Newspaper Page Text
OK Y _OUNTAIN USBANDMIAN
$4.0o -IO-t-. PER ANNUM. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, ilome Reading, and General News. E1 COs. VOL. 1. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., JANUARY 27, 1876. NO.10. 13UBLISIIED WEEKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. The ROCKY MOUNTAIN iLUSBANDMAN is designed to be, as the name inlicates, a husbandmnian in every FeB50 of the term, embracing in its columns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raising, Horti culture. Social tan D~ome)stjc Econorii. ADVERTISING RATES. r. aý W d-a c 1 week $ 21 $ $3$5 $ $7 $9 $11 is 20 $ $30 2 weeks 3j 4j 7 10 12 15 j281 40 1 mlonth 51 8J 121 151 18 211 0 5 3months 10 1ti 24 80 ( 42 80 120 tmonths 18 23 36 45 54 (55 120 200 1 year 30 40 60 73 | 90 105 180 -1250 Transient advertisements payable in aulvance. Regular advertisements payable quarterly. Twenty-live per cent. added for special advertise mnents. AGRICIULTURAL. STUDY OF THE SOIL. The injunction, "know thyself," is not more important than'the one of "know thy soil," if addressed to the progressive, wiide awake farmer. If anything deserves study it is the earth, for fromit we derive the means of subsistence, and, though it is a mine of wealth., we should know its exact condition and not draw from it in the form of grain or root crops, more than we return in the form of manure. A knowledge of the soil may be made of great practical benefit to the thinking farmer. For instance, if his soil is tornmedl by the decomposition of granite rock, he can ascertain with little trouble what are the constituents of that rock, and what are the special manures that will be most likely to prove of benefit in keeping up its fertility. It is by the study of the soil of any particular formation that the farmer comes to understand it, and knows how to cultivate it to better advantage than any other. The rocks which underlie large section of country here in the west, do not however indicate positively the character of the soil on the surface. The rocks which ordinarily show themselves on the surface are covered, to a greater or less extent, by transported materials from some other source, which we call drift. The vast quantities of these ma terials, which thus overlie the original rocks, consist, on inspection, of the ruins of other formations that have been broken and crum bled down, and their fragments borne to other localities by some unknown power. Some ascribe the drift to the action of ice, either in the form of glaciers or iceburgs; others to the upheaval of the bottom of the ocean, by which a resistless torrent of min gled mud, ice and water swept over the con tinent, tearing away hills, scooping out val leys, crumbling away various strata of rock and depositing their materials in different and often distant localities. It is not supposed nor expected that the practical farmer will undertake to analize his soil himself, for it would be so inacurate as to be nearly valueless. Yet he can deter mine some of its physical properties, its re lation to atmospherical agency, its diminu tion of bulk on drying, its properties to re tain heat, etc., by a simple apparatus recom mended by Prof. Kuhn, director of the Ag ricultural College at Halle, Saxony : "The apparatus proper consists of a glass bottle and tube, connected by a piece of rub ber tube. The glass tube is closed by a good cork at one end, and is marked off in cubic centimetres ia this one present, although any measure can be employed. It is known that the physical properties of the soil de pend largely upon the percentage of coarse and line sand, and of clayey and humus sub stances. It has been found that 6.5 cubic centimetres of this coarse sand weigh ten grammes; 8.5 cubic centimetres of fine sand will weigh also ten grammes. To separate, take ten grammes of dry soil, seive it, that no large pebbles remainf; mix with some water in a saucer; boil the whole for twenty or thirty minutes if of sandy, forty minutes to one hour if of clayey nature, stirring oc casionally. Let the whole cool down ; pour it into a bottle ; clean the saucer-taking care that all the particles of soil come into this bottle; adjust the tube, shake it a few minutes, then let the mass settle in the tube. The coarse sand, having the greatest specific gravity, will settle first, upon it the fine sand, and at last the clayey and humus por tions of the soil. The cubic centimetres of coarse and fine sand are multiplied with the above given figures, and the weight once found, the percentage is quickly calculated. Knowing the percentage of sandy and clay ey and humus substances of the soil, we may quickly form conclusions as to the val ue of our soil in respect to the physical prop erties." [Note.-A cubic centimetre of water weighs one gramme; one gramme is 15.43 troy ounces. A centimetre in length is 394 1000ths of an inch.]-Colrnan's Rural World. eLANTING TREES. With the expenditure of a few days' labor in planting out trees, the farmer may mate rially enhance the value and appearance of his farm. The cottonwood and quaking-asp, which grow in abundance along our streams, are of quick growth, and if planted along the irri gating ditches, will, in a few years, grow large enough to be of much benefit. The work of planting can be done during the fall and winter months, at times when there is no particular rush of work. In a few years, when our Territory will have become thickly populated, and the vast area of valuable farming lands which are now unclaimed are settled upon, tiiber for building and fencing purposes will doubtless be scarce, and trees set out this winter will come in good use for repairing fences. Aside from this, there are many other ad vantages to be derived from the planting and cultivation of timber. A row of cotton woods, locusts or some equally rapid and hardy growers, encircling the farms of our valleys would add to their value and serve to beautify our homes. The timber would shield us from the strong winds which sweep through our country in the summer, and provide a shelter for stock in winter. TiE following is what an Englishman says about horseradish: " There is in most garden establishments a great demand for horseradish, and espec ially at the present season. The plant is, in many gardens, placed in some obscure cor ner where few things could exist, and the produce from such situations is genarally very inferior. If the following simple meth od is adopted, fine, straight, clean sticks can be produced i n ten months that will measure from five to eight inches in circumference. Any time in February, take small, straight pieces of the root, the size of the little fin ger, or a little less, and from eight to four teen inches in length. Take off all the side roots acid buds that may be seen, and then in an open situation prepare a piece of ground by well manuring and deep digging; plant the roots in rows three feet apart, and from twelve to eighteen inches in the row. They must be planted in a nearly horizontal posi tion, and about two inches beneath the sur face. Keep the ground at all times free from weeds, and by the end of October sticks such as above mentioned will be the result, in half the time that it would take by the. old method of planting cuttings of the roots from eighteen to twenty inches deep. The roots, being placed so near the surface of the ground, enjoy the full influence of the sun-heat, and hence the rapid growth. Though judgment may collect the mate rials of the goodly structure of friendship, it is affection that gives the cement; and passion, as well as reason, should concur in forming a firm and lasting coalition. HORTIC~ULTUJRE. PLANTING STRAWBERRIES. For small beds in gardens, any time now will do, as soon as strong plants can be ob tained from runners. They can be watered occasionally, at evening, and after the new leaves appear, the water can be enriched by filling a barrel with horse stable manure and water, leaving it near the bed. The sooner they are planted the larger the next crop. For market, spring time is best, costing too much labor to water them now. My plan is, first, clean ground, either after potatoes or summer fallow; it must be clean and rich. Early in April, I select good, strong plants, of last year's growth, cut back the roots to three inches, mud the roots in rich soil, made by digging a hole as large as half a bushel, in the garden, and using liquid manure wa ter. After laying oft the ground in rows three feet, we take a small dibble, or cabbage planter, putting the roots well down, even with the surface of the ground, and make all firm. The mudded roots prevent drying until new roots are thrown out from base of leaves, or crown of plant, and all commence to grow at once. Keep the ground mellow with cultivators and one-horse subsoil ploaw, until the runners are in the way. Then with hoe, cover the runners one foot in width each side of row, leaving afootfree for path. This covering makes stronger plants quicker. Now all the ground is occupied by strong plants, with many leaves, which afford pro tection through the coming winter. If you have plenty of straw, or straw manure, a covering of one inch or two, carefully laid, will enlarge your crop the coining year, be sides keeping the fruit clean during heavy showers, also preventing weeds. It need not be removed in spring, as the. leaves and fruit stems will push their way through without injury. This covering will also act as a mulch, greatly assisting the plants through a drought, in perfecting a grand crop.-Rural New Yodcer. FRUNING RASPBERRIES.-It was formerly the practice to allow the old canes of rasp berries to remain untouched after the season of bearing till early the following spring, when these and all supernumerary newer canes were cut out at the surthee of the ground, and the few stronger ones left to bear the crop for that year. More recently the practice is recommended of cutting out the old canes as soon as the crop is gathered. There is one objection to this practice. The leaves are usually in their full vigor, and the roots derive a portion of their strength from these leaves. Cutting away the canes at this time tends to check the vigor of the roots; In the same way that pruning away large limbs of a tree in full leaf injures its strength. It is better, therefore, to defer the pruning till the leaves begin to drop from the old canes, or even to leave the work till early spring. When too many new canes spring up, they should be cut out as soon as they make their appearance early in the sea son, leaving no more to grow than are want ed for bearing the crop next year. But if this is neglected till they have made flfl growth, it is better to leave them till spring, as cutting them away In full leaf injures the roots, as already explained. But as experi ment is usually better than theory, those who have raspberry plantations may satisfy themselves on these points by treating paral lel rows according to the different methods, and observe the results on the bushes and crops next year.-Country Geniteman. FUANCONA RASrBERRY.-The RwraLt Hme recommends this as the most profitable rasp berry for market, where the soil and locality are favorable, and when it can have the best culture; and mentions the plantation of John Logan, near Rochester, where the plants were set 3 feet by 5, but are now nearly coa tinuous lines of canes. They were loaded with fruit last season, which sold In the market for 16 to 20 cts. a quart, yielding nearly $1,000 per acre. FLOORICULTUllRE THE LOVE AND CULTURE OF FLOWERS. Nothing is so pleasant and encouraging as success, and no success quite so satisfying as success in the culture of flowers. It is a pleasure with no compensating pain-one which purifies while it pleases. We gaze on the beautiful plants and brilliant flowers with a delicious commingling of adriration and love. They are the offspring of our fore-thought, taste and care-a new myste rious and glorious creation. They grew truly; but very like the stars and the rainbow. A few short ' weeks ago the brown earthy beds were bare and lifeless ; now they are peopled with the fairest and frailest of earth's children. We have created all this grace; moulded the earth, the sunshine and the rain into forms of matchless beauty, and crystal ized the dew drops into gems of loveliness. There is no greater pleasure than this in all the earth, save that sweetest and noblest of pleasures, the fruit of good deeds. There may be hard-hearted, selfish people who love flowers,we suppose, for there were bad angels in heaven, and very unreliable, people in the first and best of all gardens; but it has never been our ill-fortune to meet with one such-and if by accident we should discover a monstrosity of this kind, we would be more frightened than we were a long time ago at what we thought a ghost sitting 'on a cemetery gate. To love flowers, however, because of their sweetness, beauty and companionship and as the wonderful work of a Father's loving hand, is what we mean when we speak of the love of flowers. Many cultivate flowers from a desire to excel their neighbors, or as an evidence of t eir refinement an turc, who know nothing Oftlhib'sorbln love that causes a man almost involuntarily to raise the hat and bow the head in the presence ot so much heaven-lent loveliness. This love of flowers is confined to no age or station; we see it in the prince and peasant; It is shown by the aged father, tottering near the grave, who seems almost to adore the fragrant flowers in his .button-hole, and by the little ones, who, with childish glee, search the meadows for the dandellons of early spring. The love of flowers, we flney is the most pure and absorbing with the young. The innocent and pure can love the pure flowers, we think, with an earnest ness and devotion unknown to some of us that are older.- Vict's Floral Guide. TILE GREENHOUSE IN WINTER.--The green. house should be in good repair, secure against any sudden change of weather. The contin ned warm spell will be apt to make us over look this matter, which costs us so dearly if neglected. Every nmild day, throw open the doors of the greenhouse and admit frehib air; it will add greatly to the health of the plants. A fine display.otflowers should be had at this season of the year, as of course they are In great demand during holidays. There is hardly anything more quickly grown and which gives inoe satisfaction than the Roman hyacinth. It will come Into bloom three weeks afterybttingand the pure white flowers are very desirable. Stevias are very pretty and should now be in DIN bloom. They do remarkably well by being plunged out doors durisg the Summer. Primulas, Bouvatdias and Carnations will now be most in demand, and the plants will bear considerable water. Cyclamens will need more water than they have been receiving. Put In cuttings as fast as possible new, and plant seeds of such plants as Lobelia and Mignonette, that they may be of saleable size in season.--Cor. Western Rural. AN English chergist says geraniums and calceolarias kept In windows In summer will prevent the entranee of flys. This experi ment will be worth trying, for blooming flowers are unobjectionable, or at any rate, preferable to insects.