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Rocky Iiontain H1lls1aiifflall.
R. N. SUTHERLIN, Editor. THURSDAY, MAY 25, 1876. NOTWITHSTANDING thousands upon thou sands of grasshoppers were drowned by the late snowstorm and the flood which fol lowed, many have no doubt escaped, which, together with those which will yet hatch out, are liable to do a great deal of damage in all parts of the Territory. Our farmers should therefore avail themselves of every means to destroy them. In Colorado they have commenced the manufacture of ma chines that are claimed to be a success. We give an account upon our first page of some of these machines and their mode of construction. They are very highly spoken of and we hope may be brought to such a state of perfection as to solve the grasshop per problem. Aside from the machines, they also avail themselves of the advantage of running strong heads of water through their ditches. Their mode of killing all that fall into the ditch in their attempt to cross over to the growing crop is good. But in a country like 8urs coal oil would be quite an expensive item, particularly during such a spring as this has been, with a corner upon that commodity, when none can be had save at an exorbitant price. In this Territory, however, a Sun river farmer has adopted a plan which is quite easy, and operates well. Every few hun dred feet along his ditch he has arranged dams so as to make falls of from six to eight inches. These are arranged in the shape of a V, so as to cause the water to pour through the center in a narrow stream, forming a whirlpool below. When the 'hop pers go over one of these dams they are car ried under the water and, though not drowned, get a good ducking and are so be numbed and chilled that they are borne over another dam before they are sufficiently re covered to gain the shore, and thus they are borne on and on, from one fall to another, until they become entirely helpless. There are numerous other plans, but it is hard to 4011 WInltu rt=a., , ,....." ." a4rg a WYhat la suitable in one locality is not altogether a success in another, therefore, good judg. ment must be exercised. Experience teaches that it pays well to labor to exterminate these pests and save the crops. Those who sat idly by and cried out it was impossible to save the crops in previous years, have found it to be so. While these who spent their time energetic ally battling against the pests nave always saved a portion of their crops from which they have realized handsomely. It is in deed disoouraging to our hardy pioneers to see their labor thus in vain, but it will not always be so-things will change in time. It has always been the case, and always will be. The 'hoppers will vanish for a term of years bye-and-bye. Meanwhile, we must wrestle with them the best we may. Other cowutries have equally severe drawbacks. They have too much rain or not enough, chinch bugs, army worms, rust and a dozen other ills to where we have one. Then, as we cannot flee to where none of these exist, we must choose the lesser evil by remaining to battle with the 'hoppers. The demand for the products of the farm is gradually increasing, and he who suc ceeds in producing a crop this season need not fear but what he will be suitably re warded. THE Independent, of the 19th inst., states that the wishes of the people of Meagher county in regard to the establishment of a mall-route from Fort Shaw to Camp Baker does not meet with favor at headquarters. This is incorrect. Reliable advices from Washington state that it does meet with favor. The interests of the section through which it passes require it, the officers at Camp Baker and Fort Shaw have given it their hearty approval. The interests of Meagher county demand it. The settlement of Lower Smith River valley cannot prosper without it. That portion of our people want direct communication with their coun ty-seat, and nothing less than a through line will suffile, the statement of our metro politan ootemporary to the contrary not. wltstandlh . Delegate Maginnis fuly un derstands is, aSnd will labor accordinly. T9pe last information we received was that the bill was pending in Congtes with sQRong pr~o~abity of its passipg. SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE. SUN RIVER CROSSING, May 8, 1876. A travel of six miles from the Dearborn brought us to the camp of Mr. Kingsburry, where we were pleasantly entertained, and enjoyed camp-life for a short time-spend ing the night with him. Mr. K. is a partner of Messrs. Ray & Davenport, of Helena. These gentlemen were among the first in Montana to engage in the business of wool growing, and a glance at their flock is enough to convince one that they are far ad vanced in the shepherd's calling. Their flock, which numbers about 3,000 head, is the best we have seen in the Territory. They are entirely free from scab or disease of any kind, their wool is long and even and of good quality. The ewes are divided into several bands in order to enable them to take proper care of the lambs. Their win ter-quarters are about ten miles distant from their present location, where they have an excellent range, good hay-land adjacent, and shedding sufficient to house in their en tire flock. Froni Mr. Kingsbury's we took a north ward course along the valley of the Flat creek. This stream is small and only at fords sufficient water to irrigate six or seven farms, while the valley is large enough to furnish very desirable locations for twelve or fourteen home-seekers. The valley is nearly a mile in width, and for the four or five miles we traveled up it the land is level and the soil is deep and rich. It 'is surrounded by low, broken hills which are covered with grass. Fifteen miles from where we left Flat creek we came out on the bank of the south fork of Sun River at Mr. Con Kohr's stock ranch, where we found Mr. Thomas Hoban, his agent, collecting and branding his herd of four and five-year-old steers, preparatory for a drive to the Eastern market. Crossing Sun river, we continued our journey northward about eight miles, over a beautiful plain, to the residence of Messrs. Hlouser & Hains, who are extensively en gaged in wool-growing and stock-raising, They have one of the most beautiful loca tioovc have o seen in this country. Willow creek, upon which they are located, affords enough Water- to' irrigate twe&ity farms, while the valley is about a mile wide and probably fourteen miles long. Timber in abundance can be had in the mountains to, the west, about eight miles distant from the rninoh Messrs. Houser & Hainms sheep have not wintered as well as some other flocks-their loss amounting to.about two hundred head. This was owing to the fact that their sheep have considerable scab among them, and the lack of warm shelter for winter. Their lambs are coming rapidly and doing well. They have at present employed a force of five or six men who are engaged in shear ing. They intend to dip their sheep and change herding ground as soon as the lamb ing season is over, Their loss of wool from scab will probably not exceed ten per cent. Mr. Hains has recently sold 100 head of beef steers to Mr. Con Kohrs which he is now delivering. We regret that neither of the proprietors were not at home, as we could have derived considerable information from them. On Sunday, May 7th, we returned to the south fork of Sun river and called upon a number of Ithe lrmers w',,omn ~ve found pleasantly located along the valley, among whom we remember Messrs. N. A. Lewis, E. A. Matthews and F. Trantman--all bachelors. The farmers of this section are somewhat discouraged, having been thrice eaten out by the grasshoppers, and several have abandoned the idea of planting crops this season. The gentlemen above named, however, have in fair crops and have com menced war upon the pests by keeping their ditches full of water. Along this stream the valleys are from one to two miles in width on each side, and is most excellent farming land. Anahbund ance of timber is growing along the edge of the stream, while upon the mountains, within a day's dlve for an ox-team, poles for fencing can be reached with ease. The soil is good and can be irrigated with shlght expense or little labor. Hay-land is pleati .al, and the table- u s which border along the valley furnish 'a$ almost inexhaustable pastura.e for thousgds of herds, We have not seen a more desirable place for a colony of eighty or one hundred farmers than is to be found in this valley. We countinued our journey down the val ley, five or six miles, to Mr. T. W. Miller's farm. Mr. M. has about a hundred acres of land fenced in, most of which is under culti vation. Near this farm the waters of the north and south forks of the Sun river unite I and run in an eastwardly direction to its mouth, a distance of sixty miless where it empties into the Missouri, a short distance above the Great Falls. Of the north fork of Sun river we saw but little, but were informed that the hills ex tend in closer to the river, and that that there are but few valleys-most of these be ing adapted to hay-lands. At its junction with the south fork, however, the valley is two miles wide, and for a distance of four miles up the stream it is as level as a barn floor. Leaving Mr. Miller's we proceeded down the river about twenty miles, and crossed over to Messrs. Cox & Flowrie's stock ranch, on the north side of the river. The valley along the route is in most places as large and comprises as good farming-lands as any we have herein described, but the scarcity of timber on the river (the distance to the mountains being from ten to twenty five miles) renders it less inviting for settle ment than some other sections. We found Mr. J. R. Cox, one of the mem hers of the firm, at home and shared the hospitalities of his cozy bachelor retreat for the night. These gentlemen are principally engaged in stock-raising-their herd of cat tie numbering over 3,000 head. They have a large firm enclosed with a substantial fence, a portion of which is under cultiva tion. For the past three years the most successful farming in the country has been done upon this farm. It' is watered by a large ditch taken from the river more than a mile above. We have not seen a better meadow than that covered by this ditch. It is a level tract of upland soil and produces a fine quality of blue-joint hay. Near Mr. Cox's residence, which is close to the foot hills, a beautiful rivulet of clear water bursts pout and runs away through the meado.w, and empties into the river a mile below. IHere the hills rise ulmo.t perpendicularly and form ,n complete fence a mile in length ,ilwich serves to protect. the valley from the '.ortll winds, malking it a permanent and comfortable rendezvous for stock during stormy weather. By building a fence from the point of this bluff to the head of their ir rigating ditch, about a mile long, having the river to serve for a fence on the south, they can enclose 2,000 acres of as good hay and farming-land as can be had in the country. Mr. Cox has made two trips from Texas to Montana with cattle. Their herd was originally pure Texan, but they have been improving it materially by breeding to high grades until at present it may be termed a graded herd. They are the owners of the celebrated thoroughbred Bismarck, formerly the property of J. Germaine, of Helena, and Charles Dahler, a fine three-year-old pure-blooded shorthorn. They have been breeding these bulls to some large American cows, and save the bull-calves for service. This season they will turn about fifty of these grades into their herd. Leaving Messrs. Cox & Flowrie's, we crossed back to the south bank of the river, and continued our jouriey down the valley fourteen miles, to Sun River Crossing. The valley along this route varies from one to two miles in width, and' is mostly good farming and hay-land. A great deal of this, however, is included in the military reserva tion of Fort Shaw, which is situated about five miles above the crossing upon a beauti ful plateau of bench-land. A large ditch has been cut from the river, five miles above the fort, which brings a large stream of wa ter to the post-grounds. Just above the fort is the post-farm, upon which, we are informed, each company raises sufficient potatoes and garden vegeta bles to supply them through each year. The grave-yard, near by, is enclosed within a neat fence and is tasteftlly laid out in walks bordered with young trees and fine shrubbery. Fort Shaw is the regimental headquarters of the Seventh Infantry. The fort is beauti fully laid out with a wide walk and a fine little stiem ot 1.4 Q artR around theQ parade in front of the quarters. Upon the edge of this stream is planted a line of cot tonwoods and evergreens. The quarters are adobe buildings of neat finish and pre sent an attractive appearance. WinL. MAY 10th, the day fixed for the opening of the Centennial Exhibition, was a holiday in Penusylvania. Flags in great profusion were floating over Philadelphia. and business was gennerally suspended. The doors of the exhibition were opened promptly at 9 o'clock A. ir., and an immense throng cro wd ed the several entrances for hours. The for eign commissioners and other distinguishled guests were seated, their entrance being ef fected through the main exhibition building which remained closed to the public until noon. The ceremonies opened at 10:15 sharp. It was estimated that there were 50,000 peo pie upon the ground at that time, while a vast sea of human beings crowded tihe gatey. Every available spot near the grand stand was occupied before the opening ceremonies commenced. At 10:30 Dom Pedro arrived and was escorted to his seat by Gen. IIaw ley, and at 10:35 Gen. Phil Sheridan and wife, closely followed by Hon. J. G. Blaine, Sen ator Jones and wife, of Nevada, passed over from the building to stand in front of memo rial hall during the rendition of the nation al airs. The Emperor of Brazil and party also proceeded to the platform. At 10:43, the President was conducted to his seat on the front of the platform. Gov. Hartrandft, Gen. Hawley and lion. D. J. Morrill occu pied seats to the left, while Messrs. John Welch and Groshon were on the right. Fred Douglas also made his appearance at this time. At 11:30 it was estimated that there were 100,000 people on the ground. At this time Wagner's Centennial inaugural march was performed, and prayer was offered by Bishop Simpson, After which Whittier's hymn was sung with grand effect. Then came the address of Mr. Welch, which was followed by Lanier's cantata. After this .an address was delivered by Gen. HIawley, turning the Exhibition over to the President of the United States, which was responded to by President Grant, closing with the dec aration that the Exhibition was open. LUommunicatea. J ABOUT GROUND-SQUIRRELIS. Mfr. Editor: Having observed an article with the above caption in the Willamette Farmer, of the 7th ult., asking in regard to the peculiarities of these annoying little ani mals and the best method of disposing of them, I thought that, though late in the season for carrying it into practice, what ex perience I have had with them may be of some benefit to those who are troublad with these pests. In regard to their habits I can say but little, except that they have a "habit" of destroying-a large amount of vegetation' of almost any description in a short space of time, especially of grain. To destroy them, I take wheat bran and shorts together and make a stiff dough of it. Then I take strychnine and, if crystalized, pulverize it and sprinkle it very thinly over the dough, then cut it in small squares and put them in the mouths of the holes. If you have poultry or animals that would be like ly to get this dough, it is a good plan to put it down in the holes out of their reach. March and April is the best time to destroy these squirrels, as after that time they have their young, which materially increases the number to work on. S. GALLATIN VALL.Y, May 20, 1876. THE Mi8ssoulian, in sumnming up the ad vantages of Missoula county, concludes his article with the following: " The prospects of Missoula county were never brighter than to-day. MIen ought to be making money here, and should continue to do so as long as there is population in the Territory. The uresent population of the Territory is as small as it will ever get. We have undoubted resources that vilsupport a greater number than we now have, and in better shape than many other parts of the United States where people are now- living. Let any man who is dissatisfied with the Situation commence diligently to inquire where be can go to better himself, and he will feel like talking hold here with renewed courage. And he will feel, too, like taking hold to beautify and make a desirable home here, and for the improvement and eleva tion of the society in which he moves, and 'or the decrease of the burdens which stand .n the way of -public prosperity. We must Learn to live more economically as a people and as a civil government until we have passed the era of depression whic~ .J~rQW :verywhert e -,ts'