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Rox OUNTAI HUSBAND) MA
PEt . AK A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Rome Reading, and General Newsa. PER1 G C Pt . VOL. . IH AMO:[OND CITY, M. T., DECEMBER 21, 1876. NO.' 5 p BLISIED WL L:: Y ;Y R. N. S , T HE R. EDIT(O.' A?.D P;.i I: :·1 ] to be, as the nn , i : benSoof theterm, ,-,:. ,, :. h: . : : deaertment of :. .. ,.. eslture, Soci . : ' S .. Sweekls 3 :. 1 month 5 Smonths 101 i:' - ; b months 10 Transient adw :i,; : Regular adlvorit :' .. . . .:: . :i Twenty-livo pf1( .; .150 ments. The cutting :v% ,,i% " l4 r' 1,,i I -.:1 been carried tosuch ni (X-' ;, hI1 6 ",sty of more trees ,I 0 .,. l., it . 'ultry is soobvious, t. a , i, -n for the promotion of I i" -:v . (u , ized. The objects of t~, .: .r to &;ter sta tistics, preserve' t', cit,,:, :. , i .!~ ,courage tree-planting. Ani (".l111 It a mlap showing the o(,;St .. . ..-;:':.. hIe country andits forests :il, :ce .n (lC i' trees; but When we ex=.1 : s::, s annual consumption., t +i,' :,,: =,l (i . , strange that attention,,l... t,· dV d t' . i: e subject. From an eachl:. 5 we t'`f) t , ti ,ll.owing: "The locc,urlitiv '-: i is : thi' :,roads of the United States ::i. f .ii rc,1k n; as fuel as much wood w .w..i t.':.::nt 25 years' growth on 360,',: :i.r. Iii order to sup ply the railroad ti.:> ,-d :n nutally upon the roads now in ,~i ::.s:. Ih' timber of 30 years' growth ru.t hi: r .el nved from 68,000 acres of the be-t ni..:; woodland. The telegraph lines ntw iit (:.,; ration require for irpairs that at I1'f t 2:.':10O trees be cut an diually. Even Ihe r: :i intacture of such in significant things :al ý!'.e pegs and matches requires in the agg.: rgate a great deal of lumber, amounting in the former case to 100,000 cords of white birch, and in the lat ter to 230,000 cubic feet of the best pine. An estimate has been made that 'during the 10 years between 1850 and 1860, 30,000,000 acres of forest covered land were cleared in the United Stat'es for agricultural purposes, or 10,000 acres a day for every working day during that time. These are some of the leastrthought-of drains upon our timber sup ply, and yet how iprge they are. It we but bring to the estimate the enormous con sumption of wood for fuel and timber for building, it will be difficult for the mind to grasp the annual reduction of the tree cen sus of the country." In some parts of the world forest culture has progressed so far as to furnish valuabk data for the encouragement of those inter. ested in this country. M. Becquerel is aun thority for the statement that in the valley of the Rhone a simple hedge, six feet high will protect for about 50 feet Mr. George P. Marsh sends home the fol lowing from an Italian journal: "In consequence of the felling of the woods on the Appenines, the Sirocco pre vails greatly on the right bank of the Po in the Parmesan territory and In Lombard. .Itrres the harvests and the vineyards sometimes even ruining the crops of thb season. To the same cause we may ascrib the meteorological changes in the precinct of Modena and Reggio. In the commune of the districts where formerly straw roof resisted the force of the wind, tiles are no' hardly sufficient; in others, where tiles for merly answered for roofs, large slabs ( stone are now insuficlent; and in man neighboring communes the grapes and th grain are often swept oil by the blasts the south and southwest winds. The following well attested instance of i,;us change of climate is probably to be re- en( 1 'rr ed to the influence of the forest as a wi :hlter i:om the cold winds: To supply we ie extraordinary demand for Italian iron me 'ecasioned by the exclusion of English iron inf during the time of Napoleon I., the furnaces ,f the valley of Bergamo were stimulated o greater activity. The ordinary produc tion of charcoal not sufficing to feed the forges and furnaces, the woods were telled, t.he copses cut before their time, and the rep whole economy of the forest deranged. At nil Piazzatore there was such a devastation of sci the woods, and consequently such an in- ab creased severity of the climate that maize far no longer ripened. An association, formed of for the purpose, effected the restoration of an the forests, and maize flourishes again in the tri fields of Piazzatore." ar Not many months since, Prof. C. S. Sar- he gent, Director of the Botanic Garden, and t l Arnold Abotetum, of Harvard University, no published in the Report of 1875 of the Mas- fr( s:lchtsetts Board of Agriculture, a paper er advocating the culture of forest trees on m poor and worn out lands in that State; and b( now the Massachusetts Society for Promot- fa ing Agriculture has reproduced the paper,. to enlarged by directions for the planting and ar care of seedling trees, and gratuitously dis- ar tributed them to the public. The society g( offers the following list of prizes: $1,000 for lo the best plantation of five acres set with, a larch, or Scotch or Corsican pine, not less of than 2,700 trees to the acre; $600 for second tr plantation of same; $400 for third best st $600 for the best plantation of five acres set st with white ash, n9t less than 5,000_trees to a the acre; and $400 for second best planta.. tion of same. The prizes will be awarded ~ in 1877. A Boston citizen has offered to superintend the importation of the pin and larches, which must be brought from ft Europe. If New England has need for a more trees and is taking steps to that end, s our Western States should fall into line and p put our territory in the way of all and any p benefits that can result from the enterprise. Id -Factory and Farm. t AGRICULTURAL ITEMS. n In the township of Ryde, Canada, Mme W. H. Brooks raised 2,000 pounds of flrstIass hops from an acre of ground, for which he a was offered $600. f" The potato crop in the valley of the larn, t Scotland, it is said, will be the finest since 1846. Some of the fields near Crieff have yielded from 12 to 15 tons per Scotch acre of unusually large tubers, at least two-thirds of the crop averaging from one pound 'to one and a half pounds each. At the office of Jackson & Maude, i13 Montgomery street, are some remarkable sweet potatoes, raised at Bakersfield,, Iern county. One of them weighs 22 pounds, and another about 18 pounds. Six of these potatoes, represented to have been taken out of the same hill, weigh 115 pounds in the aggregate. Mr. Ohmer, of Dayton, Ohio, raises 300 bushels of quinces from three-fourths of an acre of land, worth from two to three dol lars per bushel. Fine specimens of black tea, grown by Dr. S. J. Jones, at his farm, five miles from > SThomasville (Ga.) were recently exhibited r at the Thomasville fair. Competent Judges Swho have tried it pronounce it equal to tiy black tea grown in China. SA farmer, during the present seasoa, threshed 1,164 bushels of oats, the produce Sof ten acres of ground on the hill about Sthree miles north of Lewiston, Idaho. Mr. H. N. Spencer' has growitg ls td, f same field in which he produced the mam y moth pumpkin, weighing 2321 gounds, a I grape vine planted from a cutting last spr - ,f which has made a growth of thirty-av. et in length, and which at ten inches from the A ground measures eight Inches i eircu~tser ence. This is evidently the identical field of do which it was said that if tenpenny nails os were sowed in the afternoon, a crop of ready w madte plows could be reaped the next morn- lit ing. tr THE POULTRY YARD. he ar POULTRY ON THE FARM. w Much room as there may be for doubt in E regard to the profits derived from poultry at raising when conducted on an extended hi scale, we think few will question the profit- 01 ableness of a few fowls when kept on the fa farm. Their food, in great part, is made up ti of gleanings of the fields, noxious insects and waste materials from the kitchen. 'It is a true that when too large a number of fowls o are kept on the farm, they may draw too heavily upon the grain in the field or vege- ,t tpbles in the garden; but, the thousands of lI noxious insects scratched up and picked oft c from the plants must be placed to their credit, which, in miiany iostat}ces, would it more' than balance. w.att could. rightfully b be charged to the damage account. But a farm without fowls would leave the farmer's table barren of fresh eggs, broiled chickens, E and many other artleles" which are almbost an indispensable adjunct to farm life and good living everywhere ; consequently, we look upon the birds bringing such luxures' 1' as worthy of the highest consideration. in i our domestic economy. In additiozi' to the usefulness of domestic fowls, they ( should also rank high among the ornamental t surroundings of -a country home; for we . c can imagine notiing more beautiful thq a I .ck-otfome of the pure pp os Ing I orer lawn or field, or floatlgg, tM n. 1 faee of sR)s yl1t of.Tfst. .4i*t4er en flying or trudging home at nighttfall a for their supper. It may be that there .o i men to whom this ornamental viye of the i, subject will appear more sentimental than dl practical, but it is just as legitimate mmn i portant as the admiratlen of beautiful fruit, t lowers or pictureseand the one who can take such a view of the rafisig of fine poul try, has the advantage of the one who can not, for he adds to his pleasures thereby. ' Rural Ne1u Yorker. r FATTIGxxo POULTRY.--A the time has arrived when farmers prepare their poultry for market to supply the holliday demand, the following hint may prove useful to them : If properly fed, poultry will acquire all the fatness needed in a fortnight, or three weeks at most. Their diet should be corn, oat or is barley meal, scalded in milk or water, the former preferred, as it will not only expedite the fattening but improve the flavor of the poultry. They should be fed early in the morning, at noon and In the evening just le before going to roost. They should have n access to a plentiful supply of pure fresh water, plenty of gravel and fresh greens, such as sliced cabbage, turnip tops, Ac. If n the fowls are required to be very tat, some ia trimmings of fresh mutton suet may be chopped up and scalded with their other 00 feed, or they may be boiled in milk alone, m and poured over the. meal. This renders '- the flesh firmer than it otherwise would be. When fit to kill feeding should be stopped iy for twelve hours or more, that the intestines at may become comparatively empty. ed EXTENSIVE H.ENERY.-I-. IF. Wade Sworth, of Sonoma county, Cal.,is now keep u ing 800 hens and 500 chickens, the business proviug highly remunerative. Hie has adopt. n, ed a system which insure. success. The e fowls are kept jin separate houses, made to ut accommodate 50 head. There is a good range in which the fowls mix together in s.the day and return to their respective roosts - at night. The houses are made of wood, *20x14, 8 feet high at the front and sloping t ground at the back, with open:lattlie __.. rat either end for vwntillation. The he osl moveable, 6 feet long, s inches m-i wide ~ai 1 inch thick, are frequently taken down, soaked, cleaned and rubbed witWSkei osene. These sheds are thoroughly c.ted with limewash, occasionally mixed; wtlh a little carbolic acid. The sitting nests;fare treated similarly. The feed consistr otf ran and shorts, wheat and oats, .bolled .beef heAds, chopped' cabbages and corn : lWks and boiled potatoes alternated. Ruling water passes through the sheds and apps. Eight huniidred hens consnmel10 lhs. of weat and 20 lbs. of oats daily; 26 dozen of ,ggs have been gathered In one day. ; 'btq;lcret of success is cleanliness, a variety ~of.ood fodd and pure water. With those reqsites there need be iib failure. ar ~KEPINGi Eoas.--Take a latter fir\ki, or any tight package, place a laye of fi4fi salt over the bottom; into this set the e4, large e.d down, as cl6sely as ppssible" without touching each other ; fill with sai.ti.it1I the layer is covered, ind then proceeddibitore. Care must be taken that the salt #i' and thatit be kept so,.eTsa it will cake aiildfnake it troublesome to get the egg.i itf out breaking. ~_ _ :.____ Euo AIIcNo.-JieIV's eggs b inh in from .nineteen to twenty-one duy, ý;e7s, from twenty-six to tweity-9ine d .c, .in twenty eight days, Guinea i lfoiiM twenty-Ave to twenty-seven das` fowl In thirty days, geese in thirty to nt two days. D OMEST I C ECONO'MV. Fruit Cake.--2 pounds sifted lour,.2ipounds butter, 2 pounds currants, if pounds rat* sins,18 eggs, pound, ;of :almond. bIlaacbed and chopped, J pounzd of citron, jpou. d of prephted lemon1s ab I naepe ea 1 gilmt ofbtandy. Put' the battte.r la.t pan In 'a warm place, ands work with: t.thnd; mix with It into - simooth,'are4 ti sugar and splees,'.theu break lathieegg 4ljegreqs and' str at 1 tt4wentys1b ites 1. j la tinm brandy, then the flour, work a:Uttit, then lightly. 'Thmis tkeiriaet oa or dinary size. The cake will be v.r lhigh~ and quite huist If the fiuit N i chopped. Two or three hours is sufficient time .for baking, when removed from the pan, eaa e pa. per on the cae untUyou wl to it fbt the table. This cake l keep gq4 for a yerhan . Bread.c-Jist befdre _re`tiring lat i night, dissolve a yeast cake in a cup of r tepid water; add fine flour, to mak. a bat. e ter; cover, mid set in a warm pl&de. Tbs a first thing in the morniig, add a piit of tepid water ; one teaspoonful of lalt; a half tea B spoonful of soda ; two tablepoonfli of s-. t gar; one teacup of fiue i~o'r,'nud Graham e flour enough to make a astlt batter; put the s mixture in 4 bread-pan; set it ai & wardm place until sufficiently light. Bake In a f moderate oven . e Mince Met.,-Four pounds of trdhound 0e e beef, after it is boiled and choppedi ; eight r pounds of chopped apples; 'two pdunds of , chopped suet; three pounds otraidsns; two s pounds of sugar; one tablespoonful each Sof clove, cinnamon, allspice, and t4ro large I nutmegs, one pint of molasses, one quart of s cIder, ono and a half pints of good brandy. Sfqlt to taste. SAnother.- A shin of beef, boiled till very , nder, one pound of nice 'clear beef suet, , chopped very fine, a tabletpoonful of salt, six pounds of green appiles peeled, cored Sand chopped, three pounds of ralsiss stoned, three of currants carefully cleaned, one d ponud of brown sugar, a cup oi maple sirup, Shalf a pound of citron, shreded, half a s pound of candied lemon peel, a quart of the best cider. Instead of the cider, some Spersons prefer a quart of Madeitra wine, and a little brandy... e h F-y Ra.&bits.-Cut them in joints, t re try themn to a nice brown hin butter; ei e. thiaem to:the table with frled parsley r Ivt nu gravy.