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Rocky Mountain husbandman. [volume] (Diamond City, Mont.) 1875-1943, December 02, 1875, Image 1

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HROCKY I0UNTAIN HiUSBANDMAN
P10E ANUM. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and General News. PER sIG COP.o.
VOL.1. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., DECEMBER 2, 1875. NO. 2.
PUBLISIIED WEEKLY .BY
R. H. SUTHERLIN,
EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.
The ROCKY 1MOUNTAIN IIUSRANDMAAN is designed
to be, as the name indicates, a husbandman in every
sense of the term, embracing in its columns every
department of Agriculture, Stock-raising, Horti
culture, Social and Domestic Economy.
AD)VERTISING RATES.
iweek $2I $3 $5 $ 7 $9 $11I $20 $30
S weeks 3 4 7 10 12 15 28 40
1 month 5 8 12 15 18 21 40 60
S months 10 16 24 30 31; 42 80 120
6 months 18 25 36 45 54 65 120 200
lyear 30 40 60 75 90 105 180 250
Transient advertisements payable in advance.
Regular advertisements payable quarterly.
AGRICULTURAL.
PREPARE FOR WINTER.
One year ago, when winter swooped down
upon us about the first of December, find
Lug us carelessly pursuing our daily avoca
tions without any preparation, we promised
ourselves-yes, every farmer promised him
self--that 'ere winter should come again he
would be better prepared for it. But win
ter draged its slow length along ; spring was
late, fall correspondingly late, and, consol
ing ourselves that two hard winters never
came in succession, or believing that it would
be late setting in, we find oulrselves just
where we were twelve months ago, follow
ing in the same old path, no nearer ready
for cold weather than then. Like the re
nowned citizen of Arkansas, we do not
feel the necessity for preparation during the
long period of delightfhl Indian stunmer
that lasts until along in November, and when
winter is upon us, we persuade ourselves
it is too cold. Because stock winters upon
our foot hills and valleys, a great nnmany think
there is nothing to do for winter. They
do not seem to realise that shelter is of any
benefit to stock. Ill early days our stock
found shelter in the willow thickets and tall
rye grass along our creeks, but now, when
the grass is eaten down in the summer and
the willow brush thined out, our stock have
nothing to break the cold north wind, save
to hide behind some knoll or in some deep
cooley, where they hump themselves up
with rumps to the storm, and suffer. Every
one knows that stock must have plenty to
cat and a sheltered place to rest if they
thrive in winter. Now if the grass is all
eaten off in summer, and the natural shelter
destroyed, we cannot reasonably expect our
stock to come out looking even well in
the spring. Why not, then, make some
provision. All surplus stock should be
driven to the mountains in early spring, as
the grass is much better, and kept there
until late in the tall, thus reserving the val
ley range for the time when the mountains
are deeply burried in snow. At present,
however, this is not a necessity. There are
hundreds of square miles on our eastern
border where a domestic aninmal has never
trod-that are still in their primitive grand
eur-and stock will thrive and come out fat
in the spring. Our farmers could make it
profitable to drive to those localities to win
ter. Those who have but a few head should
prepare shelter. The mode of treatment
practiced by many of our farmers is simply
brutal. The idea of milking cows all the
season, then turning them out at the first
blast of wiuter with no other show for a
living than to forage upon the same range
where they have subsisted during the sum
mer, with nothing to break the wind off of
them except a fence-post, a few willows, or
the trunk of a friendly tree, would be revolt
ing to an eastern farmer, whose stock has
good barns and all the feed they can stand
to. Not only is this true of our loose stock,
but in some cases there is but little or no
shelter for the stock that labors on the farm.
Preparing for winter not only means to drive
the surplus stock to the frontier or prepare
shelter, but it means good stables for horses,
a good warm place for the cows, to which
the family look for milk and butter. It
means a warm place for the hogs, a good
house for the poultry, a good kitchen, and
everything that is calculated to add to the
household comforts. Farmers could easily
do this ; and especially should they see to
the wants of the household. A few weeks
is all that it would require. It wpuld save
farmers' wives and daughters much unnee
essary exposure. True, they arerobust end
healthy; can go to the Grange, to parties,
balls, etc., no matter how inclement the
weather, but that is no reason why every
possible comfort should not be provided at
home.
We could write a volume on this subject,
but it would be of no use. A few words,
well timed, will have as much effect as a
sermon. But we cannot forego giving a
few lines on the subject from the Western
Rural, which are as follows:
"I How many farmers keep their work so
well in hand that everything on the farm is
in proper order when Winter comes? The
first shock of severe weather usually finds
many little things not quite ready to secure
the comfort of the household, as the first
requisite, and of the domestic animals, which
should not be overlooked. Often a sufficient
supply of fuel is not provided, and the wind
whistles through the crevices, because
weather strips have not been put on the
doors, and the stray bits of plastering which
have fallen off have not been replaced.
The first cold storms which occur are often
the most severe of any during winter; and
stock being unaccustomed to tohe cold, suffer
from its effects so much that they do not fully
recover from it during a whole season. A
few boards may have been detached from
the sides of the sheds, or the roofs may not
have been put on ; if so the stock has no
place for protection at the very time it most
needs it.
After the cellar has been thoroughly clean
ed out and renovated, the vegetables may be
put in for winter use; but they should be
arranged in an orderly manner, so that any
showing symptoms of decay may be at once
removed. There is nothing more detrimental
to the health of the family than the noxious
gasses which arise from decaying vegetables
in a cellar. Milk and butter should not be
kept in the neighborhood of so dangerous
an element. Milk is very susceptible to it,
and loses all pleasant flavor as a result.
The house should be banked up so as to
keep the frost from finding its way into the
cellar or the house. A great saving may be
made and much comfort and real pleasure
derived by having these little things ready
in season,
The fall months in the West are generally
so delightful that the farmer is carried along
without any positive warning of a severe
winter, which approaches so stealthily that
it is upon him before he is aware of it. The
last days preceding a severe storm, are usu
ally among the most delightful days we have.
With these things in view, it stands the
farmer in hand to make good use of the
pleasant days, which may yet occur before
the holidays, that he may not be caught in
the lurch. The corn is to be husked and
cribed, while the 'chores' must be daily per
formed. The days are short and the work
goes on slowly; many important things
must be left undone, unless the farmer has
taken time by the forelock. At least it turns
out so in many cases. It is better to have a
piece of work done a long time before it is
needed than not to get it done at all.
An English writer says : " In the Amer
ican system of agriculture, the settler sub
dues a piece of land, flogs it to death, and
abandons the carcass; and then he repeats
the operation on a new subject." Nearly
correct.
My son, deal only with men who adver
tise-you will never lose by it.-Ben. Frank
lin.
Job-printing neatly executed at this office.
SMUT IN WHEAT.
This is one of the most important prob
lems for the consideration of fairmers. The
good farmers of Pulaski Grange, Tennessee,
come to a very errofieous conclusion respect
ing the matter, but that is no reason why
those versed in scientific theories should rid
icule the efforts. If we hope to find the
remedy, we must first know the cause. To
ascertain this, has cost years of scientific
research; many able and lengthy discussions.
But the firmer, on account of his lack of
means, has no recourse to large libraries
like our scientific men, and it is to be ex
pected, will err once in a while. Now, al
though a thorough analysis has been made,
no very material advantage has been derived
therefrom, as to-day finds us practicing
much the same method as was in vogue
among the farmers of Rome hundreds of
year, agog Widely different, indeed, are the
opinions cf farmers upon this subject, yet
all agree 1pon a very similar treatment, viz :
that of socking the grain before sowing in a
solution of lime, soda or blue stone. " There
are many o doubt, thatfollow this practice
who could not tell to save them why they
did it, ex pt that the result proved benefi
cial.
We cli4 from the New York Sun a full
analysis, lit, as a general rule, our plain,
practical f.rmers know as little about these
scientific a alyses as our scientific men kuow
about prctlical farming:
" The4e Tre a large number of parasitic
plants whi$h attack wheat, rye, corn, and
closely allied cereal grasses. They are known
under a fe* common names, such as smut,
bunt, rust ,nd mildew. These minute fun
goid pla~it, have been known to farmers in
all ages, butt it is only within the past cen
tury that nything definite has been discov
ered with regard to their structure or mode
of reproduction. Before the invention of
our higher power microscopes it was impos
sible for man to study such subjects, hence
all that has been written in regard to these
plants previously may be considered sheer
guess-work. It is certainly true that some
of the more practical of the ancient Roman
agriculturists discovered that soaking seed
wheat in the urine of animals and other so
lutions tended to decrease the quantity of
smut. while some of the more theoretical
and superstitious among them resorted to
prayers apd sacrifice to the gods as prevent
ive meass'res, and we presume the latter
were just, as efficacious in preventing the
spread or/appearance of the disease as some
of the practices resorted to at the present
day.
But th lugh the investigations of our later
microsco sts much of the mysterious char
acter formerly attributed to or surrounding
such su ects has been cleared up, and we
now knor that rust, smut and mildew are
true plh s, capable of reproducing their
kind, the ame as species belonging to higher
orders. it is also known that there are hun
dreds of distinct species of these microscopic
plants, each remaining distinct through suc
cessive generatins, and as unvarying in
character as species of higher orders. The
smut found upon corn, (Ustilago maydis,) is
a distinct pecies from the common wheat
and grass seed smut, (U-segetum,) or the
common bunt in wheat, (Tilletia caries,) and
because farmer is unable to distinguish one
from theiother it does not follow that they
are not 4stinct, or that their habits are a
mysteryuo scientific microscopists.
It is qg te a prevalent belief among farm
ers that these minute parasitic plants are
produced through a kind of spontaneous
evolution, having no fixed or certain origin
or organs for perpetuation of their species,
which in fact is far from the truth, inasmuch
as it is now positively known that all these
lower orders of fungoid growths produce
spores which, although different in form
and structure, are at the same time equiva
lent to seed in plants of a higher type. Smut
in wheat, therefore, is the product of the
spores (seed) of smut, and each species re
mains distinct as the different species of
oaks or maples when grown from seed. To
eradicate smut from a wheat-growing region
would be perhaps an impossibility, as the
spores are so minute that they are scattered
by the wind, in fact are present in the very
air we breathe, during the harvest season.
They are carried into the barn upon the
straw, rest upon the grain in the bin, and
are not injured by cold or dryness. Steep
ing seed wheat in brine, lime water, and
similar solutions tends to destroy the spores
attached to the grain itself, and in a mens
ure adds to the vigor and health of the plants
grown therefrom; hence these operations
are considered beneficial in preventing smut.
Dusting the young growing grain with lime
early in spring or light applications of salt
have also been found beneficial in destroying
various parasitic pests belonging to the ant
mal as well as the vegetable kingdom.
WHAT IS HIGH FZRMING I
An American farmer of note, after visit
ing England and examining with the critical
eye of a practical and experienced agricul
turist the system pursued there, says :
I am thoroughly confirmed in my old faith
that the only good farmer of our future is to
be the "high farmer." There is a widely
prevailing antipathy among the common
farmers of our country against not only the
practice of high farming, but the use of the
phrase by agricultural writers. This is all
wrong, and should be at onee corrected.
Through some misconception of the mean
ing of the phrase, and also of its application,
they have come to believe it synonymous
with theoretical "book farming,", "new
fangled notions," boasted progress, followed
by disappointment and final failure. This
is all an error. High farming simply means
thorough .epitvfatiqo iPberal manurin,.
bountiful crops, good stock, good feed, and
paying profits therefrom. It is not strange
that misconceptions have arisen in the minds
of doubting farmers who have been eye
witnesses to some of the spread-eagle ex
periments of emthusiastic farmers, better
supplied with money obtained in a business
they know how to manage than with prao
tical experience on a farm. Bountiful crops
and paying profits of course are what all
farmers who are depending upon the farm
for an income are striving to obtain; and
every year, as it passeth, is re-confirming
the opinion that the profits are small, and
will grow "beautifully less" where high
farming is not practiced.-Southern Planter
and Farmer.
TEN RULES FOB FAR)ERS.
1. Take good papers and read them.
2. Keep an account of farm operations.
3. Do not leave implements scattered over
the farm, exposed to sndw, rain a qd heat.
4. Repair tools and buildings at a proper
time, and do not suffer subsequent three
fold expenditure of time and money.
5. Use money judiciously, and do not at.
tend auction sales to purchase all kinds of
trumpery because it s cheap.
6. See that fences are well repaired, and
cattle not grazing in the meadows, gralm
fields or orchards.
7. Do not refuse correct experiments, in
a small way, of many new thidngs.
8. Plant fruit trees well, care for them,
and get good crops.
9. Practice economy by giving stock shel
ter during the winter; also good food, taking
out all that is unsound, half rotten, ot
mouldy.
10. Do not keep tribes of doge and cats
around the premises, who eat more in a
month than they are worth all their life
time.-Southern Farmer.
Let the world have their May games,
wakes, Whitsun ales; their dancings and
concerts; their puppet-shows, hobby..
holses, tabors, bagpipes, barley-breakes,
and whatever sports and recreations please
them but give us a "chinook" wind in
December.

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