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SANNUM A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live*stock, ibme Reading, and General News. I COPY. VOL.1. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., MARCH 80, 1876. NO. i1. P UBLISHED WEEKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. The RocKY AMOUNTAIN IIUSBANDMAN is designed to be, as the name indicates, a husbandman in every sense of the term, embracing in its columns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raising, Horti culture, Social and Domestic Economy. ADVERTISING RATES. ý+ ý ca a ý m c . 1week $ 2$ 3 $5 $7 $9$11 $20 $30 2 weeks 3 4 7 10 12 15 28 40 1 month 5 8 12 15 18 21 40 60 3 months 10 16 24 30 36 42 80 120 6 months 18 25 36 45 54 65 120 200 1 year 30 40 60 75 90 105 180 250 Transient advertisements payable in advance. Regular advertisements payable quarterly. Twenty-five per cent. added for special advertise ments. AGRIC UILTURAL. MANUFACTURE OF BEET SUGAR. We take the following interesting exibit of the profit of the manufacture of Beet Su gar in California from the Pacific RaralPress : II. Orthmann, superintendent of the Sacra mento Valley beet sugar company, has late ly made a report to the Commissioner of Agriculture concerning the cost and profit of the beet sugar industry in this State. The report refer; at the outset to the consuma tion of the treaty with the Sandwich Islands for free admission of cane sugar, and closes with a protest against the same. This is apparently the turning point in the iudnstry in this State. To admit the Sandwich Is land cane sugar free of duty will fill our re fineries with it and close the door to the manufacture of beet sugar. Because of this imminent danger, Mr. Orthmann notes that three companies formed to prosecute busi ness have disolved, and the close of the Sac ramento V alley establishment must follow the trade. In spite of this prospect Mr. Orthmaiu furnishes a detailed statement of the preselnt possibilities of the industry, which is of general interest, and worthy pre servation. We quote his showing as fol lows: I shall endeavor to give you a faithful and accurate delineation of the future of our own factory, as well as every other one now ex isting or that may hereafter be founded here: I-EXPENSES. Reckoning the capacity of the factory to be of 12,000 tons of beets, the cost therefore at $6 per ton will be.$ 72,000 Working 70 tons of beets in 24 hours will require 18 cords of wood, or a total of 3,096 cords, at $6 50 per i cord..................... 20,121 The above quantity of beets will nec essitate employment of 172 double shifts of labor (the double shift at 24 hours) and 26 Sunday shifts (of 12 hours) or a total of 370 single shifts. Each shift requires 15 white men at $2 and 30 Chinese at 75 cehts, which will make, inclu sive of officers, $60 per shitt, to tal......................... .............. 22,200 The clearing of the juice will require 2 per cent, of lime, or for 12,000 tons of beets 240 tons of burnt lime at $12 50 per ton...................... 3,000 The use of 15 per cent. of bone coal (allowing a turn of five days for the regeneration of the same) will require 50 tons of bone coal at $75 3750 per ton........... ................. 3,750 The regeneration of the bone coal re quires 1} per cent. of n.uriatic ac id; this will take for the working of 12,000 tons of beets, at the rate of 15 per cent. of bone coal, 25 tons of muriatic acid, at $6 per 100 lbs.. 8,060 Using for 12,000 tons of beets 3,500 yards filtering linen, at 25 cents per yard, makes.......................... 875 Coke used for the production of carbonic acid, at the rate of two barrels for 70 tons, requires, for 12,000 tons of beets, 812 barrels at $1 10 per barrel.......................... 376 As will be shown hereafter, the 12. 000 tons of beets will give 900 tons of sugar, the packing of which re juires 9,000 barrels, at 75 cents .... 6,750 Lighting, per year........................ 250 Four horses for hauling sugar......... 300 Repairs......... ........................ 1,000 Sundry expenses........................ 560 Total expenses....................$134,185 II-RECEIPTS. Admitting the content of sugar of the beets at an average to be only 12 per cent., 100 pounds of beets would produce, by working for refined sugar as follows: First product, refined, 5 lbs., at 12J cents...................................... 62cts Second, product, refined, 1 lbs., at 10 cents...................................... 15 cts Third and fourth product, unrefined, 1 lb., at 9 cents....................... 9 cts That is in sugar from 1001bs. of beets 86jcts The above style of working will give on 100 lbs. of beets 2 'bs. of molasses at 1 cept per lb........... 2 ets 100 lbs. of beets will further leave 70 lbs of remains (selling now at $1 per ton) which gives............... 3jcts Therefore, 100 lbs. of beets will bring 92 cts Which, by working the above esti mated amount of 12,000 tons, will bring..........................................$220,800 The total of expenses as heretofore shown, being......................... 134,185 Will leave a net gain for the whole campaign of................................$ 86,615 The capital invested in a factory of this kind amounts to $250,000, which at the giv en rate of net profit $86,615, will produce a dividend of 34.646 per cent. The result of the working of our factory in the campaign just ended have kept pace exactly with the foregoing statements, but the fact that the crop of beets, on the ac count of dry weather in this year, has fallen considerably short of the quantity on which my calculations are based, has prevented the declaring of a dividend for this year. However, this drawback will be unquestion ably overcome this year, for the reason that .t!_e _comany ha_ made the_ necessary ar rangements to cultivate a much' larger area of land so as to give us by all means a crop equal to the fullest capacity of the factory. THE FARMER'S VOCATION. How noble is the farmer's calling ! From Maine, on the north, to the Gulf of i~exico, 1 on the south, and from the Atlantic, on the east, to the Pacific, on the west, everywhere do we behold the tillers of the soil, and breeders of stock, plying their vocation with a happiness and a certainty of success which attaches to no other department of industry within the domain of our vastly extended country. Although villages and cities spring up as if by magic, and goods and merchandise abound on every hand sufficient to supply the wants of all, and wealth and luxury are reveled in by great multitudes, yet the farm er and stock-breeder furnishes the never failing fountain from whence all of these improvements and enjoyments proceed, and by which all the vast multitudes which live, either in active business or in idleness, are fed and clothed. As water is indispensable to all life, wheth er vegetable or animal, from the vast forests on plain and hill to the little blade of grass which bends under a single drop of dew; from the mastodon to the animalcule that floats in the sunbeam; from the leviathan that heaves the sea into billows, to the mi croscopic creatures that swarm a million in[ a single sea-foam drop; all alike depend for their existence on this single element and must perish if it be withdrawn. But this element of water is supplied entirely by sea. All the waters that are in the rivers, the lakes, the fountains, the vapors, the dew, the rain, the snow, come alike out of the ocean. So it is with the great Agricultural Ocean, which is ever sending out its supplies to give sustenance to kings and courtiers, alike with laborers and beggars; to feed the rao ing horse, the draft horse, the ox, the cow, the beautiful sheep, the pig, domestio fowl, also the vast lines of railroads are emplolyed in conveying from one point to another the produce ot the farm, while all their pro prietos and employees are fed and clothed by thee things which flow from the culti- n vatiorof the soil. The present population of the(nited States demands 30,800,000 cat tle aniually to supply it with beef, butter, I cheese and milk. Thehusbandman may push his enterprise to its ttmost capacity, and bring his land to the hi est state of cultivation, and employ all the~mproved machinery of the age, el tivatin his own mind by the study of the science of geology, the science of chemistry, and anmcjuaintance with every improvement in agr)ultural art, and the highest princi ples ofstock-breeding, and apply them all to the freatest production of which he is ea pable, and he can do no more than keep pace vnth the accumulating wants of man and best. It is true, a surplus may exist in some localities, but the wants ot other parts, ad the facilities for transportation will veoy soon absorb them all. The iusbandman is the first and the last in the great channel of supply, and he fills a positiot in the scale of human development and progress more potent and more honora ble thai kings and rulers, and should claim the proper dignity of his calling, instead of occupying a cringing and dependent atti tude before the world. No class of citizens should command greater respect than that engaged in producing the necessaries of life; nor should any other class exercise a more potent influence in the nation. And while other interests are extending their influence, the interests of the husbandman should be guarded and promoted; and instead of occu pying an inferior position in the body poli tic, he should assert and maintain his rights by united and intelligent action. The false, yet popular, idea that a man's reapectability amol,." lis fellows is gradu ated by ae extent,.' i pIoasessions, it l.bfe standingj, ~aled by ll ,. iiiount OfhbWl.Oe will soon be obliteratc ,I. and merit alone will become the rule by which to measure the man. The husbandman with intellect and personal merit will supersede the man who has money but lacks mind, in the social and political world. When.farmers and mechan ics shall boldy step into the front ranks they will make their influence felt, and reforms will be the order of the day. Then shall we be a prosperous, contented and happy neonle. It is true, that the producing class, as a general rule, are treated by those. who are getting control of the capital and business of the country as inferior beings,. and labor is not classed by them as of honorable call ing. And the old-time dogma, that the class controling the wealth of the country should rule, while those who labor for a support are to remain "hewers of wood and draw ers of water." But, it is true the persons 'engaged in manual labor in the various in dustrial pursuits of the country number more than one-half of the whole population; and whin this great number fully under stand their rights, and their interests, and assert tleir position socially and politically their claim will be felt and respected.-J. V. Maples, n American Stock Journal. Colma4's Rural World has this to say of the best and earliest varieties of tomatoes: The Canada Victor has proven satisfacto ry with us for earliness, but we have iow the One Hundred Days tomato, which is to be still earlier, on trial. Hathaway's Excel sior is a superior tomato, but by no means early. Trophy is still one of the very best, and nearly as early as any. Sow early and root prune when transplanting. Give them a warm situation; against a board fence on the south side. It will bring them forward` much in advance of the open field, and if te' fence be palnted black with cold tar, it will help. The system of pinching when the blossoms appear, we never practice; and if there be any gain in it, we wish some of our readers would give "a the modus opera*di. GnAssHOPPEris.-We hear fromn all ssesr; tions of the Rocky Mountnih agriculturak region, reports in itegard to the grasshoslp per. It appears that the unusually warm weather during January and February has had the effect of hatching out the eggs de posited during last autumn and the iesulb will be that millions of eggs that might :avf developed into till-grown hoppers will oome. to maturity"'t ati untimely period, and will find and early' and welcome grave. This will give the L~n iers of Ooloradd confidence to put in drops for: the caurrent year.--Golo rado Farmer. HORSCIILHjR, When raspberries of one y~i-or older are' to be s't out it is best to plant them it.this fall or very early ii the' spring, n been&serof the prominent1buds near the crown which: are to produce the ienes foriitxt year's fruiting. The e bjds' start vert'y °arly "a are easily bi.Mkeh oh ' The tips, on:thi eIots' trary, and tht."oung; green suckers'of some varieties shodla be' set' ut in the plantation in the spring. Raspberries are ustially put in rows st feet wide and three feet apaj't; or they mawy. e'. planted in hills ithe' feet apart efs *ey which allows euitlt.tion Witthl t 4~ts4. both directions--in thi. method a.tes rd set to each hill. V, aroius devices have been applied to support the canes in the :rows but with proper treatment and pru~1iig ,,they are not needed,: " The new plantation should be well culti - vated the fitst st asbh, fter whleh one b~itwo J plownilg :each year Will be found iifflicieo, especially if the plants be rtulcbed. The s suckers shoul-' be kept- town by using *a ý- sharp ,hoe, euttltg ote.'. off uset .below the a suirfice as tir te'iptarp exceptsuch a. may be need."d for thef plantatfowu,;d ~d 1 those of the uit~srnhl-earerg like the BRil 3 de Fontenay, which 'eprodbrfr fiil er4his 1 young wood. Mulching is very desirable<to t preserve the moisture of thesoil, A;ny coarse I material may be applied or this purpose. In most soils coarse man ir e ban be sedi to advantage, as the raspberryls a gross fbeder ; and the so-called perpetuals or more correet I ly, autumnal-bearers are partialarly. bone r flted by manuring, The favorite support for raspberrles Is the L stake, standingbeside " the' hill and proje6t ing about five feet above the grnUidL 'to s this the five or six canes ~re tied cloeely r when trimmed in the spring.: The aclvan - tages claimed for this mithod are the Bsiig s ness, allowing horse-eultlvatiqn, and '~ie I compactness of the group, which eaiiables t the pickers to make their progress i ltitr vesting the fruit. s Another plan is to set posts at intervals of " thirty feet in the line of the row, atnd attohit r a strong wire to these about three feet-bove ground. The trimming mpay be done in sutnmer andin early spring, . 'ih n f. er consists in simply pinching or cutti. b.t' the topi of the shoots that are risi. form tob' es for next year. These maybe cut i t and a half or three an.. a'hai feetes' aecorlhng to the strength of tiepl ant~t .T l'`hbbJect of this is to induee, the jiOductli6tt f `side branches and thuas't. ticreas 'the prdduc tivetiess of the ca es. Sniieit-pruning in another forargio`af be doe to' ada tage. by removlngý_the. e cshustve oanes afer the truit has been harvested; at the sa , time t is well toeathls te ae. es ' they are too nnm:uons. iiht$t=pru.t may be done lte t'th fall ; bit ont sot accounts it Is better to dela It untio af ter ýbeak lug upý of wintg~ ut b're fore, bii =wel su mer-p~~, thee dmd m * o oot ,Waels to,ý he xnrennoved,i nd the' a r shbrtened:to two, tbrhei wr ftf pt aqoord, Ing to thiqr strength. If, ~1yl qoga were ptpiboed the pre.ious summoe, .t* .o neo essar to remove the weaker bieheid and to sulorte the stronllger i iap rs l two to six inches in length. , , ,