0 CK Y OU NTAI HUSBANDM IAN
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S a d o ict, IiestcO, PYome I Ynin, a1 en 18 7. 1O. 7 .R I O n.
)L. D DIAMOND CITY, M. Tm, tJAU 4~, 1877. xO. 7.
EDI'1TUR AND P1,)Pl:ITO
y.[O3FNTAIS It;: BANDI)AN IS d(esigne1l
e mi -n in, e n ':. 1 i tb, Ian in every
e t'ri' , t' l ri ii' i t; lt lns ever ('j
t of A gri| "ca1 c, tOik'-rai:ing, Ilorti
O 1ial tl' I)o n.c n tI v). 3.
AI)\'P:II'TI IN 1'i A 1:ES.
$2 $5 $- $I$) $11 $20 $30
10 1' 15 28 40
10 lo 21 :t 0 . 42 80 120
s I1 065 121 2I)0
SO 4. 1) T5I ) ) 105I 180 250
entadveti.ementllt t I:; ,ya IL in advance.
r advertisements payable qut, :arterly.
-five per cent. added for specui.l advertise
hItIU UtR A L.
WHY MEN FAIL.
there are circumstances and events
occur to drag men to commercial
ich are unavoidabile cannot be dis
but that a n;t:jority of individuals
onsible for their own failure is equal
Where one man is ridden down by
spiring of natural causes, a large
scuttle their own craft and go under
rm brought about by their own mis
ment and greed. The old-fashioned
given by careful and experienced
hasten slowly, is not heeded as it
be. An innate greed for gain pushes
reason, and the candidate for com
honor and a place in the business
rather than grow slowly and surely
will hazard alp on the cast of a die
to the wall. Many firms are seeking
much business on a capital of $10,000
d be done with $50,000, and when
of hard times comes, they read the
ting on tie wall and are found
. This does not apply alone to mer
d manufacturers, but will find a
arly every farm house to hang on.
mer is seeking to owrl a larger
n his neighbor. He will sow more
wheat, plant more corn, breed more
a word, seek in everything to out
.ompetitor regardless of merit or
fits. What might be called the pol
,riculture is a study that is not suf
understood by farmers, and the
tare laid down to be obeyed are
i by too many. What does it sig
lant fifty acres of corn and only
much as might be obtained from
'es where good seed is selected and
iven care and attention. The in
the remaining twenty acres would
y put the thirty acres in condition
more than from the entire fifty
in the usual way. The instances
re where thrifty, sagacious farmers
g more net profit from fifty acres
economically managed than others
ing from four times the quantity,
o other reason than that the large
it half cultivated and is more ex
every way to own and manage.
of business studies his trade; he
the seasons and crops; knows
tural causes have prevented aver
ss, and will naturally reduce the
de of trade and the stand.ard of re
ity; does not try to sell furs in
or straw goods in winter. There is
in which experience teaches that
:ualities can be sold, and others
ey cannot. All these things are
of thoughtful, sagacious, success
f business. Can as much be said
ditof the farmer ? Year after year
ant wheat, and each year realize
a crop ; if corn is his hobby, he
his acresonly with corn and mourn
hat only yields him half a crop,
e thinki.ng there are laws govern
'ience of agriculture that must be
that the chemistry of the soil, the
of the climate and other natural
c5,es Iny .d!1t e'very ell)ort made in tlhe
dirctioni lie is worlkin!. i
'lJThe old story of thle girl who put all her
eggs in one blas.ket, wliein going to llarl.:t,
is relpeated over and.I. over agmili. ;~hi di rop
ped her baskct andti her little fortune was
golie. ILl .1 she divic(ed and carried themii in
two separate qulantitics, half would have
)eec:n sav.ed for her. So with the farmier; if
inist":il of all wheat or corn, or any other
one kind, lie will divide his crops and plant
solme of each there will never come a season
when all fail.
Let the husbandman introduce a good
breed of cattle and hogs, plant his cultivat
ed acres with wheat, corn, oats, rye, etc.,
taking care to select good seed, study the
average, and know by experience which is
the most sure crop, and give most attention
to that that has rewarded most surely, and
he will be approaching a standard of judg
ment and excellence in his calling that will
be gratifying to himself and improve his
credit and standing. -Factory and Farm.
VALUE OF PLOWING IN FALL--INFLUENCE
Much benefit may commonly be realized
from a careful preparation of land for plant
ing and sowing. The physical preparation
of the soil for the reception of seed is a mat
ter of much importance, for whenever the
land is not mellow, a considerable portion of
the seed is likely to fail of germination, and
thereby to be lost.
'l here are other benefits which are natu
rally conferred upon ground by plowing at
other times than when it is required for the
reception of the seed. But the various kinds
of soils are quite unlike in that which relates
to the benefits they are likely to derive from
fall and winter plowing. A soil that abounds
in sand is not capable of receiving anything
like the same measure of benefit from plow
ing in fall or winter as one that contains a
large proportion of clay.
Sand has but feeble, if any, capacity that
is appreciable, for absorbing any of the fer
tilizing gasses (of which ammonia is the
most important), while clay, and especially
when dry, has the most remarkable capac
ity for absorbing and retaining this fertilizer,
of any of the materials that naturally be
long to soils.
Clay, that belongs to a compact soni, or
when it is filled with water, has no impor
tant value for this purpose. But whenever
it is thrown into ridges, so that a large por
tion of its particles are exposed to the at
mosphere, and to the influence of frost, it is
rendered peculiarly valuable, and on account
of the facility which is furnished for the ab
sorption of gasses from the atmosphere.
Some of the clay soils, or the loams tha.t
contain a large proportion of clay, sometimes
remains very compact, or in large lumps,
even after they have been often plowed.
This is often on account of the presence of a
small quantity of some mineral substance.
This condition may sometimes be readily
changed, or by natural processes, which are
secured by mere exposure of the soil to the
atmosphere. The most common of these
substances is the prot-oxide of iron, which
is changed to a per-oxide.
There are no available agencies that are
as effective for the reduction of a compact
soil to a mellow condition as the frosts of a
cold winter and the free sucess of air which
they ultimately secure. Whenever such
hlnd is thrown into ridges by deep plowing
in autumn or early winter, frost is likely to
act as a disintegrator of such soil. In addi
tion to this benefit, when the warm season
arrives it is in the most favorable condition
for the absorption of the fertilizing gasses
trolm the atmosphere, in addition to its other
Tihe question that relates to the extent
which nitrogen of the atmosphere is capa
ble of conferring benefit to soils or to grow
ing plants seems to remain unanswered.
Some persons have suspected that inasmuch
nc ti,. ,lmTnpnt is so abundant as a natural
e( tir "',,'=2 to tils iant:ul r",Iii:'im.iit (ol
uamy iatt 1"1 t1ihere seea.; to be no evi
d(ece tUat it is thus uiasefl. l. is well known
tha:t o:-;;ren of the atmosplhere ir an: inmpor
taut, attgency in changhilg soils and manures,
and in iitting them for the uses of plants,
as their natural foods.
Although ammonia is so important as a
food material for plants, it is not useful for
this purpose while it remains ini tie condi
tion of a compound gas. it parts with its
nitrogen portion or element to serve this
purpose. 'tlie method of plants for sepa
rating and appropriating the nitrogen of
ammonia has not been as well determined,
as with regard to the separation and appro
priation of the carbon from carbonic acid,
both of these compound gasses being re
ceived by the plant through the medium of
the atmosphere. Growing plants are capa
ble of receiving carbonic acid for the build
ing up of their carbon materials and of part
ing with the oxygen, which is returned to
the atmosphere.-Prairie Farnner.
PROTECTING AGAINST FROST.
M. G. Vinard proposes a method for pro
tecting vines against frost in spring, which
embodies the idea of smoke as a blanket to
secure the earth against the influences of
extreme cold. The plan, which is said to
have proved successful, and to be of easy
application, is described as follows : It con
sists in caretully mixing gaster with saw
dust and old straw, and piling up this mix
ture into larg;e heaps in the vineyardh. The
mixture ren ins easily inilamable in spite
of rain or w61ther, for more than a fortnight.
When required for use, smaller heaps are
made of the large ones, or about two feet
in diameter, and are distributed in and about
the vineyard. If there is a little wind, th.
heaps burn freely for about three a1i_
hours, and produce a very d
The artificial cloud which t
the vines considerably decea~~sa " . -
tion: from the ground, and wi - o : ter,
acts frost, which is greatest toward the
morning of calm spring nights, and which
does so much harmi to the plants.
This method ot protecting vines 2nd trees
from frost by smoke, has been tried success
fully at O. C., by using scraps of tolm leather
procured at our trap factory, and put in
heaps near vines and ignited when danger
threatened from frost. These can be used
to advantage by growers of fruit, especially
peaches and plums. During a cold winter
there are generally a few days of extreme
cold weather which frequently destroys the
entire crop of fruit by the killing of buds.
If growers would be watchful and vigilant
by procuring a quantity of leathers, which
cost but little and burn a long time and pro
duce a dense smoke, they would, with little
trouble, by burning them when the proper
time came. save their crop of fruit, and dur
ing harvest time would realize much more
than those who took no precaution in the
time of need.-Farmer's Advocate, Canado.
Pmixcirlv.as or Goon FkAIMInx.-First-
The farmer who would succeed well, and
derive pleasure as well as pofit from li0 call
ing, must manifest an active and abiding
interest in his vocation. It takes lheart-worlk
to make ihnd work pleasant.
Second-The farmer must study how best
to increase a nd iaintaiu the fertility of his
soils. There is no inertia in agriculture.
There must be motion, either forward or re
'Ildrd-The farmer must strive to increase
the quality as well as the quantity of h!is
crops. It is the quality that determines the
Fourth-The farmer must seek with a
watchful eye to improve his market facili
ties. It is transportation that eats up the
Fifth-The art of raising better stock is
ic~il :a;l a1:c for wlvll. sixthl-The tfrmer
must steek to improve hii' Social, intellectual
mnal finan(al colndition.-E:r.
AGR ICULTURT AL ITEMS.
Illinois raiscd 270,000,0(00 buhels of corn
this year; Missouri, 200,000,000.
Farmers in Panola county, Texas, have
succeeded in cultivating rice in their locality.
An lowa farmer employs nine elk with
success in the cultivation of his farm.
In Michigan, wheat was sown early, and
is now reported as looking very promising.
"One hundred bushels of Kansas 'crn to
the acre has been grown in Rock 'couinty,
Wis., during the present season.
A farmer at Milford, N. H., raised one
hundred and forty-five large pumpkins from
a single vine the past summer.
The year's yield of rice in South Carolina
and Georgia is 75,000 tierces, or about five
per cent. more than any rice crop since the
The apple market is flat this season-too
big a supply for the too little demand. Some.
apple dealers have got their fingers burned.
'Colman & Co., commission 'iierchanits, of
St. Louis, received and sold, the 'hay befose
Thanksgiving, three toits of drdssed:turkeye.
Japan is going to send an agent to this
country to buy sheep. It will be rather
hot country for tem-n-but they will
The Necedl cranberry e '
rx u, Wis., Ihas gatlhe
ao 't 2,000 budbel
for the floC ) etutto·
narily :iu company would
havr is this season,
ud t ;--7 vo ooffee ups df lfour
thb ' heaping teasnoonhl of baking pow
der stirred thoroughly through it, madd o~
coffee cup of flely choppYd saiet; one tea.
spoonful of salt; one WeWI beaten egg; o*a
pintt of sweet mlik, G~ise tin pail, pour
the mixture in:to it, cov. st it it in a kettl
eo beiling w-ater, anod ;j. 3t -boil constantly
two hours. 1Reew t~w :wat.er a:f it evapoe
ates with boliing wateo fom .he teakettle.s
Send to the table hot. O.Ave with wine sause,
or lemlon Lsau.e.
Iucwh.eat Ckszk.--at ight take sufficient
wart: water :or ;. little more than thf
amoun2 of batter equldred. Thlcken this
with buckwheat flour, a lit~es graham meal
is or addition, stir in a teacup of frsh yeast
and let it stand till: morning to r!re, when
it will be fit for use. Leave enough batter
to mix ir again at night without yeast.
After a day or tWo the batter will require
a-half teaspoon or eo of sods to sweeten it,
put in just before baking.. It Is nicer to
mix your batter in a stone Jar and pour off
every morning what is required for use and
not put the soda into the whole. The rd
dition of a little milk will imke the cakes
brown if desired.
The batter shouid be occasionally renewed.
Now v to baking cakes it 13 one of the flee
arts. Some heedless cooks use so much
grease to keep the caken from sticking to
the .rid.lle that tney 11U the room full of
smoke to the discomfort of all concerned.
A clo:lt sewed last to a tork is the most con -
venietit greasr ardl Just as little greass
should be used as possible. The lire shoUld
be neither too hot nor too slack. Nothing Is
better relished on a cold wipter morning
than well prepaired cake3 of this kind.
To Salt &Beaf-For a pelce of beef of eight
pounds. rub wel! in half an ounce of salt.
petre and hlalf pound of salt; strew over the
top two ounces of brown sugar; turn and
rub the meat every day with the pickle.
Ten d ays will be sufficient to salt it in.
When it is to be cooked, put it in warm
water and allow it to simmer for two hours.
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