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Rocky Mountain husbandman. [volume] (Diamond City, Mont.) 1875-1943, November 25, 1875, Image 4

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STOCK RAISING.
THE POINTS OF A SHORTHORN.
At a meeting of the Penrith Farmers'
Club, Mr. George RI. Iedley, Newcastle-on
Tyne, read1 a paper, in which he introduced
thie following tabular statement:
The first essential in a shorthorn was a
straight back fronm shoulder to tail. Then
when lie calne to the neck, he would also
know that of the male required, to be thick
at the base, that it should taper along thei
sides and rise on the top a little towards the
head. That of the female should be line .nod
long, and on a plane with the shoulders, and.
the whole of the back. TfIe side of each
animal should be as near the form of the
fides of a barrel as possible, the ends of the.
barrel being the forempst part of the shoul-
ders and the hindmost parts of the thighs.
The legs should not be muich crooked, and
the head of the male shluld be strong and
massive, covered on the front with long.
shaggy hair, that of the female tapering,
clean and fine. The eyes of both should be
prominent, and those of the female very soft
and placid. A julge would, always pay def-!
ference to thickness of flesB, ar. there were
wases when a little fault i) cormplexion and.
outline might be overlooked fgr that great
deideratum. ¶The skin. in the best breeds
would always be found tobe soft and springy,
moderately thick, and clatl with long5 bright,
silky hair. If there was a doubt about the
supremacy of quality, that with the finest
hair and most pliable skin along the top of
the loins and hooks.should bq, placed first.
Any derellition from a gentle curvature in
the horn was to be eschewed, and the fash
ionable color; in the horn was yellow and
crimson in youth and white in age. His pro
clivities went in the direction of strong horns
instead of short ones as a ma.rk of constitu
tion, and as to the mouth, he considered it
should always be rather large if it had to
feed a capacious frame. Failing the forma
tion of an examining boad and, the appoint
ment of qualified jpudges, the. lecturer sug
gested a table of points, which he studdied
for a considerable time, but he had never
been able to bring it to a highly satisfactory
condition until last year, when a. table was
formed at Klutoss and acted upon. ]Ie sub
mitted the following table, 100 points being
distributed over the whole of the animal in
26 parts:
pART. NO. OF POINTS.
1. Nostrils-Jarge and open, and nose
end free from blueness or great pale
ness. Proper color, cream or light
drab .............................................. 1
2. Nose-Broad and capacious-not too
long.............. ...................... ......
3. Eyes-Large, bright, prominent, and
placid....... .. .... ..........................2
4. Skin round the eyes and down the.
nose end--Thin, clear, and free from
brand or blackness .........................
L,. Horns-Moderately strong,rather flat,
open, evenly bent, yellow. in yputh,
getting white towards age, not much,
tendency upwards, not blackened ex-.
Capt very, slightly at the tips. Streaks
of, red not objectionable.....................,2
8:.Ears-Large, thin,,rather yellow in
side, and very facile.... .,................ .,
;., Choler or Jowel-Wide across and
ban ing a tolerably deep fold of loose.
8. Forehead-Full and broad, and in the
male clad with long hair..............,
-. Neolk-Thcik at the base, tapering:
gradually. and growing tine towards the.
,head In the male, a little arclhed on the.
top and rough with hair; .in the Bfmale,.
61e an, tapering, long, and upon a plan
with the ahqulders and back...............
I, Sho ulders-r-3.na ive, welt, clad witlh,
musele and .flesh, bhades sloping back- .
wards to ftvor, .good action, and well:
-vered shloulderpoints apnd fae flanks ti
Ii; Crops nad`; Chinevr-Funl, broas an:L
mather roundoz thet.op, and exactly on
a phe with the aslalers andJohls....7
ra, Lep-;Broa, :longlit softromn one
Ito other, the k s yiteld:nug t_.
.th tongt a pon any part of Rhemn ; .thicl.,
eshed, had ona splane wieh chines and..
q arte* *......*** e nw **er.... 7t**** kn w
1R. 1iba-- prlnglg g weihout, from the
bone lkeipart of a beep, ý.outu- -
Stheflt capacity downwards to Ahp
t, andI baekwards extending very.
nearly up to the hooks... _......................
14. Belly-Not small and tucked up, nor
bending much downwards in the mid
die. When the animal is very fat it
ought to form a straight line parallel
with the back bone..............................8:
15. Quarters-Long, broad, soft and level
with the loins and tail. iThere should
not be any hollow between the hook
anl rump end; the whole ought to be
regularly coveredlwithsoft flesh. The
base of the tail should. not be niy higher
than the rmnps, and: the tail. ought to,
hang at right :angles withithe back bone.7
16. Thighs and Twi.sts-- rowl~ straight
and large, but not protruding out be
hind, as that denotes coarseness............4
17. Flanks--Fore flanks should swell out
wards anad run level into the shoulders.
The hind: flanks should be deep and ftill,
and on0 a level with the hips and thighs.4
18. Chest-Large andi wide across from
the bones of the shoulders to the midrif.
giving plenty of room to the heart and
lungs ............... .................... ..........7
19. Legs-Fore legs straight, plump and
fine. Hind legs nearly straight, wide
apart, and tine..................... 4
20: Brisket-Deep, wide, and protruding
forw ards...........,,............... ................
21. Neck Veins-Full and level, and run
ning nearly into the shoulders....... .3
22. Touch--Soft, springy and:elastic ; the
skin moderately thick, and capable of
being lifted on the top of the loins and
over the hooks........,.......................4
23. IIair-Long, fine, thick and bright....5
24. Color---Any mixture of red and white,.
namely, roan; or red with white. A
very- darkred or a very light red, or a
spotted red and white objectionable.
Roan the most preferable, red the next.8
25. Size-Medium best. Very large beasts
do not produce: the best beef-making
animals, and they require more food.....9
26. Style and Carriage-Should walk
straight, with free shoulder action,
holding the head high, and presenting
a gay and graceful appearance ............4
Total............................. .......100
-Mark Lane, (London,) E.cpress,
SCAB IN SHEEP.
It is clearly ascertained by scientific men!
that scab in sheep, like the itch in the hur
man being is counecLed with and propagated'
by certain minute insects belonging to the
class of acaria, which inhabit pimples or
pustules. But the question naturally arises,
How came it first into existence? This
problem is very difficult of, solution, and
puzzles the most eminent physiologists.
But as I have alreahy said,. I have never
known it to break out spontaneously. among
a lot of sheep properly managed, during
thirty years' experienc as a shepherd in pass
toral districts. Various and conflicting
opinions exist as to what extant the disease
is infectious. Some affirm that it requires.
sheep to come in contact, with the disease
before it can be communicated; while others
maintain that the disease is propagated by'
the mere traveling on the road, such as a
public drove road, from large markets or
fairs. I,.however, do not think the disease
is so catching. as the latter advocates affirm,
For example, I acted as shepherd for six=
teen years, on various farms, where the
drove road from Falkirk.to the Souty pass
through the sheep pastire, and every year
some of the lots of sheep were .more or less
affected with, scabh, and during all that'
period not a single sheep of which I' had
charge caught the disease...
The cure of scab lies. in the destruction of
the insect, but. the important question is,
What is the best composition or infusion
for that, purpose.?' The remedies that are
commonly applied are numerous, but the
most effectual, with the least danger of injur4
ing the animal, that I have ever seen applied,
is comr.pn spirits of tar ,and, if properly
appiled,.willtpenetrate and destroy the ine
sect concealed in the pustules, or burried be
neath the skin, , The quantity applied may
vary according to the condition mand 'age of
t~ sheelp, but for hil,.,or ordinary breed-,
ing' *ock, one bottle of. spirits of tar,
mixed't ~hi twelve times the quantity of wa
ter, Is su nt for twelve' sheep, or one
cotlOfmmon W.. lass of the tar, mixed with
twelvet~im tb bna ount of water, 1s suffi- I
clent for one. If mieng for a hundred, six
gal s with six pouts of common soda
oul t to be warmed to 4011-ME itch then
Soictafy.
CEOSS-BREEDING.--WILL IT PAYI
We have had ni:ny inquiries of late from
tarmers who have bten hbeeding line wooled
sheep in regard to the advantages of the
mutton breeds. In mod instances, these in
quiries seem to be i.lhdcee by a dissatisflc
tion with the low prices thit are oftfered for
Merino wools, though, in ono pr two instan
ces, we hlave complaints that \nce the in
auguration of thie practice of panulering and
housing high bred sheep, the Meltuoes are
believed to be less hardy than formern;.
In reply to the question whether it is eise
to try the experiment of cross-breeding, 're
have to say that, in view of'low prices made,
by fine wools, as compared with the coarser
staples, especially the delaine. wools, we
are of the opinion that the ordinary f!.rmer
who keeps a moderate number of sheep in
connection with other branches of agricul
ture, may profitably breed his ewes:to rams
that give a better carcase with a larger fibre
of wool.
As to the breed likely to prove most prof
itablbe of the mutton varieties, though the
Downs are the most hardy and the most
prolific, and produce altogether the best
quality of meat, we should doubt if this
cross would be as profitable as the Lincoln
or the Cotswold or thq Lancaster.. Our
own small flocks composed of pure bred
Southdowns, and to these. we have adhered
for many years, because of the superior
quality of the mutton. But until the mut
ton is better appreciated in Amnercan mar
kets, so as to conunand, asit should, a high
er price than the larger and coarser sorts,
the Downs can hardly be expected to in
crease as rapidly as some other breeds.
If a long wool ram is selected to cross on
Merino ewes, cure shoull be taken to select
snug compact forms,,of only mloderate size.
Large shleep are never-as good. o,-profita
ble as .those of muediun size, and especially is
this true whlen we select rains of the large,
long wool breeds to cross on the Merinoes.
In selecting for this purpose we should
not care which of the three varieties we se
cured, if the animal suited in form and
fleece.. We should have a square, compact
carcass, on short legs, with short and stout
neck, a fleece of good lustre, even in quality,
and covering all parts of the body.
The advantages tobe expected from this
cross would be: improved carcass, of better
mutton, maturing at a much earlier age,
and,.as. the markets now are, yielding a
more valuable fleece than the full blood Ma
rino. We shouIld regard the experimn nt as
involving no risk whatever, as the produce,
in case it were desirable to return to the
pure blood, could at any time be disposed
of for mutton without any possible loss.
We are perfectly familiar with the cross
here recommended, and have always found it
satisfactory. The cross-bred progeny have
the form and general appearance of the long
wools, with a fleece of much greater density,
tt!e staple being very desirable for delaine
goods and commanding anmuch higher price
than Merino. The sheep are allways hardy
and remarkably good feeders. Another
of the long wools makes a splendid fleece,
namely, as long in fibre as the full blood,
and yielding much better weights, because
of its greater density.
Rams suitable for crossing may be had4 at
from $25 to $50.--Patron's Helper.
HORSE TROTTING.--With suitable prepa
ration and management, not only does a"
healthy horse suffer no distress fronr trotting
a moderate distance at the top of his speed,
but enjoys it as muchl as his driver. The
match trotter is peculiarly gifted with pow.
ers of locomotion, and his wonderful mech
anism can only be appreciated when in full'
operation.. To most persons a closely con
tested trot is a beautiful and attractive spec
tacle, and experience proves that nothing
affords a more delightful and harml ees
amusement for the people, provided the
surroundings, and associations are of the
proper kinkcjllhe usual accompaniments of
the. rae couarse...rqureling, profanity, in
~oxication, gambling and p.ublic beting
may and should always be everywhere pre
vented. The moralsofAhe community are.
of more consequence.. than the breeds of
horses. There is no more-occasion for imr.
norality in connection with a trotting inatch
than ieconnection with an exhibition of,
ail and svwaiftness. AiA tting.-Pres. Ctara
of )aess. Ag. Co..
SALE OF SIOI~THOGNXS.
The demand for this breed of cattle is truly
surprising. At a recent sale of B. B. Groom
& Son,, Winchester, Ky., sixty-four head of'
females: averaged $1,709, and nine bulls,
$1,557 each.. But the most remarkable of
all was the sale of the three months old,
heifercalf, 22d Duchess of Airdrie, purchased'
by J. II. Spears & Son, of Illinois, for the
fabulous sum of $17,500. Highland brought.
$35,500, while Kirkleavington Duchess an(d
Fenwell Duchess, (imported cows,) went at.
$5,100 each. The Oxford Geneva sold for
$5,00 __
AMERICAN GIRL, the late game princess
of the turf, during the present year, up to
the hour of her death, was eight times en-
gaged, winning, in first,. second awnd third
money, $7,400, making a grand total of`
$102,80 earnings for her-owner. A monu-
ment to her memory will be erected near
the spot where she fell. A Professor of the,
Cornell Ulniversity has made application for
her body is order teat the skeleton may be,
placed in the museum of that institution an11
preserved as a specimen of the bony struo-
ture...f'typicall Americanatrotting horseS.
THE ARAB'S ADVICE IN CHOOSING A,
1IoRSE.-In choosing a horse never trke one&
That has a narrow chest and perpendienlar
sho.ders, or the withers fat and protruding,.
or 1e curb prominent or the vessicousa
smalls; or if he has a spavin, above all when
it is in the neighborhood of the lower veins ;;
or an exostosis when it is near the tendons;;
or when his back is long and concave ; or
when he cannot see in the night. Never'
buy a horse with. small shoulders, narrow
nostrils, long ears or short, stiff neck. Es-
teem little a horse who switches his tail,
while running, rests bn his toes, or strikes.
his front feet with his hind ones-an ambler'
will never do for a chief; and leave for the
pack a deaf horse; for by the sight, hearing.
and smell a horse can save his master's life.
The best trait in a horse is obedience; a.
good horse has this quality joined to firm-
ness.
SEVENTY-NINE cattle, after 1,100 miles of.'
imlbnd journey from Illinois, were embarked!
not long since- at Montreal for Europe..
Twenty-nine of them succumbed to improper -
diet during the ocean voyage and had to ba,
consigned to the waves ; the remainder arz
rived at their destination in good conditio.
and were lately sold at Glasgow for an aver
age of $100 per head. Commenting on these{
facts the London Agricultural Gazette says ::
"There can be no doubt that when a little.
more experience has been gained, and a lit
tle more judicious treatment on board, shipe
is exibited, American beasts can be brought
to British emporiums at a profit to the sender,.
and their presence in our markets would
be a ddcided benefit to the consumers, as
they would tend to rednce the extravagant.
prices now prevailing"
Mn. JOSEPH HARRIS, of N. Y.,.one of the,
most successful breeders of Cotswold sheep,
in Ameri~a, weighedia number of his sheep,.
Aug. 16th., among which there were four -
two year old rams which weighed respect-
ively, 265, 262, 249 and 229 pounds. The,
weight of a number of yearling rams rangedct
from 165 to 215. Eighteen. pure bred ram-n
lamlbs which were dropped in March, their
averaged age varying only a few days fromim
five monlths, weighed from 86 to 123 pounds,.
making an average of 971 pounds. Mr..
Harris pronounces .the crossing of Cotswold4
rams on Mferino ewes a success. On weigh.. -
ing. a number of lambs produced in this way,.
he found them to range from 55 to 98p0ounds,
an average for the entire lol of f6. ppunds.
The mutton was also said to be of very exw
cellent quality.
FARMERS often, raisepoorstock whict i4li?
not begin to pay its cost, simply biqase at.
the start they save a dollar or twio ly using:
an inferior male- animal.. ~t is a .well estab-
lished faptthat pure bloods transwit their
characteristics ,their. offspring ltb mnchl
more certain y*than native, wh'eh being'
generally a combinatiqu .f , strains oft
blood are liable to.: give us prfgeny of .aly
imaginable characteristics, Bat, it does not.
fpl..w that we iot. improve ui.p r our -
nativestock ;y cae ieljy selectpg tho4eed..
Get tetr s tlze4r- pe1t-Di4 Bhe,
mot.. - , - - .ý

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