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HROCKY I0UNTAIN HiUSBANDMAN
P10E ANUM. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and General News. PER sIG COP.o. VOL.1. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., DECEMBER 2, 1875. NO. 2. PUBLISIIED WEEKLY .BY R. H. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. The ROCKY 1MOUNTAIN IIUSRANDMAAN is designed to be, as the name indicates, a husbandman in every sense of the term, embracing in its columns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raising, Horti culture, Social and Domestic Economy. AD)VERTISING RATES. iweek $2I $3 $5 $ 7 $9 $11I $20 $30 S weeks 3 4 7 10 12 15 28 40 1 month 5 8 12 15 18 21 40 60 S months 10 16 24 30 31; 42 80 120 6 months 18 25 36 45 54 65 120 200 lyear 30 40 60 75 90 105 180 250 Transient advertisements payable in advance. Regular advertisements payable quarterly. AGRICULTURAL. PREPARE FOR WINTER. One year ago, when winter swooped down upon us about the first of December, find Lug us carelessly pursuing our daily avoca tions without any preparation, we promised ourselves-yes, every farmer promised him self--that 'ere winter should come again he would be better prepared for it. But win ter draged its slow length along ; spring was late, fall correspondingly late, and, consol ing ourselves that two hard winters never came in succession, or believing that it would be late setting in, we find oulrselves just where we were twelve months ago, follow ing in the same old path, no nearer ready for cold weather than then. Like the re nowned citizen of Arkansas, we do not feel the necessity for preparation during the long period of delightfhl Indian stunmer that lasts until along in November, and when winter is upon us, we persuade ourselves it is too cold. Because stock winters upon our foot hills and valleys, a great nnmany think there is nothing to do for winter. They do not seem to realise that shelter is of any benefit to stock. Ill early days our stock found shelter in the willow thickets and tall rye grass along our creeks, but now, when the grass is eaten down in the summer and the willow brush thined out, our stock have nothing to break the cold north wind, save to hide behind some knoll or in some deep cooley, where they hump themselves up with rumps to the storm, and suffer. Every one knows that stock must have plenty to cat and a sheltered place to rest if they thrive in winter. Now if the grass is all eaten off in summer, and the natural shelter destroyed, we cannot reasonably expect our stock to come out looking even well in the spring. Why not, then, make some provision. All surplus stock should be driven to the mountains in early spring, as the grass is much better, and kept there until late in the tall, thus reserving the val ley range for the time when the mountains are deeply burried in snow. At present, however, this is not a necessity. There are hundreds of square miles on our eastern border where a domestic aninmal has never trod-that are still in their primitive grand eur-and stock will thrive and come out fat in the spring. Our farmers could make it profitable to drive to those localities to win ter. Those who have but a few head should prepare shelter. The mode of treatment practiced by many of our farmers is simply brutal. The idea of milking cows all the season, then turning them out at the first blast of wiuter with no other show for a living than to forage upon the same range where they have subsisted during the sum mer, with nothing to break the wind off of them except a fence-post, a few willows, or the trunk of a friendly tree, would be revolt ing to an eastern farmer, whose stock has good barns and all the feed they can stand to. Not only is this true of our loose stock, but in some cases there is but little or no shelter for the stock that labors on the farm. Preparing for winter not only means to drive the surplus stock to the frontier or prepare shelter, but it means good stables for horses, a good warm place for the cows, to which the family look for milk and butter. It means a warm place for the hogs, a good house for the poultry, a good kitchen, and everything that is calculated to add to the household comforts. Farmers could easily do this ; and especially should they see to the wants of the household. A few weeks is all that it would require. It wpuld save farmers' wives and daughters much unnee essary exposure. True, they arerobust end healthy; can go to the Grange, to parties, balls, etc., no matter how inclement the weather, but that is no reason why every possible comfort should not be provided at home. We could write a volume on this subject, but it would be of no use. A few words, well timed, will have as much effect as a sermon. But we cannot forego giving a few lines on the subject from the Western Rural, which are as follows: "I How many farmers keep their work so well in hand that everything on the farm is in proper order when Winter comes? The first shock of severe weather usually finds many little things not quite ready to secure the comfort of the household, as the first requisite, and of the domestic animals, which should not be overlooked. Often a sufficient supply of fuel is not provided, and the wind whistles through the crevices, because weather strips have not been put on the doors, and the stray bits of plastering which have fallen off have not been replaced. The first cold storms which occur are often the most severe of any during winter; and stock being unaccustomed to tohe cold, suffer from its effects so much that they do not fully recover from it during a whole season. A few boards may have been detached from the sides of the sheds, or the roofs may not have been put on ; if so the stock has no place for protection at the very time it most needs it. After the cellar has been thoroughly clean ed out and renovated, the vegetables may be put in for winter use; but they should be arranged in an orderly manner, so that any showing symptoms of decay may be at once removed. There is nothing more detrimental to the health of the family than the noxious gasses which arise from decaying vegetables in a cellar. Milk and butter should not be kept in the neighborhood of so dangerous an element. Milk is very susceptible to it, and loses all pleasant flavor as a result. The house should be banked up so as to keep the frost from finding its way into the cellar or the house. A great saving may be made and much comfort and real pleasure derived by having these little things ready in season, The fall months in the West are generally so delightful that the farmer is carried along without any positive warning of a severe winter, which approaches so stealthily that it is upon him before he is aware of it. The last days preceding a severe storm, are usu ally among the most delightful days we have. With these things in view, it stands the farmer in hand to make good use of the pleasant days, which may yet occur before the holidays, that he may not be caught in the lurch. The corn is to be husked and cribed, while the 'chores' must be daily per formed. The days are short and the work goes on slowly; many important things must be left undone, unless the farmer has taken time by the forelock. At least it turns out so in many cases. It is better to have a piece of work done a long time before it is needed than not to get it done at all. An English writer says : " In the Amer ican system of agriculture, the settler sub dues a piece of land, flogs it to death, and abandons the carcass; and then he repeats the operation on a new subject." Nearly correct. My son, deal only with men who adver tise-you will never lose by it.-Ben. Frank lin. Job-printing neatly executed at this office. SMUT IN WHEAT. This is one of the most important prob lems for the consideration of fairmers. The good farmers of Pulaski Grange, Tennessee, come to a very errofieous conclusion respect ing the matter, but that is no reason why those versed in scientific theories should rid icule the efforts. If we hope to find the remedy, we must first know the cause. To ascertain this, has cost years of scientific research; many able and lengthy discussions. But the firmer, on account of his lack of means, has no recourse to large libraries like our scientific men, and it is to be ex pected, will err once in a while. Now, al though a thorough analysis has been made, no very material advantage has been derived therefrom, as to-day finds us practicing much the same method as was in vogue among the farmers of Rome hundreds of year, agog Widely different, indeed, are the opinions cf farmers upon this subject, yet all agree 1pon a very similar treatment, viz : that of socking the grain before sowing in a solution of lime, soda or blue stone. " There are many o doubt, thatfollow this practice who could not tell to save them why they did it, ex pt that the result proved benefi cial. We cli4 from the New York Sun a full analysis, lit, as a general rule, our plain, practical f.rmers know as little about these scientific a alyses as our scientific men kuow about prctlical farming: " The4e Tre a large number of parasitic plants whi$h attack wheat, rye, corn, and closely allied cereal grasses. They are known under a fe* common names, such as smut, bunt, rust ,nd mildew. These minute fun goid pla~it, have been known to farmers in all ages, butt it is only within the past cen tury that nything definite has been discov ered with regard to their structure or mode of reproduction. Before the invention of our higher power microscopes it was impos sible for man to study such subjects, hence all that has been written in regard to these plants previously may be considered sheer guess-work. It is certainly true that some of the more practical of the ancient Roman agriculturists discovered that soaking seed wheat in the urine of animals and other so lutions tended to decrease the quantity of smut. while some of the more theoretical and superstitious among them resorted to prayers apd sacrifice to the gods as prevent ive meass'res, and we presume the latter were just, as efficacious in preventing the spread or/appearance of the disease as some of the practices resorted to at the present day. But th lugh the investigations of our later microsco sts much of the mysterious char acter formerly attributed to or surrounding such su ects has been cleared up, and we now knor that rust, smut and mildew are true plh s, capable of reproducing their kind, the ame as species belonging to higher orders. it is also known that there are hun dreds of distinct species of these microscopic plants, each remaining distinct through suc cessive generatins, and as unvarying in character as species of higher orders. The smut found upon corn, (Ustilago maydis,) is a distinct pecies from the common wheat and grass seed smut, (U-segetum,) or the common bunt in wheat, (Tilletia caries,) and because farmer is unable to distinguish one from theiother it does not follow that they are not 4stinct, or that their habits are a mysteryuo scientific microscopists. It is qg te a prevalent belief among farm ers that these minute parasitic plants are produced through a kind of spontaneous evolution, having no fixed or certain origin or organs for perpetuation of their species, which in fact is far from the truth, inasmuch as it is now positively known that all these lower orders of fungoid growths produce spores which, although different in form and structure, are at the same time equiva lent to seed in plants of a higher type. Smut in wheat, therefore, is the product of the spores (seed) of smut, and each species re mains distinct as the different species of oaks or maples when grown from seed. To eradicate smut from a wheat-growing region would be perhaps an impossibility, as the spores are so minute that they are scattered by the wind, in fact are present in the very air we breathe, during the harvest season. They are carried into the barn upon the straw, rest upon the grain in the bin, and are not injured by cold or dryness. Steep ing seed wheat in brine, lime water, and similar solutions tends to destroy the spores attached to the grain itself, and in a mens ure adds to the vigor and health of the plants grown therefrom; hence these operations are considered beneficial in preventing smut. Dusting the young growing grain with lime early in spring or light applications of salt have also been found beneficial in destroying various parasitic pests belonging to the ant mal as well as the vegetable kingdom. WHAT IS HIGH FZRMING I An American farmer of note, after visit ing England and examining with the critical eye of a practical and experienced agricul turist the system pursued there, says : I am thoroughly confirmed in my old faith that the only good farmer of our future is to be the "high farmer." There is a widely prevailing antipathy among the common farmers of our country against not only the practice of high farming, but the use of the phrase by agricultural writers. This is all wrong, and should be at onee corrected. Through some misconception of the mean ing of the phrase, and also of its application, they have come to believe it synonymous with theoretical "book farming,", "new fangled notions," boasted progress, followed by disappointment and final failure. This is all an error. High farming simply means thorough .epitvfatiqo iPberal manurin,. bountiful crops, good stock, good feed, and paying profits therefrom. It is not strange that misconceptions have arisen in the minds of doubting farmers who have been eye witnesses to some of the spread-eagle ex periments of emthusiastic farmers, better supplied with money obtained in a business they know how to manage than with prao tical experience on a farm. Bountiful crops and paying profits of course are what all farmers who are depending upon the farm for an income are striving to obtain; and every year, as it passeth, is re-confirming the opinion that the profits are small, and will grow "beautifully less" where high farming is not practiced.-Southern Planter and Farmer. TEN RULES FOB FAR)ERS. 1. Take good papers and read them. 2. Keep an account of farm operations. 3. Do not leave implements scattered over the farm, exposed to sndw, rain a qd heat. 4. Repair tools and buildings at a proper time, and do not suffer subsequent three fold expenditure of time and money. 5. Use money judiciously, and do not at. tend auction sales to purchase all kinds of trumpery because it s cheap. 6. See that fences are well repaired, and cattle not grazing in the meadows, gralm fields or orchards. 7. Do not refuse correct experiments, in a small way, of many new thidngs. 8. Plant fruit trees well, care for them, and get good crops. 9. Practice economy by giving stock shel ter during the winter; also good food, taking out all that is unsound, half rotten, ot mouldy. 10. Do not keep tribes of doge and cats around the premises, who eat more in a month than they are worth all their life time.-Southern Farmer. Let the world have their May games, wakes, Whitsun ales; their dancings and concerts; their puppet-shows, hobby.. holses, tabors, bagpipes, barley-breakes, and whatever sports and recreations please them but give us a "chinook" wind in December.