Newspaper Page Text
ROCKY MOUNTAIN HUSBANDMAN
PER ANNUM. A Jornal Devoted to Agriculture, Llve-stopk, flome Reading, and General News. PER SINGLE COPY. VOL.1. DIIAMOND CITY, M. T., OCTOBER 26, 1876. NO. 49. pUBISIrED E WYEEKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND PROPRIIETOR . The ROCKY rMOUNTAIN IIUSBANDMAN is designed to be, as the name indicates, a husbandman in every sense of the term, embracing in its columns every department of Agriculture, Stock-raising, iHorti sutture, Social and Domestic Economy. ADVERTISING RATES. a r wycek $2 $ 3 $5 $ 7 $9 $11 $20 $30 - weeks 3 4 7 10 12 15 28 40 1 month 5 8I 12 15 ' 18 21 40 60 I months 10 161 24 30 36 42 80 120 6 months 18 25 36 45 54 65 120 200 1 year 30 40 60 75 90 105 1 180 250 Transient advertisements payable in advance. Regular advertisements payable quarterly. Twenty-five per cent. added for specit.l advertise Uients. AGRICULTURAL. LABOR-SAVING MACHINES. No one can visit the Centennial Exhibi tion without becoming impressed with the fact, that in the invention of labor-saving machines, American inventors take prece dence of those of all other nations. The bent of their genius has been and still con tinues to be in that direction. The reason that it should be so is not far to seek. In a new country, labor, from its scarcity, is al ways the dearest element in the cost of pro duction, and any machine that will supple ment the work of human hands and cheap en production, finds ready purchasers. In mills and factories and shops, in all the handicrafts, and in every field of industry we therefore find either original inventions by Americans facilitating the work of the slillit] mroolano, or iml)rovements malo by them upon old machines that at one time were regarded as the perfection of man's in genuity. But, if there is one department of inven tion in which Americans have been pre-em inently successful, it has been in labor-sav .ig implements and machines pertaining to agriculture. It was a field into which very few foreign inventors had entered. Their skill and ingenuity had been applied, for the most part, to the improvement of process and machines relating to manufactures. There is an overplus of agricultural laborers throughout Europe, and farms there are di vided generally into such small holdings that the cheap labor of the peasantry suf ficed for the tillage ot the field and for the ingathering and threshing of the crops. In many paits of Europe the flail is still in common use. Less than forty years ago, the grain harvest was reaped with sickles. When the scythe with its cradle was intro duced, it came into use slowly. It was .re garded as an innovation, and the poor com plained of it because it cut the grain too close, and, unlike the sickle, left but little on the field to be gathered by the gleaners. In the United States the need of farm hands stimulated invention and made it profitable. The modern reapers and mowers are both American inventions. The first successful reaper, if we mistake not, was made by Page, a Baltimore machinest. The fanning mill, if not in its original shape, certainly in its improved form, is due in the perfection to which it has been brought, to the inven tion of Americans. The threshing machine is an American invention. So is the com bined portable threshing, fanning and bag ging machine by which grain can be threshed in the field, and carried from it in bags ready for market. The railway horse power Is, we believe, an American inven tion. American plows, American hoes wrought from a single piece of steel, Amer ican forks and scythes, and especially Amer lean axes, have also acquired a world-wide reputation. Go where he will abroad, the observant traveler will find these products of American genius. They may be the w.ork tf foreign implement-makers, and, in some Instances they ~my have been moditled by them, but they are of American origin, and the inventors sometimes receive a royality on their sale. But the best market for our agricultural implements and machinery, as it is already in other articles manufactured by our people, is destined to be the South American States. Already our agricultural implements and machinery are exported there, but they have iot been brought into general use. The display at the Centennial Exhibition is bringing them largely under the notice of South Americans now in Phila delphia, and as one of the results of it, a correspondent of an Eastern newspaper writes : " One thing is certain-an immense trade in agricultural implements made in the United States with South American coun tries will result from the displays at the ex hibition. Our manufacturers can easily get all the orders they want in Brazil and the Argentine Republic, without any fear of En glish competition. Very favorable reports concerning the mowers and reapers recently tested here have been sent to the Argentine Confederation, and large orders are expect ed here. A gentleman who owns a farn of twelve thousand cultivated acres in that country, told a reporter that he should use only American machines. The same can most probably be said of Brazil in the fu ture." We have already lighted quite a nuttiber of South American cities with gas, and furnished them with water. Our mill wrights have for years past been engaged in putting up and superintonding the n.iohin ery used on South American plantations, in constructing mills of various kinds, andt in building railways, and we have no doubt that, hereafter, to the commodities that are the products of the United States, and which now find a market in Brazil and the Span ish-ymerican republics, will be added annun ally increasing supplies of our agricultural implemonts and machinery.-Baltimore Sun. IMPROVED METHOD IN2 WHEAT CULTFRE. A communication addressed to the Com missioners of the Department of Agricul ture at Washington, D. C., by Mr. John M. Heiges, of York, York county, Penn., un der date of May 20, 1876, says : "In reply to yours of the 17th inst., re questing me to give an article on the princi ple I have adopted in wheat culture and its results, I would say I commenced farming about eight years ago. My success in rais ing wheat was not very satisfactory, and as I did not believe in seeding with the drill, I scored my ground with shovel plow, sowed broadcast and harrowed in. I thought my wheat looked much better than adjoining fields sown with the drill; still, not being satisfied, and believing that I could not raise a crop of corn or potatoes without cultivat ing, I asked myself the question: Would it not pay to cultivate wheat the same as corn? " In the summer of 1872 1 mInured about three acres of grotnd, plowed it down about the 10th of August, and let it lip until about the 20th of September, when I plowed the second time and harrowed well. I then measured off a sixth of an acre and used' a common hoe to make scores about five inches wide, and as nearly level on the bot tom as they can be made. I left a space of about six inches wide between the scores. I sowed on said plot eight quarts of Fulti wheat on the 25th of September. and raked it in. In the spring of 1873 I hoed the spaces between the wheat once.in April and once the first week in May. Sowed to clo ver after the last hoing and had a fine crop of clover. When the wheat came into head! I found them much larger than those ot th same variety sowed the same day on adjoin ing ground of the same kind of soil, and the whole treated alike as to nmanuring and plowing. I harvcstcd and threshed from the plot over eight bus: els, or nearly3 double the amount per acre produced on the re mainder of the field. I always plow twice fir wheat and very deep. " In the fall of 1873 I sowed all my wheat upon the same principle, but making my scores (with a double mould-board. cultivat or) about eight inches wide, and the ridges About ten inches wide, sowed broadcast and harrowed lengthwise once, then dragged to level thd ground. In the spring of 1874 I cultivated a plot of one acre. I hoed part of the plot once, part twice, and the remainder three times. On the part hoed once the heads were about one-eighth larger' than where I did not hoe; on the part hoed twice they were still larger; and on the plot hoed three times they were larger yet, some of them meiisuring nearly six inches in length, and satisfying me that it pays to hoe three times. The yield from the crop cultivated was fifty-five bushels per acre; from the re n.lnder of the field about twenty-three bubhels per acre. Of course I did not sow the plot hoed to grass. The remainder of the field was then sowed with timothy and clover. " In the fall of 1874 I again put my crop itl hpon the same principle. Some of it I 1 without spring cultivation. 1 found tait the heads of that which I did not culti vate Were larger than the heads of the same vrety put in with the drill, but not any tg in comparison with the heads on the gttid which I cultivated. I have a lot of gqind containing twenty-nine yards re-less than the third of an acre-on sto h I sowed fifteen quarts of a.new varie tylbf wheat, which I had made by cross fealization, using as the parents Arnold's hybrid No. 9 andPitp , then former l eig a the latter a red and one-fo thbushelsorC'bbit at two thirds bushels to to the acre. only one hoeing in the spring of 1875; InT tinefall of 1874 1 procured one pound of seed ofe Wheat 1ngported from one of the German. States, soine person iraing brougl. tit with. him from Germnai*y LA 1qd for the ;potm&i one dollar, sowed it orn.the fltty-sixth. part of an acre. I hoed it'once In April, .gati, on the 3d of June, cut and thrashed from. the product one bushel and nine and a. hUtf quarts, or at the rate of seventy-one bushels: per acre. I had the plot measured by two of the managers and in the presence of the' President ai iteietary of the York OCunty. Agricultt ral S9ctety "I have now about fix acres of wheat grow ung jnt outiI:n the'sa me way, except that last fall I made the tcores twelve inches wide, left the '~isdds fdO 'cultivating 'ten inches Wld.'ttffreby utilliing more:* grounde thatlr-etetofore, and ushin the same spape ,for 4dirlfktibn. -My wheat this tsummer' loolg muich' bettetl than :'ny former year at this I&ne I am" wellsattirfse that the e.al, 'vatages :are, mbre space occupied, a more -fr~e iculatlodi of airspýpelig up the soil to a.d warminth ithe tI heVlant iseems tQ nd sich influenced," thsd al inge of thie wheat in larger ir ssea , soy that it is more diflfchi.t for the frostito: tprookt it, and the better setting of the plait if lifted- by. the; frost. 'talso seems to. ne that it protects itself better than when sowed with the, drill; You can form a mnore orrect idea of it when you see the. whlOat growing. As I said be. fore, "I sow brtadcat;, And barrow length wise and oearlyailthat falls on .the ridges rolls downutint the scores by harrowingi Th 'l' xtra cost of putting in wheatln4his way,. and of cultivating it, over..the: cost of drilling, I do. not think would reach $8 per acre, though I have not kept an accurate ac. count.. "I have now given you, as nearly as I can, on paper, the pri.icple and results of my experiments in; wheat culture for the last few years. These experiments have convinced me that the new method is more successful in Yiusnring a crop than any other,"' THE CROPS OF CALIFORNrA.-The Cdti fornia Farmer gives the following iesiime f this season's crops : The grain crops of all kinds were never do large as the present year. The wine yield will be the largest ear known. The harvest of frLult of all kinds tbelit and best ever gathered. The hop gathering will surpass all fgiin er years. Our new products of oranges, lets nuts, raisins, the best yet known. It' laments, however, that the markets a~i not good, that trade is depressed, and tthat manufacturers must come to the aidqf htj bandry before the abundant harvests cadl" reaped to advantage. CROPs, in general, are reportt~ throughout the entire country. 'Farthi'r will have plenty to eat, even should° they not receive high prices for their inrhdit This is more than those of other' vocatons can say, especially in the cits. " DOMESTIC ECONOMY. Packing Eggs for Winter U.e.-Stion g. tlme water is the best of anything, but in the41b sence of lime many pack their eggs small end down in common salt. Some greaes the shells with melted lard and pack inbrdn. A very good way, too, is to fill a eolshder full of eggs and pour over them a teakettl ful of boiling water, then, when coolki.rpt in salt. .he hot water slightly cookd t-i outside of the egg, making it air-tightf Thls 'is a favorite Weay with many -houaekeepe*r. To Test Eggs.-As it is desirable int 4ko for winter use to put up none but slAtek in at 'o nee d this toward the ight~,, &iidIf tie egg 1 it will look perfectly clear; if''tale, e idark. This is an exoelient test altlUw~: C1lin g. a dozen nie-sized:: apples; put ce-p4n a sauce-pan with a little wqter to j 4t)I*: 1 from burning;, boll them until .y The r (out doanot forglet to fte f theri ) the a * of#.. a of curran t' oe& OtQ .;.. d Pppuogh b sug 'Ot , 41tt t ed also p lIttle grated iutý., ture pto lajrge tart4Z or pr viou s beg li4 wit a Then roll out anther piece the p and th eknes ,wicaLh ýlc ( press the ed9*gOr'll e. ot s HOle ai the ýeiato tutx a . ieiD and bake. - Mountaiw Briud.r4N* p aines . with a quarter of, a p..t~ `samei l t nbb eath i rug1h salt, mixIt witth o l stir throat tea st i poo nt.y 3 .:t , out veryn trhi banoke onI~tta ta b - kmfe, ada perndi :qtfa .. ttea . fi t butter in a pint nt , tA graluaglyinto a cart of sip o ' adS half a teapooltfl of i..t E f- . fuls of yeaso; lt it urise alt I it breakfast;i fbr tea, set it at nioon. baking add half a sfall etapoui of soda; pour into atshalltw `n, wihtih et+ beenwbuttered, and bake halfh an oibar e good oven. soda Biscui4.-IThree pint= of hour, a tablespoon of butter an done of lard, a In spoon of salt, three e*e .41 of owMam mt tartar, one of soda; ?ithie cream o :tsrta' with the flour dry, rub the butter and lart very thoroughly through it; dissolve )th sodas in a pint of ,tik u and mix all togth.. Roll out, addhig As little four as posEWble: cut with a b si cqt-cutter ahd bake tweaty minutes inda q(lIek oven.