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0 CK Y OU NTAI HUSBANDM IAN
. . - ----------.. ...-----_ _ . . - - - - S a d o ict, IiestcO, PYome I Ynin, a1 en 18 7. 1O. 7 .R I O n. )L. D DIAMOND CITY, M. Tm, tJAU 4~, 1877. xO. 7. EDI'1TUR AND P1,)Pl:ITO y.[O3FNTAIS It;: BANDI)AN IS d(esigne1l e mi -n in, e n ':. 1 i tb, Ian in every e t'ri' , t' l ri ii' i t; lt lns ever ('j t of A gri| "ca1 c, tOik'-rai:ing, Ilorti O 1ial tl' I)o n.c n tI v). 3. AI)\'P:II'TI IN 1'i A 1:ES. $2 $5 $- $I$) $11 $20 $30 10 1' 15 28 40 10 lo 21 :t 0 . 42 80 120 s I1 065 121 2I)0 SO 4. 1) T5I ) ) 105I 180 250 entadveti.ementllt t I:; ,ya IL in advance. r advertisements payable qut, :arterly. -five per cent. added for specui.l advertise hItIU UtR A L. WHY MEN FAIL. there are circumstances and events occur to drag men to commercial ich are unavoidabile cannot be dis but that a n;t:jority of individuals onsible for their own failure is equal Where one man is ridden down by spiring of natural causes, a large scuttle their own craft and go under rm brought about by their own mis ment and greed. The old-fashioned given by careful and experienced hasten slowly, is not heeded as it be. An innate greed for gain pushes reason, and the candidate for com honor and a place in the business rather than grow slowly and surely will hazard alp on the cast of a die to the wall. Many firms are seeking much business on a capital of $10,000 d be done with $50,000, and when of hard times comes, they read the ting on tie wall and are found . This does not apply alone to mer d manufacturers, but will find a arly every farm house to hang on. mer is seeking to owrl a larger n his neighbor. He will sow more wheat, plant more corn, breed more a word, seek in everything to out .ompetitor regardless of merit or fits. What might be called the pol ,riculture is a study that is not suf understood by farmers, and the tare laid down to be obeyed are i by too many. What does it sig lant fifty acres of corn and only much as might be obtained from 'es where good seed is selected and iven care and attention. The in the remaining twenty acres would y put the thirty acres in condition more than from the entire fifty in the usual way. The instances re where thrifty, sagacious farmers g more net profit from fifty acres economically managed than others ing from four times the quantity, o other reason than that the large it half cultivated and is more ex every way to own and manage. of business studies his trade; he the seasons and crops; knows tural causes have prevented aver ss, and will naturally reduce the de of trade and the stand.ard of re ity; does not try to sell furs in or straw goods in winter. There is in which experience teaches that :ualities can be sold, and others ey cannot. All these things are of thoughtful, sagacious, success f business. Can as much be said ditof the farmer ? Year after year ant wheat, and each year realize a crop ; if corn is his hobby, he his acresonly with corn and mourn hat only yields him half a crop, e thinki.ng there are laws govern 'ience of agriculture that must be that the chemistry of the soil, the of the climate and other natural c5,es Iny .d!1t e'very ell)ort made in tlhe dirctioni lie is worlkin!. i 'lJThe old story of thle girl who put all her eggs in one blas.ket, wliein going to llarl.:t, is relpeated over and.I. over agmili. ;~hi di rop ped her baskct andti her little fortune was golie. ILl .1 she divic(ed and carried themii in two separate qulantitics, half would have )eec:n sav.ed for her. So with the farmier; if inist":il of all wheat or corn, or any other one kind, lie will divide his crops and plant solme of each there will never come a season when all fail. Let the husbandman introduce a good breed of cattle and hogs, plant his cultivat ed acres with wheat, corn, oats, rye, etc., taking care to select good seed, study the average, and know by experience which is the most sure crop, and give most attention to that that has rewarded most surely, and he will be approaching a standard of judg ment and excellence in his calling that will be gratifying to himself and improve his credit and standing. -Factory and Farm. VALUE OF PLOWING IN FALL--INFLUENCE OF FREEZING. Much benefit may commonly be realized from a careful preparation of land for plant ing and sowing. The physical preparation of the soil for the reception of seed is a mat ter of much importance, for whenever the land is not mellow, a considerable portion of the seed is likely to fail of germination, and thereby to be lost. 'l here are other benefits which are natu rally conferred upon ground by plowing at other times than when it is required for the reception of the seed. But the various kinds of soils are quite unlike in that which relates to the benefits they are likely to derive from fall and winter plowing. A soil that abounds in sand is not capable of receiving anything like the same measure of benefit from plow ing in fall or winter as one that contains a large proportion of clay. Sand has but feeble, if any, capacity that is appreciable, for absorbing any of the fer tilizing gasses (of which ammonia is the most important), while clay, and especially when dry, has the most remarkable capac ity for absorbing and retaining this fertilizer, of any of the materials that naturally be long to soils. Clay, that belongs to a compact soni, or when it is filled with water, has no impor tant value for this purpose. But whenever it is thrown into ridges, so that a large por tion of its particles are exposed to the at mosphere, and to the influence of frost, it is rendered peculiarly valuable, and on account of the facility which is furnished for the ab sorption of gasses from the atmosphere. Some of the clay soils, or the loams tha.t contain a large proportion of clay, sometimes remains very compact, or in large lumps, even after they have been often plowed. This is often on account of the presence of a small quantity of some mineral substance. This condition may sometimes be readily changed, or by natural processes, which are secured by mere exposure of the soil to the atmosphere. The most common of these substances is the prot-oxide of iron, which is changed to a per-oxide. There are no available agencies that are as effective for the reduction of a compact soil to a mellow condition as the frosts of a cold winter and the free sucess of air which they ultimately secure. Whenever such hlnd is thrown into ridges by deep plowing in autumn or early winter, frost is likely to act as a disintegrator of such soil. In addi tion to this benefit, when the warm season arrives it is in the most favorable condition for the absorption of the fertilizing gasses trolm the atmosphere, in addition to its other influences. Tihe question that relates to the extent which nitrogen of the atmosphere is capa ble of conferring benefit to soils or to grow ing plants seems to remain unanswered. Some persons have suspected that inasmuch nc ti,. ,lmTnpnt is so abundant as a natural e( tir "',,'=2 to tils iant:ul r",Iii:'im.iit (ol uamy iatt 1"1 t1ihere seea.; to be no evi d(ece tUat it is thus uiasefl. l. is well known tha:t o:-;;ren of the atmosplhere ir an: inmpor taut, attgency in changhilg soils and manures, and in iitting them for the uses of plants, as their natural foods. Although ammonia is so important as a food material for plants, it is not useful for this purpose while it remains ini tie condi tion of a compound gas. it parts with its nitrogen portion or element to serve this purpose. 'tlie method of plants for sepa rating and appropriating the nitrogen of ammonia has not been as well determined, as with regard to the separation and appro priation of the carbon from carbonic acid, both of these compound gasses being re ceived by the plant through the medium of the atmosphere. Growing plants are capa ble of receiving carbonic acid for the build ing up of their carbon materials and of part ing with the oxygen, which is returned to the atmosphere.-Prairie Farnner. PROTECTING AGAINST FROST. M. G. Vinard proposes a method for pro tecting vines against frost in spring, which embodies the idea of smoke as a blanket to secure the earth against the influences of extreme cold. The plan, which is said to have proved successful, and to be of easy application, is described as follows : It con sists in caretully mixing gaster with saw dust and old straw, and piling up this mix ture into larg;e heaps in the vineyardh. The mixture ren ins easily inilamable in spite of rain or w61ther, for more than a fortnight. When required for use, smaller heaps are made of the large ones, or about two feet in diameter, and are distributed in and about the vineyard. If there is a little wind, th. heaps burn freely for about three a1i_ hours, and produce a very d The artificial cloud which t the vines considerably decea~~sa " . - tion: from the ground, and wi - o : ter, acts frost, which is greatest toward the morning of calm spring nights, and which does so much harmi to the plants. This method ot protecting vines 2nd trees from frost by smoke, has been tried success fully at O. C., by using scraps of tolm leather procured at our trap factory, and put in heaps near vines and ignited when danger threatened from frost. These can be used to advantage by growers of fruit, especially peaches and plums. During a cold winter there are generally a few days of extreme cold weather which frequently destroys the entire crop of fruit by the killing of buds. If growers would be watchful and vigilant by procuring a quantity of leathers, which cost but little and burn a long time and pro duce a dense smoke, they would, with little trouble, by burning them when the proper time came. save their crop of fruit, and dur ing harvest time would realize much more than those who took no precaution in the time of need.-Farmer's Advocate, Canado. Pmixcirlv.as or Goon FkAIMInx.-First- The farmer who would succeed well, and derive pleasure as well as pofit from li0 call ing, must manifest an active and abiding interest in his vocation. It takes lheart-worlk to make ihnd work pleasant. Second-The farmer must study how best to increase a nd iaintaiu the fertility of his soils. There is no inertia in agriculture. There must be motion, either forward or re trograde, 'Ildrd-The farmer must strive to increase the quality as well as the quantity of h!is crops. It is the quality that determines the price. Fourth-The farmer must seek with a watchful eye to improve his market facili ties. It is transportation that eats up the profits Fifth-The art of raising better stock is ic~il :a;l a1:c for wlvll. sixthl-The tfrmer must steek to improve hii' Social, intellectual mnal finan(al colndition.-E:r. AGR ICULTURT AL ITEMS. Illinois raiscd 270,000,0(00 buhels of corn this year; Missouri, 200,000,000. Farmers in Panola county, Texas, have succeeded in cultivating rice in their locality. An lowa farmer employs nine elk with success in the cultivation of his farm. In Michigan, wheat was sown early, and is now reported as looking very promising. "One hundred bushels of Kansas 'crn to the acre has been grown in Rock 'couinty, Wis., during the present season. A farmer at Milford, N. H., raised one hundred and forty-five large pumpkins from a single vine the past summer. The year's yield of rice in South Carolina and Georgia is 75,000 tierces, or about five per cent. more than any rice crop since the war. The apple market is flat this season-too big a supply for the too little demand. Some. apple dealers have got their fingers burned. 'Colman & Co., commission 'iierchanits, of St. Louis, received and sold, the 'hay befose Thanksgiving, three toits of drdssed:turkeye. Japan is going to send an agent to this country to buy sheep. It will be rather hot country for tem-n-but they will there. The Necedl cranberry e ' rx u, Wis., Ihas gatlhe ao 't 2,000 budbel for the floC ) etutto· narily :iu company would havr is this season, MC ECONOMY,. ud t ;--7 vo ooffee ups df lfour thb ' heaping teasnoonhl of baking pow der stirred thoroughly through it, madd o~ coffee cup of flely choppYd saiet; one tea. spoonful of salt; one WeWI beaten egg; o*a pintt of sweet mlik, G~ise tin pail, pour the mixture in:to it, cov. st it it in a kettl eo beiling w-ater, anod ;j. 3t -boil constantly two hours. 1Reew t~w :wat.er a:f it evapoe ates with boliing wateo fom .he teakettle.s Send to the table hot. O.Ave with wine sause, or lemlon Lsau.e. Iucwh.eat Ckszk.--at ight take sufficient wart: water :or ;. little more than thf amoun2 of batter equldred. Thlcken this with buckwheat flour, a lit~es graham meal is or addition, stir in a teacup of frsh yeast and let it stand till: morning to r!re, when it will be fit for use. Leave enough batter to mix ir again at night without yeast. After a day or tWo the batter will require a-half teaspoon or eo of sods to sweeten it, put in just before baking.. It Is nicer to mix your batter in a stone Jar and pour off every morning what is required for use and not put the soda into the whole. The rd dition of a little milk will imke the cakes brown if desired. The batter shouid be occasionally renewed. Now v to baking cakes it 13 one of the flee arts. Some heedless cooks use so much grease to keep the caken from sticking to the .rid.lle that tney 11U the room full of smoke to the discomfort of all concerned. A clo:lt sewed last to a tork is the most con - venietit greasr ardl Just as little greass should be used as possible. The lire shoUld be neither too hot nor too slack. Nothing Is better relished on a cold wipter morning than well prepaired cake3 of this kind. To Salt &Beaf-For a pelce of beef of eight pounds. rub wel! in half an ounce of salt. petre and hlalf pound of salt; strew over the top two ounces of brown sugar; turn and rub the meat every day with the pickle. Ten d ays will be sufficient to salt it in. When it is to be cooked, put it in warm water and allow it to simmer for two hours.