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Rock Monllillltain Du aaman.
IR. N. SUTHERLIN, Editor. TIIURSDAY, JANUARY 4, 1877. THERE' is one very important truth that our farmers must sooner or later learn in regard to raising stock. It is this, if they propose to let them, shift for themselves, they must drive them to the foot-hills and leave them, butif they propose to feed them through the winter, they must provide them with good comfortable shelter and plenty of feed. If stock are fed only half enough, they will stand around the corral and hump themselves up on the lee side of a fence-post and make no effort to feed upon the range, and consequently become very poor and not unfrequently die. Now it is necessary for every farmer to keep a few head of stock about the farm in winter. He needs a team, a saddle horse or two and a few milk cows for family use, but these should be well stabled and fed all they will eat. The stock that are not used will do vastly better in the hills on the bunch grass. But when we survey our farmers' homes how very few do we find who follow this rule, and how many are there.who are almost totally unprovided with shelter or facilities for watering. We have stated that stock on the range, in many instances, do much better without water than with it, but this has no reference to stock that are kept around home and live in the stubble field and around straw ricks;. on the other hand, stock treated in this manner require ain unusual amount of water. When the first snow of winter flies, many of our val ley farmers sally forth and gather in all their cattle and horses, and turn them into the fields to subsist upon the stubble. When this is gone, they are turned to the straw rick, and by the middle of February or first of March, and oftefi earlier, they have de molished everything in the shalm of feed, and are poor and weak and in no condition to go to the hills and. shift for themselves. The farmer who practices this mode does it to prevent his stock from. straying from the neighborhood, and while it saves him a few sr ' ride ilnie spring, costs him. many head of stoc.l[he stock that die in the spring are not lhosq which live on the range, but those that put in the winter in the stub ble fields and around straw piles, an stand ing around the corrals, lowing and IZding wistfully over the fence at a diminutive hay stack. Now, it does seem that ten years' experi once would certainly have taught this truth, yet, notwithstandingit is made plainer and plainer every yearto the casual observer, the practice is not tehanged. If the farmer 'wantS a beef in the spring, he goes to the hills t try to find some stray head that he failed '. get up in the fall, which, if tound, ne..ret alls to be in better condition thauthhoe #tat are kept at home. How much longer will an intelligent people continue ina practief44that every year's ex perience, for tea lorigjears, has condemned ? If they will not ,re44 agricultural journals and inform themselves, will they not profit by their own experience ? Straw, even if fed in great abundance, is not equal to our natural range.. But the farmer who has suchi feed that he desires to use, should only take up a few head of stock, so that he can feed them all they will eat. It:he will do this, and provide a good winld break, to shelter them frotm the storms, he may hope to have them cone through in passably fair. condition. It will not'do to feed them on half rations. Either provide for them well, or let them shift for them selves altogether. TaI year just closed has been one fraugh t with anxiety and toll. But our labors have not been without reward. The continued arrival of encouraging letters from all parts of the Territory Is abundant evidence that our efforts to pablish a live farm, stock and family journal have not been in vain. We enter upon the new year with the pleasant assurance that the Roc.r MOUNTAIN IHus BAxDMaN visits-treble the number of homes it did one year ago, and that ts pages are counseled with confidence and its value rec ognul:ed and 'appreieated ; for which we ex tend to a generous public our sincere thanks, promising a more faithful adherence, it .it be oestilbt to their interests.. I ldease tortrhak our. sotempora les for the many courtesies we have received at their hands. In order to give our readers the benefit of the wisdom afforded by a mul titude of counsel, we have copied liberally from our exchanges, but we have not, in tentionally, stolen a line, but have always given credit where credit was due, asking nothing more and expecting nothing less. Our relations with the Territorial-press have been of the most friendly nature. We have copied liberally from their columns, giving them due credit for the same, believing it to be the only true standard of enterprising journalis-m.. Holding ourselves aloof from partisan and personal quarrels, we have steered clear of those jangles so frequent among the broth erhood. In the future, as in the past, we will remain.fearless and independent in all things, leaving partisan politics to those journals devoted to that interest, believing that we have a higher work to perform. The pages ot the new year are pure and white before us. Let us endeavor to write naught thereon that will ever flush the cheek with shame or move the heart with regret, but record that which will brighten each week as the years roll on to eternity. INSTEAD Of allowing the fences around the field, stables and dwelling to tumble down in winter, they should be repaired and made more substantial. This would be economy of time. It would enable the farmner to commence putting in his crop as soon as spring opens, instead of having to spend two or three weeks building and re pairing fences, as is the case so often. We have maintained a temporary existence in this country long enough. It is time to be gin to assume some air of permanence. Let the fall and winter be spent with a view to lepening the labor and facilitating the put ting in of the spring crop. A little fore thought and preparation will accomplish much. It is not only important that the fences should be kept up and repaired,.but wood should be prepared for summer use. All: the. farming utensils and machinery should be looked over and carefully exam ined, and'put in good order, so thas no time need be lost 'when the ©summer season ar rives. Sometimes we have a veek or two of hard weather, but there is always mild weather in which these things can be arrang ed, and it is as imperatively the work of this season as is seeding the work of spring. CONVENIENCE n on the farm bring comforts --comforts bring happiness, and the natural oflfpriug of happiness is contentment and prosperity.. No season ever afforded a bet ter opportunity for fixing things up around the house and barn-yard, than the present. The weather has been mild, not one day having occurred that could not have been put in at'out door labor. A CORRESPONDENT Of Colman's Rural World, in the following brief and concise statement unveils the truth respecting the supposed decrease of the national debt, and makes it so unmistakably clear that the most prejudiced can not fail to see it: "The rose-colored statement concerning the national debt, which has been going the rounds ot the press recently, and which emanated from the leading bondholders of Wall street, is calculated to greatly mislead the casual reader. It is true that our na tional debt has been reduced during the last eleven years, in round numbers, $057,000,000 -but it is also true that the ability of the ot the producing classes to pay has, in the same period, been reduced three-fourths, through the contraction of the currency. It is taught by as great an authority as John Locke that "the less money there is in the country, the less will the laborer receive for his hire, the less the farmer for his pro duce, and the less the artisan for his wares." No w~ we find by rcference to the report of the seei'etary of the treasury, for the year 18G5. that there was then outstaudinr,-. U. S, treaslury notes .................. $S 9,91S,S00 Natioal bank .notes.................. i31,452.,00 State bank note,, est imated ....... 40,000,000 Total........ ......................$870,370,8 00 In addition to: this amount of currency outstanding at that, time should rightly be added at least one-half of the eight hundred and thirty millions of 730- compound inter est notes, which freely citeulated as curren cy at that date; and, la additional allowance should.als e l i ade. for.the-fac t that this money was nearly all distributed in the northern States. Now let us refer to the condition of the currency at the close of the last fiscal year, ending June. 1876, and we find U. S. treasury notes, reenbacks..$16 2,56G,00 National bank circulationl.......... 34,993,470 Fractional currency and nickles... 38,089,517 Total............. ...........$541,648,87 Thus it is seen that there is more than one third less money in the whole country leaving out the compound interest notes than there was in the northern States at the close of the war. Likewise, the bankers' statement tells us that the interest on our national debt in June, 1877, was $133,067,731.69, and for the year ending June, 1877, the interest is $100,243, 271.23-showing a reduction of $32,824,370. 40. However, they fail to tell us that owing to the contraction of the currency they have reduced the ability of' the people to pay, at least three-fourths; or,.in other words, it takes three times as many bushels of wheat, pounds of meat, or days' labor to earn this amount each year. Consequently, the afore said interest has three times as great a pur chasing power as it had in 1866-and there fore the income of the bond-holders has been trebled through the same course. Need we be surprised at the satisfaction exhibited by these coupon clippers with the financial situation ? It might not be inappropriate to add in this connection that the national debt has been virtually increased over $600,000,000 by the acts of Congress in making the 5-20 bonds payable in coin and demonetizing the silver dollar, making all of our bonds pay able in gold. These are considerations for thinking men, and it should be remembered that both po litical parties have perpetrated these frauds upon the people, at the dictation of capital ists and money sharks. GENERAL NEWS. 1Mr. Ferry, President of the Senate, posi tively denies that he has receipted to Gen eral Anderson for the Louisiana electoral returns, and says he will under no circum stances swerve from his determination to re ceipt for no returns from the disputedl States, of which he considers Louisiana one. The Republican electoral votes of Oregon, have already been delivered to him, by Gen eral Odell, in the presence of Senator Mitch ell. No receipt was given.- The Inter Ocean's Washington, special says the TRes tauranteur of the House has been selling liquor, opcninog a bar, claiming that its sale is only prohibited by the Joint Rules which are not now in. force. Speaker Randall or dered the practice discontinued, thus sus taining his previous decision that the rules are in force.- The House Committee on the District of Columbia has reported a bill which was the special order for January 4th. It provides that three conmmissioners slhall govern the District, one to be appointed by the President, one elected by the House, and one by the Senate.- The report that Gov ernor Hayes has resigned the Governorship of Ohio, is contradicted.-- A corgo of mu nitions of war valued at 500,000, was ship ped on the 28t ult. for the Turkish govern ment.-A fire at Elmira, N. Y., on the 28th ult., burned a boot and shoe manufac tory. Loss, $75,000; insurance, $-15,000. - Otis Swan, a prominent lawyer of New York, secretary of Savings Bank, atnd an of licer of the Union League, has decamped with from $300,000 to $500,000.-Chipman, Stone & Co., one of the largest firms en gaged in the Japane:-e trade, have failed, with liabilities estimated at$S250,000 to $500, 000, the greater part of which is held in this city. Stone is liquidating the firm's affairs in Japan, and has made gnd assignment to Ethel C. TIine, of New York, for the credit ors.-The dispatches of the- 20th ult,, re port a frightful disaster at Ashtabula, Ohio, on the Lake Shore railroad, by which seven i coaches of the Pacific Express train, and all the baggage and Express cars were burned, and about one out of every live persons killed. The scene of the accident is a few rods east of the depot. An iron bridge spans Ashtabula creek 75 feet above the water. On both .sides -are .banks. The snow had been falling almost constantly for 48 hours and a driving storm. was still raging, making it very difliaht to.get,news fram the wrecked .aud. burning train.. Conducutr Henn left. Erie for Cleveland an hour late and s- f the bridge at Ashtabula about 8 o. It seems that the falling train and b smashed the ice in the creek and those a killed by the fall or burned up by the b ing cars, were held down by the wvre~ek drowned before they' could be extrica Many too. will be or have been frozen _1 is claimed that the coaches were well it there being a large number of eastern sengers on board. Th'le total number passengers on the illfated train are esti ed at 175 persons, and at least one-tb these were either burned; to death or fro e' It is known that there are seventy-five sons in the wreek. Cannot learn if any alive. Railroad men at the wreck give opinion that not less than 100 perished. names of the killed cannot yet be tained. Some of the wounded are reline to give their names. A reporter from ci landu says the scene baliles discript t Among the wounded is Walter S. llaf Lexington, (Ky.; D. H.. Clark, W.eg Massachusetts; Win. Lyons, N. y, slightly; Henry Christian, Cleveland, ly ; Mr1s.. Frame, Rochester, is not exp to live.. TERRITORIAL - EWS, I1 From the Madisonian, Dec. 28. Gold has not advanced in price over last quotations. Our banks are now ot ing from $17.25 to $17.75 for coimmon g6o dust. Fxtra fine commands a higher prk From the Helena Independent, Dec. 3. es The residence of Mr. T. S. Marshall, A Ten Mile, above the Hot Springfs, wasbu h s ed yesterday forenoon. The fire caught the double-roof, and had gained such i way before discovered that all eflbrts tow0 the building proved uscless. The neigh li gallantly came to the rescue, and thro t their efforts most of the household g were saved. For their exertions in this t' half M'r. and M+Irs. Marshall return their( I cere thanks. The Independent is in receipt of a le 1 from Cheyenne under date of the 17th io i inclosing the following extract from Cheyenne Sun of that date containing subjoined melancholy intelligence: ThrQugh the courtesy of Judge Still of Green River City, we have been p1 in possession of the following terrible t concerning an expedition of twenty miners who recently went into the Big country. The news came by way of der City, Wind liver valley, and the thority, Mr. John Sheron, a gentle whcnm we know to be perfectly reliable, says that several weeks ago, as near as _ be judged, a company of white men w attacked by a band of Sioux, supposed their tracks to have been a very large bo It is believed that on the first volley miners fled to the brush, whichl Indians fired, aunldthen killed their vieti4 The bodies of eighteen or twenty men ha been found and identified, and amongtb, were Robert Anderson, James LpigI David I)ayis, and two men narcd Spen and Cook, the latter a blacksmith. Th men are well known in the Black Hills in Monta:a. Since the massacre of Jeff. Standifer's ty, in the Big Wind River' country, int summer of 18G3, we knew of nothing so rible. Whether there were any surviv the onslaught our informant does not st but we are left to infer that some esca If this is the case further particulars soon be obtained. From the Ilenton Record , Dec. 22. Prize beef is selling at the River Marl at 5b cents per pound, about six cents ches er than beef was ever sold in this town fore the present season. With this ai1lo0 er niecessities of life selling below Stat prices, and unskilled labor receiving hig wages thali are paid to first-claln.s meel ics in the East, Benton ought to -be a n place for poor people to eumigrate to. Parties from the Marias river reportl numbers of Piegaus, Blackfeet and 1,10 in that vicinity. .Scarcity of Bufftlo in neighborhood of Fort McLeod, it is v hasscompelled these tribes te seek new tern quarters. A number of the In" have expressed a desire to trade for hor stock, and it is thought .that the edh of cows and beef eattle for robes and tries will prove an imnportnut feature of .season's furtrade.. .