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ROCKY MOUNTAIN HUSBANDMAN
ER ANNUM. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and General ewS. I ER SLNGLE COPY. VOL. 1. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., MAY 11, 1878. NO. 25. .Bnnnnnu I mur n m mn . m· nmn m m PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND I'ROPRIETOR. The RoCKY MOUNTAIN IIUSBANDMAN is desinuned to be, as the name indicates, a husbandlman in every sense of the term, emllbracing in its columns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raising, Ilorti eulture. Social and Domestic Economy. ADVERTISING RATES. -. r t-. w. -. o. -. 0 I week $2 $ 3 $ 5 7 $ $11 $ 20 $ 30 3 weeks 3 4 7 10 12 15 28 40 I month 5 8 12 15 18 21 40 60 3 months 10 li 24 30 30 42 80 120 s months 18 25 36 45 54 65 120 200 1 year 30 40 60 75 90 105 180 250 Transient advertisements payatbie in advance. Regular advertisements payable quarterly. Twenty-live per cent. added for special advertise ments. AGRICULTURAL. FARM GARDENS. The following by a correspondent to the Rural New Yorker, though not entirely ap plicable to this country, contains many im portant facts which are worthy of consulta tion by our mountain farmers. Farmers do not generally realize the ad vantage, the profit, of a good garden, be cause they do not sell what is raised in it, nor buy vegetables if they do not raise them, and yet if they do not raise them they have to buy other things to use instead, or use up what they might otherwise sell. There is no better way to estimate the value of gar den produce than by its price in the market. Men who raise vegetables to sell get from two to live hundred dollars per acre, at wholesale prices, and the consumer pays much more. Now if the laborer and me chanic in the city (where bread and meat are nearly as cheap as in the country) find it economical to buy vegetables at prices that would pay the gardener from four hundred to one thousand dollars per acre, the garden is surely worth half as much to the farmer. A good garden is worth more money, saves more money, than ten times the amount of land will yield in ordinary field crops, and every man who neglects it loses his best op portunity to make money. But a poor gar den is a disgrace to a farm, and time and money thrown away-poor soil, planted too late, and covered with weeds-this is its his tory, and failure is the result. But the profits is not the only advantage of a good garden. It is a healthful luxury. If farmers would eat more vegetables and less pig and pastry in summer, they would be healthier and suffer less from heat and thirst, and consequently drink less eold wa ter, which everyone knows is very injuri ous. As farm gardens are usually small, it costs but little more to make it a good garden than to make it a failure. The first neces sity is to have it thoroughly drained so that it can be worked very early in the spring. Then a good share of the garden work can be done before time to begin the general work. Many persons do not think it worth their while to do anything in the garden un til the whole can be planted. The conse quence is that some things are planted too late, and some too early, the farm work crowds, the garden is neglected, and a few sickly vegetables and a great many luxuri ant weeds is the result. SThe next thing after draining, is thorough manuring, and this should be done at the rate of from twenty-five to forty two horse loads of manure per acre every year. It is better to use different kinds of manure than to use the same kind constantly. It is with this as it is with farm crops-the best results are produced by rotation or variety. No sin gle kind of manure contains all the materi als needed to enrich a garden, and when the same kind is used all the time it seems to lose its power to feed growing crops. Hen maan4r ain ashes, used in connection with stable manure, have a good effect, as does lime or plaster, sown broadcast after the planting is all done. Having put the soil in proper condition by drainining, manuring and deep plowing, and thorough harrowing and rolling, the next thing is to plant it. Each kind of seed should be planted as early as there is any prospect that it will grow. As but little of each kind is planted it is better to run the risk of having to plant part of it the second time, than have a late garden. Early peas may be sown almost as soon as the frost is out of the ground. Cabbage plants, if they have been properly hardened, will stand considerable freezing without in jury. Potatoes can be planted as soon as the hard freezes are over. Sweet corn, let tuce, onions, beets, carrot, beans, cucum bers, may be planted much earlier than they usually are, and if they fail to grow, the same ground can be planted for a later crop of the same kind. Do not plant all the corn, peas, beans, radishes, etc., at once, but make successive plantings, and then if the earliest fail the next will come on immediately, and after the earliest are too ripe to use, the lat ter planting will be ready. Late cabbages and cauliflower can be planted after rad ishes, lettuce, early beets and early pota toes-celery after early cabbages, and any' ground cleared before the fifteenth of Au gust can be sown to turnips. One of the important aids to a good gar den is thorough culture. Don't let the weeds get started. It is easier to keep them down than to pull them after they have got started, and hoeing the crop is a great ad eantage, even if there are no weeds. BUSINESS HABITS. There is probably not one farmer in ten thousand who keeps a set of accounts from which he can at any moment learn the cost of anything he may have produced, or even the cost of his real property. A very few farmers who have been brought up to busi ness habits keeps such accounts, and are able to tell how their affairs progress, what each crop, each kind of stock, or each ani mal has cost, and what each produces. Knowing these points a farmer can, to a very great extent, properly decide what crops he will grow, and what kind of stock ie will keep. He will thus be able to apply his labor and money where it will do the most good. He can weed out his stock and retain only such animals as may be kept with profit, For the want of such knowl edge, farmers continue, year after year, to feed cows that are unprofitable, and fre quently sell for less than her value one that is the best of the herd, because she is not known to be any better than the rest. Feed is also wasted upon ill-bred stock, the keep of which cost three or four times that of well-bred animals, which, has been proved by figures that cannot be mistaken, pay a large profit on their keeping. For want of knowing what they cost, poor crops are raised year by year at and actual loss, provi ded the farmer'slabor, at the rates current for common labor, were charged against them. To learn that he has beenworking for fifty cents a day, during a number of years, while he has been paying his help twice as much, would open the eyes of many a farmer who has actually been doing this, and it would convince him that there is some value in fig ures and book accounts. It is not generally understood that a man who raises twenty bushels of wheat per acre, pays twice as much for his plowing and harrowing, twice as much for labor, and twice as great interest, upon the cost of his farm, as aneighbor who raises forty bushels per acre. Nor is it un derstood that when he raises a pig that makes 150 pounds of pork in a year, that his pork cost him twice as much, or the corn he feeds brings but half as much as his neiglh bor, whose pig weighs 300 pounds at a year old. If all these things were clearly set down in figures upon a page in an account book, and were studied, there would be not only a sudden awakening to the unproflta bleness of such farming, but an immediate remely would be sought. For no person could resist evidence of this kind if it were once brought plainly home to him. If store keepers, merchants, or manufacturers, kept no accounts, they could not possibly carry on their business, and it is only because the farmer's business is one of the most safe that he can still'go on working in the dark, and throwing away opportunities of bettering his condition and increasing his profits. FLORICULTUIIE. Burns says, appealing to his master, the Duke of Athol: Would then my noble master.please To grant my highest wishes, He'll shade my banks wi' towering trees And bonnie spreading bushes. Nature gives us volumes of fruits which she always prefaces with flowers. FLOWERs AND PATIENCF.-Mr. Vick says in the March "Floral Guide: "--" Garden work needs a large stock of patience, and we are pleased that it is so; it is an excellent discipline for an irritable temper. Things will not all prove satisfactory the first sea son; but we see reason to hope for better things next year, and we have enough suc cess to give us faith in the future. What a grand school for the culture of patience, faith and hope ! Then, some of our work proves to be in excellent taste, while a por tion we dislike, and resolve to change and improve another year. Thus, while we im prove our gardens we improve ourselves, and while they get handsomer we get, at least, better. We propose no model, there fore, for any garden, and only give a few suggestions to set people thinking and work ing-just the keynote to get tune properly started." PAfAtHYTUM BRACTEOSUM.-This is oine of th-very best of succulent plants. We saw this plant for the first about four years ago-it was rare then, though propogated now in almost every hot-house. The leaves are two or three inches long, spatulated-ob lanceplate, and as smooth and plum as if molded of wax. The edges are rounded and thick, without a wrinkle or uneveness. The color of the leaves is glaucous, suffused in some parts with a most delicate lilac bloom, in others with a shade of pink. Like Echeveria and Klenia, it is prettiest when young, so, that instead of retaining old plants season after season, it is better to raise them from seeds or leaves. From seeds, hundreds may be raised from a single spike and, sown in pans of light soil in the fall, they germinate freely and will be large enough to bed out by late spring. Propa gated by the leaves, the sand should be kept rather dry, as they are prone to damp off. Indeed, dryness suits this plant in every stage of its life, and we have found that it thrives just as well in a hot, dry, dusty sit ting-room as in any other place. As a bed ding-plant it has no superior among su'ccu lents. Li IJEs--For the past three years we have been unsuccessful with many lillies, such as Excelsum, Chalcedonicum and HIumboldti- and previously as well, with Browni, one of the most beautiful of Lillies, which, though we tried it repeatedly with every care, never once bloomed, and after a more or less feeble summer-existence. was heard of no more forever. Sometimes-as with Excelsum more strikingly-a good stem would shoot up a foot or more with every appearance of perfect health. IHlere it would remain for weeks without firther growth and then dwindle away. We have found, upon removing the earth, that these stems had drawn their substimnee from the bulb itself, no roots being found upon the disk, and that the stem must have died when the bulb had yielded all its store of nutri. nent, Extensive growers. we have found upon inquiry, are troubled in the,same way. In soue instances wire-worms are said to do the mischief-destroying the first fibers of the bulbs when, the stem having commenced growth, the bulbs become exhausted in its support. We were told by one gentlemen of experience that in planting, the scales should be held closely together, so as topre vent the earth from falling between them or, planting in tissue-paper was recommend ed. Another had met with good success by surrounding the bulbs with pure sand. An other planted potatoes between the rows with good results, the wire-worms, to which he attributed all the trouble, preferring the potatoes and leaving the bulbs unmolested. We have, however, tried all but the potatoes -a remedy worse than the disease for gar den-plots-with only failure for the result; so that for the present we shall try to con tent ourselves with the Auratums, Lancifo= liums (Speciosums), Umbellatums, Longi florums, Candidums, double Tigers, and others that always do well without extra care.--Rural New Yorker. DOMESTIC ECONOMY. INFANTS' FooD.--Mx the rice flour with cold milk and stir it into boiling milk until of the proper thickness; sweeten with loaf sugar. CREAM PIE.-One cup cream (sweet, anu as thick as you can get it), two tablespoon fules sugar and one egg. Use one crust, make it the usual way. DELICATE SPONGE CAKE4-Use the whitep of ten eggs,,ne and a-half tumblers of flour. teaspoonful of salt; lemon to suit the taste, Bake about 35 minutes or more. RICE MurrINs.-To one quart of sodit milk, three well beaten eggs, a little salt, teaspoonful of soda and enough of rice flot0 to thicken to a stiff batter. Bake 'i riligs. Corn CAIt .--One quart of sour milk, three eggs, one teacupful of flour, yellow corn meal enough to makle a batter as thick as for pancakes. Bake quickly in pans well buttered. RIcE CUSTARD.-IntO a quart of boilinl watter stir in two tablespoonfuls of rice flour, dissolved in a little cold milk; add two well beaten eggs to boiling mixture; sweeten and flaver to taste. ROLLED JELLY CAKE.-One cup sgar, one cup flour, three eggs, one tablespoonfl4 sweet milk, half teaspoqnful goda, essencel etc. Beat sugar and eggs slPghltly, thlen put all together and beat thoroughly. WILD FOWL PIE.--The fowl should be trussed like a duck for a pie, larded with anchovies and seasoned with pepper, salt and sweet herbs; put a good quantity of butter into the pie, and flush like all others,~ COCOANUT PUDDINo.-To the grated rieat of a cocoanut take six eggs, six large spoel. fuls of sugar, halfa teacup of butter and a little soda. Line a dish with puff pasta and fill with the mixture. Bake in a quiek oven. WASHINGTON PIE.-One cup of sugar, one tablespoonful of butter, four tablespoon fuls of soda, one teaspoonful cream' of tartar, one cup flour. Bake in two layers, with jel ly, fruit or cream between. LEMON PIE.--The juice and rind of one lemon grated into one cup of water, one cupful of loaf sugar, the yolkes of,two oggs, three tablespoontuls flour. Frostiug--bgat the whites of two eggs, add four tablespoon fuls white sugar, spread on the pie, and bake lightly in the oven. HONEY RECIPn.-W-Vlite or brown sugar 20 lbs,, soft white 5 lbs., pure bee's honey 3 lbs., cream of tartar 80 grains, essence of roses 2S drops. Mix the above in a bras kettle, boil over a charcoal fire five minntes, take it off; add the whites of two e'gs web beaten, when almost cold add twq. potnds: more bee's honey. A pint of the decoctiQa of slippery elm, of the consiteney. of cream, will improve the honey, if it be added whiet cooling.