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ROCKY MOUNTAIN HUSBANDMAN
......... ........ .. ..... . ... ......- --- ----- ---_ - --- _- ................... PER ANNUM. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Ilomi Reading,'and General NCWS. * I I Ct P. PRIVOO SINNILE COPY. VOL. 1. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., MARCII 2, 187(6. NO. 15. .. .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . m~ m m mm l mm . m mmm um IUUJLISIIlDUi;i WlII.h:Y .y. R. N. SUTHERLIN, EDIT)O AN)D PROPIiHII I t],I The Roc'KY MOUT..x I[su\1rI ..AN is designed to be, is the nli iiCllll. icate-o, a jl. hat n allllll in ecrver ceuseof the termn, ehbrailg in its colutn ev erg depart ienlt of A1 riculture, S'oc(k-rai..ing, Ilorti •ctiturte, ociatll an lI )omecstic lEci))nmiv A DIVI':ItTISING 1t.'I'Et. Iweek $ $- = . `! = 9 11 20 SweekA` I 4 7 1!) 12' ]15 8 o 1"mnlth 5 12 1 i Js 21 40 0 0nt1'h-5 10 Ii I i~t ;o i ;1H) 42 ) 1 20 ( i month: IS 25 3. 5 1 i 1'2 200 I year ;0 4) (0 75( j 0 _ 105 , 1S0 251 'l'r:ansient ad\'ertisements payable in advance. Regular al\vertisemenlts payable quarterly. 'wenty-live per cent. addedl for special a:dvcertise I eIllts. AGRICULTURAL. THE following essay upon tihe agrictltu Tal and stock-growing adVarutages of Mon 'al:na, wvas reard by the editor of this paper at the last session of the Territorial Grange: Montana, the most isolated of the Amieri scian States and Territories ; remote fr'om the seaboard ; without the great iron thorough fares which are the equallizers of sections iher only great natura:l highway, thie Missouri river, navigable only a few months in the year ; traversed by lofty chains of snow white mountains ; to the cas.ual observer is possessed of but few inducements to the Ilusbandnman. But attracted hithced by a N thirst for the precious metals with which her gulehes and mountains abound, we have found(l her valleys to be fertile and capable of yielding as rich returns for labor as any por lion of tihe Union. With a clanate more healthy and less rigorous than any country of her latitude ; pasture la-nds in quantity and quality unexcelled ; and thousands of irivulets, brooks, and rivers, affording un limnited water power, we have facilities not .else.rhere to be found. Yet with all these taitural advantages, our agricultural popu lation are not enjoyingr so great a degree of Iprosperity as in less favored localities. Let us develop our resources and utilize ,our water-powers by the erection of manu itactories. We need an paper mill to work up our rubbish; a beet sugar manuitcetory to supply our wants in that line, and a woolen mill to convert our wool into fabrics. 1By a proper disposition of our products, the imarket can be greatly strengthened and increased. Besides the increase of consuni (ers oc(c:sisled by the erection of nmanufacto aries, such as would yield a handsome income and at the same time lessen the rates of liv ;ing by A greater diversity of crops oand careful attention to horticultiure, we can bet ter supply our wants and thus save the cost ,of transportation on many articles, as well as furnish us more employment. Bacon a:id pork should be plroduceed at home. Corn for bread&tuff, which is regarded :is a luxu iry here, -ann, in many localities, be raised profitlal;1y A great ninmany varieties of small fruit can be grown, in great quantity andt of superior quality-yet we are supplied entire ly with a fcreign article. We see n.o good reason why. by prof r at tention to the acclimation of ltrees, large fruits camnot be grown with as much success as in our fsi.ter states of like tempera:ture. But what is most needed at present is that we study more clo:sely and reduce more thoroughly to practice, the sicence of agri culture. Cultivate a less numlhi'er of nac'es and do it lettr ; summ er fallow our lands. or by the use of fertilizers, keep til.am tip to their ori.inal c::apacity ; s;uldy tlme. sc:ence ot Irrigation-howl to water and hiw oilin, to obtain the best results. Tire inl ,ml: i''n of! artesian wells would be valu,!i:-. :wd in many ilSt;tanccs p1'rove less tx]h,-' I11: Oling canals. Give inure attention t:. ,,,-k ill w\iter. I'rovidle foo and s!eltelr; re 1en1beri(n1_" the principles of our1 Order, to protect the dlumb :animals front abuse. Shel ter thmn 1 frolt the driving storm. While -toik tlri\re andl retai iitheir 1lesh in newly settled districts, iii tilickly settled portions of the colltry, where the t ra:tlige is iinpoc erished (durin"g Stlliwlre', feed a10d shelter should he prov l ided( . No sto1k-grower should pasture his winter range during sti(nluer, but the high altitudes where the snow lies deep in win ter' should he used, and will be wIhlcl economy ill range is requllired to be exercised. Much loss could l:have been pre vented the past winiter byv a little prepara tioll. Ill the future, therefore. let its prolit by experience. Feed cutters can he had at rea(sonab)le rates, 1111 a (lurrelit wheel in any of our st reams would afford sutliciet power Sand at trilling expentse, to prelpare the chloic est food for beef and dairy animals. But always bri ings a good price in winter, and in early spring when beef is scarce-when the demand cannot be supplied fronm the frontier by reason of imiipassible snowy ranges-our farmers who ellngage in stock-ra'ising on a small scale can find an easier anid more prof itable market for stall fatted cattle. By con verting our products into beef, we would more ellee inally exemplify our principles of inarketing on the hoo\, and find it easier to drive to market on foot than to wheel it in the bushel. Let us build tip a sure and steady market; organize it simple, practical, yet complete systemt of co-operation ; attend properly to our educational interests ; relplenish our libraries with useful books, and our minds with practical knowledge ; give the youths and maidens of our land a tthorough agri cultural education ; learn them the duties of htiusbandinan and matron ; beautify our lhomes-they will love them-we will be happy, and our bretlhren from the crowded east will come and take fortune with us. It is necessary- that our noble Order be comue co-existant with the agricultural pop .ulation of the Territory ; that neighborhlood jealousies be laid aside, and that we meet in the grange mroom as brothers and sisters; that sectional strife be buried, and that we meet in Territorial capacity as one people, looking to the interests of all. To accomplish this ; to aid in the dissemi nation of inf'ormation peculiar to our locali ty ; to furnish us with the best and latest information, and our sons and daughters wtli practical truths, and to enable ourselves to confer with each other upon all subjects of lmaterial interest, and profit by each other's experience ; to proclaim to the world our marny advantages, and thereby encour age initnigration, it is necessary that we have a first-class agricultural newspalper. As patrons, we could work together more intelligently, co-operate to a better advan tage, and could learn more of each other and our fraternal trust be strengthened. WHITE WHEAT---THREE VARIETIES. What is wanted by the farmer who de pends on his farm for a living, and who has ino time or money to invest in experiments, is a sort of wheat that has been tried in this climate and soil, and is found to he adaplted to them. Such a wheat is the Seneca or C'lawson, as it is also called, a white wheat which originated with a uthrner nt:ed Claw sonll, of Seneca county, New York, sevenl years ago. In its e:uarlier days, it was namedl by a Pennsylvania seedsman, " Early May Red Chi(':lf White " wheiat, for the a]olilion of which lengthy nalties thuinks are due to smtebody. The same wheat has a]lso 1een called Eureka, but public fhvor seems to !, conteettratit g on Seneca as the fiittu e liUi f)r it. The Sencva is a white wheat. with sn,', head. tel 'huh. atid long strawl ; ! th1 .rower :i -! lthorouighlv hardy. It .: thro, ,' " r.i t- time of last witt :. iti ( .-u :'... ! be United Stuttes, in 1 ..:.: , a :ny other variety th:. know of. It is from ten days to a fortmniht earlier tian l varieties now il use. iThe vield i larger thma that of tihe corlnmonm kinds, many instances hein'g recorded(l where, in tihe samie field and iunider the samie treatmmlelt, the Seneca lnas yielded thirty-live bushels against the twenty 1ushels of the D)ichl, Fultz. Treadwell or Mediterrane:a. For those of our farmers who want :a reliabIle wheat-one thit it is safe to tie to-the Seln eca is the thing. out by the United States Department of Ag riculture a, few years since. We know of but one instalice of it having I Deei tried in iCanada ; inl that case it proved very success ful. lhaving sto last winter well and having ripened very miceh earlier than neig-hhoring sorts. In earliness it is claimed by growers in Ohio, New York, Vermont and Michigo,:an to be two or thrce weeks ahead of I )iehl and otlher comimon sorts. Time straw is short and stiff. rendering it not liable to lodge. The Lead is heavy, and the grain is large and gives a superior quality and yield of flour. The Silver-chlaf is another new wheat, well thought of across the line, but not yet mnuch kltnown in Canada. It is a white wheat with white chaff, and lnediunl straw; it has a long, s.mooth head, with large grains. A peculiarity about it is, that its flower extends about three-quarters of an inch from the head when in bloom. This gives it a silvery look, from which it derives its name. The Silver-chaff originated in New York State. It is claimed to be p1erfectly hardy, having been tried alongside of other varieties, and to have come out of the winter as well as any of them. There is every problability from all the in formation we can glean that both the Tap pahannock and the Silver-chalf will prove valuable acquisitions. VWe recommend those farmers who are disposed to experiment, to try these varieties.-canada Farner. A correspondent in Outaguamie county, Wis., has ascertained from tihe threshers that in that county the varieties of wheat have yielded at the rates stated : )iehl wheat, 34 biushels per acre ; Fultz and R us sian wheat (lately imported from Russia by a miller at the village of Nee(nah), each 33 bushels. The latter is a white wheat, said to be equal to the Fultz in standing the win ter, and(, therefore, thought to be preferable. The variety of spring wheat producinmg the largest yield was the Canada Club-33 bush els per acre. A. o'hn1'r:1N)NvniNr 01f Colmanc's I?utal Jr, rldi say, the AIIlpha potaitoe is the best Variety inl cuiltivition. It slitatres lit for table us fift ece (lays Cearlic than the .early Rose. Ile (1csclribcs it as being 1of white color, fine grain), 1111)1, dli aid excel hent in cvceI'y respect. We nlotice all accIuluit, ill the G'ardcenes (Cron icc, of an Euuglshuiiauuu growing)( one hulliltlrCel and( twenty-onei h)olunds of this variety train one ponuli( of s~eed plaintecII. A lii st-ebiss (certi Ii lut hIIs julIst bcen) alwalrdcedl tliis j ot atoC by the IRoy:al Ilorticultuiral Society, oft LondIoinli. FaA NK lINr Coiuuity, Kfl usals, shipped soiliC 25.01)(1 buishi(1s ot (fast o bal)C 1) 1hI last sea sº. thI dCCeiIts fir the i uiie :io(uutiulg to !fally SIOO.000. A LICI' ofI 11 s il CCnd l (:eed l 'V· er sjhjip ped 11(00 J)es M( ine(, recentlt to. a(0 fil ox i ill (1h~inese plaiutei', ait. -ili gpor(, BritIish India. 1';: 'irI 3d1 of, *Ihilifiy, Mie~hiuan fa nuners ý 0)i pýilig 11hei1 fields. Oui the 10th~ (t oit of the fhrrow:. Is it ailly ill lovYe A uiwrilc( I )nu~iiai Fawnier says Ahtfihlf, of Lii pgane hhfiutC ill the State by the ' llu-nd of acres. FLORICULTURE. FLOWER GARDEN. T'ree and slihrub) planting may be contin ucd as oplortlulity and weather permit; as a rule, all the evergreen tribe are best plant ed in early autumu, but deciduous trees from now to the end of Febl)ruary. Thorns, Li I(as, lablurnunts, Syringas, Tulip-trees, I orse and Spanish (Chestnuts, and other Ilowerilng trees are not pllanted in half such numbers as they ought to be. The rage for ('oniters seems to have thrown them into the shade, and though this is a class of plants at all times worthy of admiration, the dan ger is that. we shall soon have too much of a good thing. lHerbaceous borders may now at any time be rearrangllled and trinmmedi up, dividing any kinds requiring it, and forking and manuring the grounds. Usually bulbs of many kinds are intermiixed in these bor ders, and therefore the operator will require to use great care not to injure them : vacant spaces may be filled in with Anemones, Ran mutuluses, Liliumns, and Gladioli, all of which (do well if planted at this season. Plant Roses as soon as piossible, if a bloom is ex pected next June. I)eep rich alluvial loam, made rather firm, is the kind of soil in which hoses delight, but such not being always at, conuna:tl , tihe best substitute is to manunre freely, and especially by surface mulching. Dahliias should be occasionally looked over, and kinds requiring to be increased be at once planted illn ots or boxes, and putt in heat. Cannas are invalualle lplants for the "''subtropical" garden ; old roots of these may now be divided and started in gentle heat; a single crown will make a hirge plant by planiting time. Also propagate for the same purpose Abutilon Boule de Niege1 A. Duc ide Mlalakoff and A. Thomsoni varigata, Aralia papyri'fera and A. Sieboldii, Caladi inn esculentiiin, D)racima autistralis, Ficus elastica, and Ilhllrmilmu tenax. All the above are easy of )propagation where a bot tom heat of i 0 and 60 0o top heat can be given. Seeds of the following can be raised with similar heat, and will, if sown now, make line plants for putting out in the "'sub tropical" garden at the end of May: Aca cia lophalthn, Acaunthus latifolia, A maran thus solicitblius, (Chanimepeuce (!asabona,, and C(. (licanii ha, Ferdinaluda etninens, Mel ialthus major, Bieiluon mnumy varieties; Sol artuns, ditto; Salvia argentea, Wiganidia caraceasana, WV. miacroplvylla, and Zea ('uz ko.-Gardcner's C'hronicle, Jan. 2. WEren: it not 1f1r' tihe illcoliveilence and amouilt of care reqllired to give the neces sary prlotectionl, a great limajority of the himes in our cities andul cluntry towns would doulbtlless, be mlade more attraictive and cheerful, during the dreary months of win ier, by the presence of beautiful plants and tlower's. A cheal) antd easy mode of protection, and one, too, lwhich Ihas proved ced etual, as file as tried., except, where the ho(use is very cold or the weather extremely severe, is to place the plants at iight, before the room has he collie cool, ill a colilllc: e, ll'lll on the floCr or, tablte, and tlheu encircle then with a stiff board pap er, stuh as is used for building purloses. of sutlicieint width to enclose the plants, making a lop of tIe saile materia!, or e.ve, ing. with c:arplets or blankets or both ; lso haiing 'cloths around the lower edge of I he paper. Shielded in this way, the plants \vill go through unuharined, when :water trcezes in tlhe110 r11om outride. 'To gIve aihIitioal hlrotebtion, a kerosene IpplrtmIle above for hlie gas alil Slitoke to 'sc:ipe. It is hietter t(, havea funnllel extend nom the a liPerlture down to lhe lail) ci ha iey, tI) lpleent lheie heat. from passing oil, nIII the iltre readlily to lcarry oti the fuinew ,it tihe burning oil, which would injure the h(,,:i Ilohwers aure usedl inl New York City in :t dy than London uses inl a w'eek.