. TABLE LINENS, NAPKINS AND TOWELS. Of those goods our stock is most complete. Unusual induce. moerits offerod to buyers of articles in this lineo. BLANKETS AND COMFORTS. Western Star and California whitevand colored blankets in all grades, cotton and eider-down comforts, plain and figured satin and silk covered in large assortment. Buyers of dry goods will lind it largely to their advantage to inspect our stock before placing their orders. Business from the country solicited. All requests for samples and prices will receive prompt attention. Respectfully, RALEIGH1 & CLARKE.