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ROCKY OUNTAIN USBANJDhIAN
- .00(S 10 Cts. PER ANNUM. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and General News. PER SINGLE COPY. VOL. 1. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., OCTOBER 5, 1876. NO. 46. )UI3LISIIE) WEELY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, EI)TO1 AN)I) 'I P'ROPiRII:TOlt The RocKY Moi UN r.\IN Ii iS AN1)CAN 13 deSigned to bo, as the Im1'110 inicate s, a hu1 iuhnlman in every 1musoof the ItIIIr, C1br1)acing i, 1 i o C lumn1s every department of AXrr'tulture, Stock-raisi g, Ilorti ulture. Socil an t I )01 tic, F (1nom01 . ADVERTIISING IHATES I week $ 2 $ 3 $0 $7 $ 9 $ 11 $ 21 $ 30 S 2 ws 3 4 7 10 12 15 23 40 l month 5 t 1 15 I 21 40 69 3 m)nths 10 1! 24 30 i; 42 1 80 120 6 months 18 25 Ia 45 1 65 I 120 20)) 1 year 20 40 II) .) Si0t 1035 |10 250 Transient w! verti..femeCnts pjy)IV . il iadvance. Regular advertisemeInt, payable qualterly. Twenty--live pI cent. de1 P for (pLCe. I advertise monts. AGRICILTURAL.___ NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZA TIONS. TN Thle first succesCttfl effort to orgahiize a a National Agricilt'nid AXn iition was. we believe, in Soptemher, 1811. The late Solon w Robinson was itS chif advocate, as the col- iu uDmus of the old Union Agriculturist will ' show. By favor of Nr. Ellsworth, then b Conunissioner of lPatents, a meeting was vC held in the patent oflice at Washington, and1 p a temporary organization effected. In 1)e- In ceniber the organization was completed and g a formidable list of vice-presidOents, among in whom we recognize more politicians than q farmers, was elected. It held a meeting in N the following year at which the president , delivered an a(llres. We have found no u< trace of its fut hor exi~tCnce. This organi- at C ation was known as the Agricultural Socic- i ty of the United States. a In 1852, the United States Agricultural Society was organized, and continued in ex Istence, we lbelicvc. untiil I1800, holding eight large and generally successful national fairs. I' With the exception of the National K Grange, which, being essentidlly different lc in its character, we do not now consider, that any new organization was formed until " October, 1870, when the agriculturists of ten " or twelve Southern States met at Augusta, A Ga., and organized the Agricultural Coll gress. They adjourned to meet at Selma, ti la., in 1S71. Whether the meeting was actually held at that time, we are not in- r< ormed. 0 In October of 1871, delegates from several S outhern States, and from two or three lI 'orthern ones, met at Nashville, and organ- t zed the National Agricultural Association. '1 . committee was appointed to confer with t e Agricultural Congress at Selma, the re- c alt of which conference was an agreement N o meet at St. Louis in 1872, and to there t usolidate the two organizations. In De- i mber, 1871, Commissioner Frederick c atts. of the Department of Agriculture, led a National Agricultural Convention c meet at Washington, February, 1872. he convention met, and was well attended, but its members proving somewhat intracta- i ble under official influence adjourned in dis- I grace and held no farther meetings. the Aofricultnral Congress 1 and the National Agricultural assuctt.'-' met as agreed upon at St. Louis, and were consolidated into the National Agricultural Congress which has since met annually at Indianapolis, Atlanta, and Cincinnati ; and whitih met September 12-14, of this year, in the Judges' Pavilion, on the Centennial grounds, at Philadelphia. We make these remarks in order to clear up missapprehensions as to the origin of the 4pngress. It originated in the ouoth; it grew out of the need of associated action on the part of all who are laboring for the ad Vancemst of the agriculturists of the coun try. It asks and sh ould have the -active co operation of the agricultural press, the agri cultural colleges, thebotirds of agriculture, the agricultural societies, the grunges and farmers' clubs, front Maine to California. I'raric Farmer. REPELLING GRAIN WEEVIL. In answer to inquiry, I would say that the only way to get. rid of the weevil is to keep grain in a clean place, and to spread out uin til thoroughly cured, so as to avoid heating. It is very diflicult to clean a place where weevil has been prevalent, as they and other ,rain pests, hide in the cracks and seams of the bin, anul no cold of winter will certainly kill them. The germ of the weevil is often in grain that to all appearance i4 perfectly sound, aind only awaits a suitable amount of moisture and heat to develop. In grain houses our only remedy, when we have in fested grain, is to screen frequently, and try to keep cool till winter. I know of nothing to kill weevil in grain that will not recom mend storing in a new place, far enough from where the infested grain was kept, to prevent them crawling to it. I have of cin put weevils on the floor at some distance from a pile of grain, and they would make a bee-line for the nearest lot-never go away from it. They will sometimes fly whien in the hot sun, but not often. I once made a test by taking about a pint of sound wheat from a boat-load, in which I could find no indieation of weevil, and after sitting very thoroughly in a coarse hanid-sieve, I put in a glass jar and sealed it very tight. In a few weeks it was alive with large and small weevils (two kinds), and they lived for more than a year in this tight jar. 'T'his was a season when there was a great deal of wheat troubled with weevil. Ordinarily when wheat is dry and cool the weevils do not injure it. The surest way to keep grain, after it is dry and very thoroughly cleaned, is to keep it in a dark place.-II. II. L., in Country Gentleman. WHEAT EXCLUSIVELY. The San Francisco Bulletin has some ap propriate remarks on the subject of wheat growing exclusively. We condense the fol loving: Tliere is something wonderfully facinating in wheat farming. The season of hard work is short. The profits come in a lump. A sack of twenty-dollar-pieces in exchange for sacks of wheat is very attractive. But there is something about wheat-growing which makes a country look desolate. We recently rode sonic fifteen miles through one of the best agricultural districts in the State ; yet in all that distance, save a lew hundred rods of good fence, there was not a tolerable farm improvement in sight. The district had been settled for more than twenty years. There was not a flourishing orchard to be seen. Not a single farmhouse which was much above the grade of a shan ty. The barns were mere sheds, around wlich were broken wagons and the refuse of agricultural implements. One is teumpted to inquire, What is the connection between wheat farming and such a desolate and unthrifty aspect of farm life? There is, of course, the least amount of ag ricultural knowledge and skill brought to the business of growing wheat. If the tarm er goes no farther, lie will not be likely to take much interest in blooded stock, spaci ous barns, fruit orchards, and a hlandsonme farmhouse. When the land is exhausted I for wheat, then he will sell out to some one who understands how to put it to some bet I ter use. Our wheat farming looks better on paper 1 than anywhere else. We tabulate the num ber of bushels produced, the number of tons r for export, and calculate the number of e ships which will be required to carry away ,t the surplus. That is quite the most attract n ji side of the exhibit. 'T'hme attractive home I- steads never will be connected with wheat k- growing any more than with sheep herding. It is not until the huid is pretty well ex i- hausted for wheat that hand oiime hmomesteads 3, begin to appear, as tii Napa valley, Sonoma, d Santa Clara and Qiher valleys, where farm lag has con to mean more than wheat growing. It is a singular deduction, but nevertheless true, that where wiheat-lariumg becomes unprofitable, the attractive home stead is sure to appear, and hardly before that time. GERMINATION. It was proved, says Nature, a short time ago, that several kinds of seeds will germi nate between pieces of ice. A full investiga tion of the lower limit of temperature at which plants may (rgininate has recently J)een mal1de by M. Ilaherlandt (Centralblatt fur Agriculture Chendc.). The experiments were upon Wheat, Rye, Barley, lied Beet, 1Rpe, Lucerne, Poppy, and many other seeds. Several hundred seeds were em ployed of each species, and every fourteen days the seeds were taken out of the ice chest, whose temperature was kept constant between 0 0 and 10 Centigrade, and exam iied in a space whose temperature was un d(r freezing point. In forty-five days a de eded beginning of germination was ob served in the eight difleremit species (which akb named). In four months it had con tinued to progress in a minority of these; the rest had stopped. In fourteen species there was no germination. M. IIaberlandt is 'f opinion that those seeds which can genminate at a lower temperature than oth ers and thus by artificial sowing in cold spices a means is at hand of obtaining spe ci<s soon ripe and needing little heat. Of all the seeds which had remained for four mouths in the ice-case, only a few were fomud capable of development when brought int( a warmer temperature of ,160 Centi graie (61l0 F.). DOMESTIC ECONOMY. _ DISH-WATER AND DISH-WASAI##.W 'these are the most discouraging elements of iousework ! I say this awful truth be cznse I have proved it, you have proved it, yoir neighbors have proved it and the stnnger within your gates has sighed be case of the disheartening truth. Don't anwbody attempt to contradict me. Don't evn shake your head. I know it, and it nikes me cross to have anybody make the retotest intimation that my word or knowl ed e admits of a doubt. Rhe sweeping and the dusting is discour agig enough, but there -is this consolation. Its not the same dirt which you swept be fo(. Washing is bad enough, but the dreadful I notony can be brokeni by high winds, bnken lines, snow squalls and scrubbing. Ir ii'ig is hard enough, but the clothes are sondtitnes too dry, sometimes too wet, irons toobiot or too cold. Ooking is awfully tame, but it is not the sane flour, the same sugar, the same eggs, theame soda, the same salt, and so on to theud of the endless variety of ingredients neded. There is, too, a soft of wicked sol ac'in the thought that while you labor to us all these articles, it creates a necessity fo labor to supply the new demands. Every " 16f of bread, and cake, and pie, every pud dig, every soup, every fry is not the same - did awful same. 1hut those dreadful dishes ! You carry I tbtn to the table ind put them crrimly in th old set places at morn ; .you take them - o after breakfast and set them down, poor wite, inanimate, unthinking claycy clods, r lithe dish-pan. You rinse them in water - tht looks like the liquid in which you rinsed s tbnu last. You put them one after ano! her ,f itthe same dish-pan, you scald the same y kuckles day after day, you dip them in the sale dripping pan, you wipe them with the dii-towel that looks like every other one in b- tb world, you set the mute things in the sale places on the pantry shelves, you wash ti same \illianoius-looking griddles, spi Is ()s. kettles and pans, you scrape and pimm i, h the same '' catch (ni places." you wash n- tL dishicloths in the same way that your mother, grandmother, and great-great-great grandmother did. hang them on the same old nails or bnslies that your childhood knew, wash the disli-pan inside and out in the siuhe old wearing way, and are (lone in time to put them on the same old places on the dinner-table. You are fortunately or unfortunately, giv en strength enough to play your part in the same miserable drama again, rinsing, wash ing, scalding, scouring, and are in time to take the miserable, hackneyed porcelain back for tea, and then there they will sit on the kitchen table by the side of the al most immortal dish-pan, staring at you un blinkingly with the same white, unthink ing, soulless eyes. You rinse, seal(i, wash and scour again, and put the dead pictures of discouragement on the same shelves and the next morning there they sit winking stupidly, harmlessly, staring mutely and appealingly, the same white plates, cups, saucers and bowls, and away you go, ferrying them over to the breakfast table; and so on and on to the end of the century, if you are unkindly spared so long. Hence, I repeat : Dish-water and dish waching are the most discouraging elements of housework. There's the occasional recreation of break ing a plate, a valuable tureen, or glass, but there comes another to its funeral ; it finds itself on the same pantry shelves and tables, and is prepared to stare as relentlessly as its predecessors. There is no change, no respite.' Your folks will never learn to cat from unwashed plates, and so the stolid ferrying, the grave placing, the weary rinsing, the unending washing, the aggravating seaming, the voiccl.el wiLing, the unendin gustu;', the Tna4nu mto grouping, the changeless brush and the ever-youthful pan will live on and on from decade to century, and no machine will ever come to a'successful rescue, and dish water and dish-washing must continue to discourage, dishearten, weary and aggravate girls and women who cannot learn, to be content with monotony and labor which Is dead compulsion-no more.-Cor. IHouse. hold. Ragout of Chicken.-Cut the fowl or chicken in pieces, and let it simmer untifl it is gilded, not browned(; take it out of the stewpan, and make brown sauce by the ad dition of as much flour as may be necessary for the size of the dish. Having done this, put the pieces back into the stewpan, add ing some small pieces of raw bacon, mild, and half fat, some esehalots chopped line, salt, a good quantity of pepper, a smaaU bunch composed of parsley, thyme, te. Let the whole simmer over a slow fire, mnd let it be well covered that there may boe o escape for half an hour; then, according to the size of the dish, add mushrooms aim' small delicate onions. When all is cooked, arrange it in a dish and decorate according to taste, Ccnfenial Sponge Cale.-Two cups of smg ar, two cups flour, tour teaspoonfuls baking powder, four eggs, one cup boiling water. Mix the eggs, sugar, flour and baking pow. der thoroughly together ; add the boiling water; stir quickly; put into pans aDil bake innuediately. If desired to be very moist, bake in a quick oven. To Clean the Inside of any Tea-pot.-If the inside of your tea-pot, or coffee-pot, is blark from long use, till it with water, throw in a small piece of hard soap, set on the stove flnd let it boil from half an hour to an hour. It will clean as bright as a new dollar; and costs no work. Rice Sponge Cake.-Three-quarters of a pound of rice flour, one pound of white siug ar, ten eggs ; beat the yolks with sugar, )he whites alone ; add the yolks, sugir and flour together, a little at a time ; flavor and ba..ee in shallow pans.