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OF WORTHY 'MASTER BRIGHAM REED, DELIVERED TO THE TERRITORIAL GRANGE, JUNE 2, 1875. [CONCLUDED FROM LAST WEEK.] Your present Master has tried to do his duty, but frankly admits that he has not been able to perform his whole duty. Some things have been neglected, but he hopes to give more time to his office during the coming year. He has spent considerable time and some money; F.urnished his own sta tionery, with the exception of a few cents' worth furnished by the Secretary, and paid nearly all his postage; has kept no account of the same, and is happy to contribute the amount, whatever it may be, towards placing this Grange upon a desirable flooting. He takes pleasure in saying that, as far as he is acquainted, nearly ever member seems willing to do at least as much. The one great need of our order in this Territory has been the visiting of the Subordinate Granges by the Master, Lecturer, and District Deputies for the purpose of explain ing our laws and instructing the Patrons in our work. The present imperfect working of some of our Granges is most iy to be attributed to the non-performance of this labor. That an occasional visit by the officers of the State Grange to the Subordinate Granges would have a salutary effect is not to be doubted, but with new Granges this is an actual need. This work is more especially the duty of the Wor thy Lecturer, subject to the discretion of your Executive Committee, but your Committee have not felt at liberty to call upon that officer to take his time from his own business and incur expenses in traveling, when they could give him no assurance of any return. The same has been the case with your Master in regard to calling upon the Deputies. As I have already staLted, Our Worthy Secretary, O. F. Parmeter, resigned his office, which makes it necessary for that office to be filled by an election at the present meet in .ou will also elect at this meeting three members of the Executive Committee. Brothers 1-. H. Mood, A. Myers, and O. F. Parmeter's terms, as members of that committee, ,expire with this sesslin. °It will be necessary to have the proceedings of this ses alon of our Grange printed, in order to comply with the re quirements of Art. XX, of the By-Laws of the National Orange. Perhaps, it would be advisable to have a sufficient number of copies printed to furnish each Subordinate Grange with two copies, and to enable your officers to re turn the compliment of other State Grange officers, in send ing us their proceedings. Our Brothers and Sisters in the States are receiving great benefits from co-operation in business. It is no new idea. In different parts of the Old World it has been successfully practiced for many years. Owing to the nature and systematic organization of our Order, It is particularly adapted to business co-operation. It is true, however, that our field of operations is somewhat limited in Montana, owing to our isolated condition as a people. We are cut off from all the great markets of the world, and compelled by the force of circumstances to de pend upon our home markets for the sale of our produce. The want of cheap and rapid transportation is a great hindrance to us in the way of buying in co-operation; but, notwithstanding all the obstacles in our way, I believe very much may be accomplised through this grange in a manner that would confer. the benefits of this feature of the Order upon members in all parts of the Territory, instead of their being confined to certain locations, as is at present the case. If a system of business co-operation was inaugurated by tids Grange, it would be a Territorial movement, and all parts of the Territory would be interested and benefited. It seems clear to my mind that we would do well to imitate the actien of our sister State Granges by the establishment of a Territorial Business Agency for buying and selling. All kinds of farm machinery, implements, wagons, and car riages, harness, and many family supplies, etc., might be ob ained through a Territorial Business Agency and a hand some uercentage saved to Patrons. But most prominent, and nearest at hand, among the sev eral branches of business that could be profitably accom phshed through a Business Agency is the supplying of our markets with the produce of the country. The Patrons of Montana, as producers, should be brought into direct con tact with the miners and other laboring classes, as consum ers. This would be a work of considerable magnitude, but a most desirable and just work that is well worth an earn st effort. The only market of any extent that the farmers of Mon tana have had for their produce is within the borders of this Territory, and is created principally by the mines, stage lines, and Government contracts, and supplied, almost ex lusivety, through speculative middle men. This market belongs to the farmer, and should be under the oint control of the farmer and consumer. The farmer raises the produce by the labor of his hands and places it in the market, if sold at an equitable price, that price justly belongs to the farmer. On the other hahid, the miners and mechanics, who are our principal consumers, may correctly say that the farmer tells his produce at a given price which, if equitable, is the price for which we should receive it. But the middle men have controlled the markets. By artfl plans or schemes they have turned the produce into certain channels over which they, have held almost absolute control. They have drawn a line between the producer and consumer and, standing upon that line, they say .to the farner, on one side, we will give you so much per sack for your flour delivered upon thds line - then, turning politely toethe consumer, they infrm him that they will supply him with flour at so much per sack, which is usually the price paid to 'the: .f er with the addition of an exorbitant dlfibr ence which iey call profit. The farmer co~tinues to sell, the miner and mechanic to *urchase, and the middle man continues to dictate prices' to b9th and make unjust additions to his bank credit from the bor of both. The farmer and the miner strungle on t~rotigh heat and cold, rain or shine, shrinking not from the Im4de.ry of the severest conscious. of the great wrong fey are sufbring and sca&ely seeing a possibility of escap ur pimkidle men live in lne houses, expensively furnished, their tbles are spread with th0 best luxuries of our coun try and luxuries imoted from aibrad. Their sons and d"u.htersiare ralsedin ease and a fuence, become accom p ie.d graduate- at colleges and seminaries. The d.rugey of the middle man's kithen is pertbrmed by a ser vant, while his wife and daughter, dressed in silks, with jeweled rings upon their delicate fingers, preside in the par lar. ie and his family ride in elegant carriages drawn by fine horses. But how, or by whom, is the expense of this "high stile" paid? By the labor of the farmner and the miner, the principal producers of our rTerritory, taken from them is the profits of so-called legal trade. And yet the farmer and miner struggle on through their life of toil. They live in log cabins, and their wives and daughters preside in the kitchen, sitting-room and parlor all in one, clad in calico, and with the rough impress of la bor upon their hands. Their sons and daughters receive only the rudiments of an English education in log school houses. They and their families usually ride to town in lumber wagons drawn by cayuse ponies. The farmer and miner struggle on, quietly submitting to the unjust demands of the middle man, like the elephant in the " show" yielding obedience to the behests of his driver while unconsciously.possessing the power to trample him in the dust. The farmer and miner are the two great powers of this country and if they could once realize their strength they might say to this middle man : Stand aside ! we can make our own exchanges,1and he would be compelled to obey. The result would bed the farmer would sell his produce di rectly to the miner, !lho would pay the price directly .to the farmer, and the profits of the" middle man be saved be tween the two. . The interests of t hee two classes urgently demand the establishment of mutual understanding, friendly relations, and the direct excgane of the proceeds of their labor. Never was a people trodden upon by a more heartless class of middle men, who are now living luxuriously and amass ing fortunes from the struggling laborers of Montana. Justice cries aloud for a radical change. Shall we have that change? I lXelieve it is within the power of this Grange to decide the question. Your Executive Committee will report the outlines of a plan for an iniatory step in a course which they lelieve would lead to the desired end, and I believe you tould do well to carefully consider the matter. I Let me here exp ss the hope that no brother or sister will he led to look pon the saving of labor or the acquisi tion of wealth as le of the great ends to be attained by our organization. 'he great ends we have in view, accord ing to our declar purposes, are the development and gratitfication of our noral, intellectual and social natures, and the improvem it of our domestic condition. The ac quisition of wealth should be advocated and indulged in, through our Order, only as a means of reaching these wor thy objects, but n t as one of the great ends of life, thus making it a low anm sordid pursuit. While we sit in d liberation upon matters of mutual inter est, there comes to ur ears, from o'er the grassy plains and snow-capped morn tains, cries of suffering and appeals for aid from our broth rs and sisters in Kansas and adjoining States. The " h pers" have devoured their means of subsistence and lefa want and suffering instead. Our hearts go out in sympath toward our suffering Brethern ; but can we aid them ? is thm question. Many of us, like themselves, have lost two suce sive crops from the same cause, and to day much real wa t stands in our midst. Hard times are upon us, and yet tual suffering is not tile general case among us. Our hardy Rocky Monntain pioneers are enterprising and pelf reliant, or else they never would have penetrated this remote region and established for themselve homes in these mountain valleys. They do not easily succumb to adversi ty, and no cry of distress is heard from our valleys. We undoubtedly possess recuperative resourses that our suffer ing Brethern in the States do not. There is not the least doubt of the existence among them of real, intense, un avoidable destitution ind suffering that must continue until they can realize a benefit from this season's crop, unless the needed relief reaches them from abroad, From the impulse of our hearts, our hands instinctively extend toward our destitute Brothers 'ith a desire to give relief. It is with re gret that we are forced to acknowledge our limited ability. While we are proneto remember that" charity should begin at home," we should also remember that " every drop helps fill the bucket," and that the " widow's mite" entitled her to high credit in the Great Book of Life. In an organization as extensive as ours has become, it is not strange that maly imperfections have crept in ; in fact, if the contrary wer the case, it would be one of the strang est things imaginae. Neither, is it wonderful that with such a diversified mnmbership, some should be found up holding that which b wrong ; and others, condemning that which is good. Ours, is a Democrtic Order. Difference.of opinion and freedom of express in are tolerated. It may seem absurd for one like me to c ticise the wisdom of our great leaders in the National Gr ge. I cannot, however, refrain from expressing an adve.ae opinion in regard to all degrees above those of the Subordinate Grange, and would request you to adopt some resolutic~ expressing the opinion of this body in regard to the sanp. This action woulQ seem to be almost necessary, as the subject is being agitted.by some of our Brotherhood in the States. From preseit indications, I judge it will soon be brought to the consideration of the National Grange, per haps, at its next meeting. Consequently, it is possible that an expression of your opinion at this time might become desirable instruction to your representative in that body. In our Declaratios of Purposes, we find this commenda ble expression of settiment: "We acknowledge the broad principle that difference of opinion is no crime, and hold, that ' progress towa d Truth is made by difference of opin ion,' while the ' faul lies in bitterness of controversy.' We desire aproper equaty, equity and fairness; protection for the weak, restraint Upon the strong; in short, justly dis tributed burdens, ani justly distributed powers.' Now, in my humble opinion the principles upon which are based the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Degrees of our Order, create priviledged classes, atd are inconsistent with all Democratic ideas of equality, eq ity and fairness. They do not afford " proper protection fir the weak," nor lay proper" restraint upon the strong." rThese classes are clothed with " unjust ly distributed powers." Some members may remind me that the above quotations have reference to our civil government, and not to the Or der. I would ask, can we consistently advocate and prac tice Detmocratic principles amono' our fellow-citizens, and act the part of tyrants at our own hearthstones? In such a course we would misapply our principles, or become base hypocrites. Ibdo not make these criticisms for the purpose of dispar aging those who are the authors of our National Laws, for Ibelieve them to be able, earnest, and true workers in our cause; but I suppose, like ourselves, they are only human and sometimes liable to err. I do not wish to make, but to shield our Order from all, unjust reflections. It is because I love our Order, and love to work within its gates, that I am led to point out what seem to me to be its defects. I desire to see it cleansed from all iml)urities, and stand before the world an example of truth and justice. This, I believe, should be the feeling of every true and earnest Patron of Husbandry. When we contemplate the magnitude of our Order, com prising over twenty thousand Granges, with a membership reachi ng almost to millions, our efforts in Montana seem, in comparison like grains of sand beside the mountain. But w'e need not despair. The grandest oak was on(t an insig nificant acorn, and arrived at its present stature through a course of slow and gradual development. In conclusion, permit me to say that, in my estimation, it is optioual with us whether we hold witlhin our hands the means of success, or take therein instruments of self-de struction. If we disregard our laws, and fail to maintain discipline, or allow feelings of envy, jealousness and selfish ness to prejudice one against another, as an orgalization we die; on the contrary, if we observe our laws, cultivate discipline, charity, brotherly love, and mutual confidence, and unitedly strive for-the great and good purposes of the Order, success must be the certain result. Whether pros perity or failure attends our efforts in Montana, I shall still retain an abiding faith in the ultimate success of our Order. I believe it is based upon principles of wisdom, truthfulness and justice. Foremost among its purposes, stands out boldly, the expansion and cultivation of those intcllectual and moral attributes that elevates man, and constitute his superiority over the beasts of the field; also, the extension and tightening of those sacred social tics that, among friends and neighbors, draw heart to heart in a bond of har monious union. Such principles and such purposes, I be lieve, are regarded by the Great Infinite with approbation, and whatever receives His approval must become a success. THE PROGRESS OF OUR ORDER. The Grange is now a power in the land, from Ocean to Ocean, from the Gulf to the frozen zone, its influence is be ing felt. The selfish desires of men that were fast carrying away the agricultural people of the world, turn back before the genial influence of the Grange. There is scarcely a community throughout the length and breadth of the land that does not demonstrate this fact, yet, strauge to say, but little news of its workings has ever reached the people of Montana, save through the Eastern press. The progress of Montana Patrons has not been heralded abroad ; in fact, one section of our Territory is almost entirely ignorant of what is being done in the other. Not being able to support an advocate of their interests, they have labored on, under many disadvantages, 'silently but with unfilltering courage, until at last they are able to reap some reward of their toil. Not, however, until some have faltered and turned away discouraged. Some, we regret to say, have become luke warm, have fallen away anri ceased to be members. They are those who joined with the expectation that it would. bring them a lucrative position; that it would enable them to take the place of the " middle man," and live by their wits. But when they learned that it only meant more work, more intelligence, more skill, better farming, more generosity-when they discovered that its chief object was to make better citizens and neighbors, they turned aside. They were looking for something else-something that would make them rich without an effort. We are glad, however, that there are but afewof this class in the Terrl tory. - The majority realize that it is not the work of an hour to make a change in any long-existing evil, and are content with making the elevation of their calling the work of a life-time. These determined people have put their shoulders to the wheel and are proud of their. success. They have found it a relief to turn from their daily routihie of toil, meet each other in the Grange-room and spend an hour or two in each other's society, to discuss questions relative to their mutual interest, and once and awhile partake of the good things of life together. In addition to these pleasures they, or the majority of them, have found it to be profita ble. In December, 1873, at Deep Creek School-house, in the Missouri Valley, the first Grange in Montana was organ ized. On January 4, 1874, No. 2 was organized at Boze man, and then followed, in rapid succession, a number of Granges in Gallatin county. On September 22, 1874, the representatives of the various Granges met at the Fair grounds, near Helena, and organized the Territorial Grange. ' There were at that time twenty-three Granges, all in good working order. June 2, 1875, the first annual session of the Territorial Grange was held at Gallatin City. Several new Granges had been added to" the list, and the membership had increased to upwards of 800. This was nothing to boast of. The improvements had been of a lo cal nature. Progress in co-operation had been generally retarded fbr the want of a more rapid means of communication among the members than that of written letters, and to-day, though they have suffered much from the lack of facilities that would ensure the rapid, completion of any business plan, they are progressing in a manner that is very encour aging. A number of the Patrons, in different localities, are reap ing a great benefit from-arrangements made with merchants with respect to the purchase of farm supplies, and also from their ability in an organized capacity to take and fill con tracts for hay, grain, flour, etc. New halls are springing up in every prosperous com munity Prickley Pear Grange has established a school one which, in the near future they expect to make the best institution of learning in the land. Taken altogether, we. have reason to be encouraged. We are yet just upon the threshhold of progress, a new era is dawning upon Montana, progress has commenced. A bril liant future is in store for us, only " wait a little longer..". TO PATRONS. We are requested by O. H. Keiley, Secretary of the Na tipnal Grange, to state for the information of the Patrons o Husbandry generally, that no paper is issued from the National Grange Headquarters. That the National Grange. is in no way concerned in the publication of any paper, that it makes no official publication in any one paper, that. it has no organ, and no paper connected with its chief offlce. The Secfetary would explain that this public state ment is rendered necessary by the frequent ilnquiries re, ceived by him as to the relation the National Granger holds to the National Grange.-Fanners' Home Journal. Miss Carrie A. Hall, the efficient chief clerk in the Secre. tary's office, acts as Secretary during the absence of Mr. The California State Grange elected but few of its ole ofi cers. The new Master is J.-V. Webster; Secretary. Amos Adams.