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O0CKY MOUNTAIN HUSBANDMAN
rlt1. ANNUM. . A A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and General News. PR 10 COts. PER SYNGLE C(OPY. OL. 1. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., JUNE 1, 1876. NO. 28. OL.1. I DITAnOND CITY, M. T., JUNE 1, 1876. -O. -28. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .n nun . 1 0 . 2 8 . m Ii UBL1SIIED \ WEEKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, E,)ITOIR AND) 1'IROP'lIET'lt. ROCKY MOUxNTAIN IIUSI:ANI)MAN is (lesilgwe , as the i:1 e iln(ipieate , a ulis'.)I(IlnIuil ill every oft t .i thm , embrall ilng ill its (olllllns Cv('ry t lent of A.gricul ure, Stoc'k-raising, Ilorti e, Social id 1)oi,ti(: ILciiomlyV. AI)V iN'iTI.IsNI l..'I'l.. k 2 $. $ $ 7 $ 0 $11 $ 20 $:0o ks :i 4 7 10 I I, 28 40 nth 5 5 12 15 1 21 40 60i nths ]I 1n 21 ý1 I I I 12 nhs S 25 I 5 54 (; 12o 201 r 30 40 K0 75 90 1 115 l,15O 250 tnsielt lldverl'ti.e' ents l' yu: blc inll al\'ldvanclle. ular aldvert is(me'nts payable qual terly. enty-li\e per cent. added lfor spCcial advertise AGCRICULTURAL. THE FIELD OR STOCK PEA. c stock pea has been and can be succes cultivated amnywhere south of the Ozark in this State. 'There is nothiinii better ttle than stock peas, and it is said that -ill fatten a hog faster than corn. It nateId that twenty acres of peas, even grown among corn, will fatten thirty If stock is turned into tie field, the ng corn will not be disturbed until the re eaten. Horses and cattle eat the ds and vines, and the hogs will eat scattered on tie ground, so that none sted. ally this pea is planted with corn. In se it is customary to plant with the wo peas in a hill in every alternate In the southern part of this State two e planted in every hill when planting In the gulf States, both corn and the eas are planted at a much greater dis part-iin some instances five feet. If n has been drilled in, two or three y be planted every three or four feet the rows. It the peas were not put 'll at the time of planting the corn, the time the first plowing is done double shovel or walking cultivator. ltivating the field one way, and when mence the other way, drop two or as opposite every hill, just in the lhe front shovel, so that the seed will ed up by the rear shovel. Ordinari as should be plowed twice after planted. are several varieties of this pea. rite varieties are, the Black-eyed hip-poor-will; the Black-eyed pea d in Virginia, where the farmers ing portable fences, feed parts of t a time. The hogs are turned in the pens begin to mature. A pea the southern part ot this State as ea, is preferred on account of its nd productiveness. The speck ip-poor-will pea is an early ma ety, and can therefore be planted t is easily injured by rains when se peas have been grown exten e vicinity of Diehlstadt, Mo., and of the Rural World in that vicin lige us by giving brief statements regard to their culture, for stock fertilizing purposes. les E. Prunty, of this city, who ecialty of field seeds, has furnish samples of the most desirable f the stock, or, as he terms them, eld peas. ould be supplied with more green ent food, of such a quality as the ords, it is possible that we shotld less than we do now about the ages of the hog cholera. We un ly advise the more extensive cul he field pea south of the Ozark a trial of the hardier varieties hat line.-Colman's Rural World. lish the above, not for the purpose g the straits to which people of are reduced in regard to land, but that our rea(ders may know that even in a ()corn country ipeas are regarded as an excel lent feed for stock-particularly ihogs. =\)w, every one k]nows that a firmer in the States could easily get rich raising hogs of it were not fir the 'cholera. In 31ontana this disease is unknown, and if hogs can be s~tressfully fattened on peas, as we believe they can, we do not see why our farmers cannot do well plroducingf pork. Peas are a sure crop and yield aJblundantly. Ilogs are exceedingly healthy, and ba('on is always high. It is retailing now at thirty-five cents per pound, and not a year passes that it (does not reach twenty-five cents. If Montana could prorduce her own supplly of pork, ba con and lard, it would satve thousands of dollars to our people annually., QUANTITY OF SEED PER ACRE. There are various opinions held by farmers and gardeners 'in regard to the quantity of seedl required( for an acre of our coIImmon field crops, still the numerous tables pub lishled difler but slightly. The Maryland Farmer gives the following, which we think is not far out of the way and will doubtless be useful to our readers. Some of the es tim:ates are not in accordance with our ideas, as. for instance, potatoes and wheat, but it will serve as a general guide: Often a farmer or garldener will be in doubt as to how much seed should be planted to the acre. Of course, circumustances some what vary this matter. One thing is certain everywhere-that is, that poor land requires more seed of every kind than rich land. The followini table gives the quantity of the leading articles sown to the acre. Of course, it is important to get good seeds. Some few seedsmen mix bad seed with the good, excusing themselves on the ground that people always sow too thick. None of good character do this, of course. It is al ways best, however, to examine seeds care filly before sowing. The tables are intend ed for good, new seed: Asparagus, in drills, - - - 6 to 8 lbs, Beans, dwarf', in drills, - 1 to 1 1-2 bush Beans, pole, in hills, - 10 to 12 qts Beets, in drills, - - - 5 to 6 lbs Buckwheat, - - - - - 1 to 1 1-2 bush Barley, - - - - - 11-2 to 2 bush Cablbage in beds to transplant, - 1-4 lb Carrots, in drills, - - 3 to 4 lbs Corn, in hills 3x4 - - - 8 to 10 qts Corn, for soiling, in drills - - 3 to 31-3 bush Cucumbers, in hills, - - - 2 lbs Melon, musk, in hills, - - - 2 lbs Melon, water, in hills, - - 3 to 4 lbs MIillet, - - - - - - 1-2 to 1 bush Onions, in drills, - - - 4 lbs Onions, for setts, in drills, - - 6 to 8 bush Parsnipl, in drills, - - - 3 to 6 lbs Peas, in drills, - - - - 1 1-2 bush Peas, broadcast, - - - - 3 bush Potato, (cut tubers) - - - - 6 to 10 bush Squash (running) in hills, - - 3 lbs Squash (bush) in hills, - - - 4 lbs Turnips, broadcast, - - - 2 to 3 lbs Tomato, to transplant, - - - 1-2 lb Clover, red alone, - - - 10 to 15 lbs Clover, Alsike, alone, - - - 8 lbs Clover, white, alone, - - 8 to 10 lbs Clover, lucerne, alone, - - - 16 lbs Orchard grass, - - - 12 to 20 lbs Blue grass, - - - - - 12 to 20 lbs Redtop - - - - - 12 to 16 qts Oats, broadcast, - - - 2 to 3 bush Rye, broadcast, - - - - 11-2 to 2 bush Wheat, broadcast, - - - - 1 to 1 1-2 bush Timothy, alone, - - - - 1-2 bush Millet, - - - - - - 1-2 to 1 bush For a good lawn sod, different gardens recommend different combinations of grass es; among them, the following 'is a good mixture, for and acre ot lawn: 5 quarts Kentucky blue grass, 6 quarts redtop grass, 5 quarts Rhode Island bent grass, 2 quarts creeping bouent grass, 2 quarts white clover. The ground should be 'well underdrained, deeply plowed and mado thoroughly fine and mellow, and rich with well rotted and mixed composts; then the grass will grow thick, fine, soft and even. All the grains, and most vegetable seeds, germinate and come up evener and quicker, and grow more thiriftily alld ripen better, if the seed lie soakcd in salt brine or copperas water a few horus and then rolled in plaster, lime or ashes to dry it lit for planting; be sides, another benefit is derived froni this brining grains and other seeds-it does much to prevent destruction by birds, vermin and insects. C(OLoat1)o liE1.iLE.-A old farner gives his experience *with these pests as follows: " As soon as I perceive the larvne have form ed and commenced operations on the leaves of the potatoes, I choose a dry day when the top of the soil about the hills is dry and dusty, commnene at one end of the rows and grasp a handful the dust and throw it sharply against, the tops which knocks olf a large number, and tho.,e that rema:in on the top are so nicely dusted that they will die from the effects of the dust ; they are so moist the dust sticks to thenl very readily. In a few days after first dm;sting I look over the piece again, and it any remain, dust them again, and have no more trouble with them. It don't take much time to go over an acre. Let every farmer who is troubled with these nasty things do this and we shall soon head them off. WHIIEAT CROPS IN FRANCE.-In fifty-three years, including 1874, forty years show :an excess of production ; in the remaining thir teen years the consumption exceeded the holne supply. In 1874 the production was 377,799,440 bushels, and the consumption 2(0,235,158, leaving a surplus of 108,564,282 bushels for export. A PARADISE FOR FARIEuRS.-Brazil is the farmers' paradise. A young gentleman formerly from Georgia, writes: " A plan ter's life in lthis country is agreeable and easy. In cultivating the land no plows are used ; only the ax and hoe are needed-one for clearing the land, and the other for plant ing. My crop of coflee for this year is small on account of the frost ; butI am now plant ing 20,000 trees, and when they bear they will give me 100,000 pounds of coffee annu ally-an income of $9,000 or $10,000. ENTERPRISE IN FARMING.--There can be no question that the lack of enterprise in farming is one great drawback to to the pro gress of agriculture; but it is not the great est by any means. The great clog to im provement in farming is the lack of infor mation-of that knowledge necessary to skillful and well directed labor. A farmer should be educated in his calling, and if lihe has any industry he will be an enterprising and successful cultivator. Every spare mo ment should be spent in reading and study ing some good work on agriculture.-Am. Stock Journal. Among the most useful plants of New Mexico is the soap weed, the roots of which are used as soap. Those who are in timhe habit of using the plrlnt prefer it to soap, and claim that it extracts all dirt and grease much more readily, and that it restores the lustre to the goods. I1O RTICULTURE. SOME APPLES OF A CENTURY. Retrospective investigations by laborers in any branch of science or art, are often nec essary in order to prevent thelm from becom ing too egotistical and conflident in their real or supposed advancement. Our pomologists are not wholly free from a taint of self-laudation of their great pro gress, and while we are not disposed to che.k enthusiasm, which tends to promote the happiness or welfare of the l:masses or even individuals, still it may not be amiss in this, our Centennial year, to take a retrospective glance over the past century and note some of thie important changes which ihave taken place in the production of certain kinds of fruits. The apple being one of the most familiar and valuable fruits in Europe and America, it, well represents our progress in i)omology generally. It is now over one hundred years since the Ribston Pippin apple origiinated, as is supposed, in England, for in 1875 there were grafted tree of it for sale in the Bromp ton nurseries l)ro)pagated from the original tree growing at. Ribston Hall, near Karnes borough. We name this variety not only on account of the great popularity which it has since obtained, but because through its once ap parent decline in England for a period of years, came the oft dliscussed( theory of nat ural deterioration of all cultivated fruits. For some unknown cause, nearly all the trees in England were, during the early part of the present century, affected with a dis ease which bidftair for a while to prevent the further propagation or culture of this then fiunous apl)le. Thos. Andrew Knight, a noted English pomologist, while trying to discover the calus of the (lisease, cale to the conclusion that the Ribstoin Pippin was really dying of ol(1 age, and all its progeny must necessarily go with their parent. Singular, and we might almost say absurd, as such a theory was, there were many to accept it as a true solution of the mystery which surroundced the decline of this old and popular variety. A few years later, however, we find the Ribston Pippin again recommended as one of the very best varieties in cultivation, and to this day it is seldom left out of the most select list of dessert apples. Its introduction into this country dates from almost its first advent into orchard cul ture in England. For one hundred years t irapplhha,. rank ed among the best, and the late A. J. Down ing said that in Great Britain it stands as high as the Bank of England. In this country it has never been valued as highly as in its native clime; still we think a variety which can show so old and valuable a record is worthy of being placed high up in the Centennial Roll of Honor. The old Rhode Island Greening, Newton Pippin, Baldwin, Tompkins County King, and many other popular sorts, will probably remain in cultivation and be exhibited at our bi-centennary celebration. For our part, experience shows that there is little room for progress, except in the production of varieties adapted to certain conditions or climates. In seeking this, quite a marked progress has been made during the past few years, and in no one direction is it more ap parent than in what are termed Siberian (or Crab) apples. It is not many years since. our list of these apples was made up of a half-dozen small and scarcely edible sorts, raised from the small wild apple of North ern Europe. The varieties of the common Pyrus maius having in the main proved too tender for the more northern and northwestern States, our pomnologists were compelled to seek a more hardy species, and this was found in the Pyrus prunifolia, or Siberian Crab-apple. For a number of years only acid varieties were produced, and some of our fruit-growers began to despair of a sweet sort in this spe cies ; but it came at last, and now there are several very excellent ones in cultivation. One of the very best, if not the best, is the Van Wyck. It originated near Fishkill, N. Y., and was first brought to notice and de scribed by us in 1869. Since that time it ha, been propagated and widely dissenmninatel. We have several trees of it growing in our grounds, and they give promise of being very vigorous and productive. The Van Wyck is quite large for a Siberi an, the skin white shaded and mottled on the side exposed to the sun, with light red. The flesh is tender, sweet and rich. Riplen . in September and October. We consider it one of the most beautiful and vl:uable t' all the sweet sorts.