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OCKY OUNTAIN HUSBANIDMAN
R NUM. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, lJve.stock. Home Reading, and General News. I., SPuE~I E COPY. VOL. 2. DIAMOND CITY, lM. T., JANUARY 11, 1877. NO. 8. 1)UULISIILD I EEIKLY BY R. N. SUTHERLIN, ELITOR, AN I) PRCOPI'IiIIOR The ROCKR M0ouNTTAIN HII T 1ANi)MAN is designcd to be, Js the namllt intlictates, n liiimq1ndnrhit i, every 50deoof the tclerl, eflhi('jing ini its coliunsio evcry d~Ie, Uttient of A rieiltdUG, Stock-r:isin;, IHorti ,~tl ure Socll anid 1)orwt1yct bIe lloluov AD)VEit:1SI( RAilES. - -u o c iý G' G R C G iweek $2 $3 $5 $7 $9 $ 11 $20 $30 SweCks 3 4 7 I10 12 15 28 40 i month 5 R 1' 15 IS 21 40 60 3 months 10 16 24 30 36 42 1i(I 120 ii months .1 25 :o; 45 54 (5 120 2()0 Iyear 30 40 61) 75 90 10.i 1 250 'Transient adtvertiscmnents p1ytti.iC in advance. Regular advertiI zent3i paiynlde ;tItI3 terly. 't'wenty-live pcr cent. added for specit,1 ardvertise .,nut5. AGRICULTURAL,. FANCY FARMERS. t however much we might wish to change C the term fancy, the fancy farwmers are more I] than fancy, they are enterprising, far-seeing f men, who have generally been in advance of their time, and to whom we are indebted for many of the improvements and much of the = progress ot modern agriculture. No class ot men have been ridiculed so much and none have done so much good as those who are denominated fancy farmers. I They have been in all times and countries the benefactors of the men who have treat ed them with derision. They have been to 1 farmers what inventors have been to manu facturers. They have experimented, for the good of the world, while others have simply worked for their own gain. They tested theories, while others have raised crops for market. They have given a dignity and glory to the occupation of farming it never had before. Fancy farmers have changed the wild boar into the Suffolk and Berkshire; the wild bull of Britain into the Shorthorn ; the mountain sheep, with its lean body and hair fleece, into the Southdown and the Merino. They have brought up the milk of cows from pints to gallons. They have length ened the sirloin of the bullock, deepened the udder of the cow, enlarged the ham of the hog, given strength to the shoulder of the ox, rendered finer the wool of the sheep, aided fleetness to the speed of the horse, and made beautiful every animal that is kept in the service of man. They have improved and hastened the development of all domes tic animals, till they hardly resemble the creatures from which they sprang. Fancy farmers introduced irrigation and under-draining, grinding and cooking food for stock. They brought guano from Peru and nitrate of soda from Chill. They intro duced and domnestioated all the plants we have of foreign origen. They brought out the theory of rotation of crops as a natural means of keeping up and increasing the fer tility of the soil. They first ground up bones and gypsum and treated the latter with acid to make manures of peculiar val ue. They first analyzed soils, as a means of determining what was wanted to increase their fertility. They introduced the most approved methods of raising and distribut ing water. Fancy farmers or fancy horticulturists have given us all our varieties of fruits, veg etables, and flowers. A fancy farmer in Vermont a few years ago, originated the Early Rose potato, which added millions of dollars to the wealth of our country, and proved to be a most important accession in every part of 'the world where it was intro duced. Another of these same fancy men originated the Wilson strawberry, and an other the Concord grape. It was a fancy farmer that brought the Osage orange from Texas to the northern States. Among the men in this country who were classed as tancy farmers at an early day, one introduced mules; the second, the cultiva tlor of improved rice; the third, the use of land-plaster; and the fourth, the raising of lucerne. More than any men of their time did they add to the wealth of the country. After them came another race of fi ncy farmers, who introduced Arabian horses, Spanish sheep, and the improved breeds of English cattle and swine. These fancy farm ers added immensely to the wealth of the practical farmers of the country. What we want, to develop the agriculture and horticulture of the country to their full est extent, is a large number of fancy farm crs-men who work for pleasure, rather than for private gain. These are the men who will perform experiments, and give the world the beneftit of them. These are the men who will carry on investigations for the sake of investigating. These are the men who will bring in new grains, new fruits, new vegetables, and new varieties of ani mals. These are the men who will devote their time and money to the.improvement of old varieties and the creation of new ones. The country is sadly in need of more fincy farmers.-Farmers' Advocate. AGRICULTURAL ITEMS. ti According to Prof. Riley, the following it districts of Missouri will suiffer the coming a spring from grasshoppers: Atchison and li Hiolt, and the western half of Nodaway and v Andrew, in the extreme northwest corner. t McDonald, Barry, Jasper, Lawrence, Bar- e ton, Dade, Cedar, Vernon, more particularly '1 in the southwest halt; Polk in the north- I west third ; Hickory in the southwest third, i and St. Clair in scattering places. c The Western New York Horticultural So- I ciety hold their next annual meeting in I Rochester, Jan. 24. t The secretary of the Iowa State Agricul tural Society states that there are about 40, 007 acres in artificial groves in Iowa. There are about 200,000 acres in native timber, and this shows that only the one hundred and fiftieth part of the State is in natural and artificial timber. Among the peculiar features of the ex hibit of Iowa at the Centennial, is a sample of her soils. She has long glass cylinders over a foot in width and many feet in length, and in this is placed earth, just as it exists. On the top is the plack prairie soil, then the 1 subsoil, and so on deep down to the "hard- I pan," " solid bottom." or whatever the end is called. This enables the strang"er to see how deep is the rich black soil, and is very attractive to visitors. There is a glass pillar for each county, and the soil of each county, just as it is, is represented each by itself. There is no doubt it is one of the very best methods of showing how deep is the soil of Iowa, and that the fact will have at least its due weight to those who are seeking homes in the west. A Minnesota paper, referring to the light crop in that State, says: Looking for the cause of the light crop, it is believed that some of the causes were within tihe control of the farmers and some were not. The small size of the berry is attributable in many instances to poor and imperfect seed. Gen. Delaplaine cited a notable instance. A farmer had two fields sown neair Delano, one from his own seed and the other from seed obtained farther north, where it was entirely free from the late rains last harvest. The result is that the wheat from this seed is plump, full and perfect, while the other is small, shrunken and stunted. It is a well settled fact that a vigorous growth cannot be obtained from seed in which the germ is once started, how ever slightly, in the previous season. Simi lar instances to the above might be mention ed in Winona county, in which the fields of grain from different seed show the same sig nificant difference in the yield. This cause, let is be emphatically repeated, is within the control of farmers, and merits their careful f consideration. THE POULTRY YARD. HOW TO KEEP THE COMBS OF FOWLS FROM FREEZING. During the piercing cold of winter the combs and wattles of many poor birds suf fer disastrously from the sharp attacks of .lack Frost. The combless state of many a beautiful bird, ruined for the show pen, if not for the poultry yard, bears cruel evidence to the wanton carelessness of their owners. A warm, though not necessarily an ex pensive fowl-house is indispensable to every farmer and fancier who wants his fowls to lay and pay during the winter. Those who keep single combed varieties, and have not a warm house for them, can easily prevent their cocks' combs from freezing by simply having a roosting place, built like a smaller house inside their poultry house. By this means, during weather exceptionally severe, the birds can be shut up, temporarily, in a snugly confined area, and a couple of panes of glass will allow them to see easily while eating, so long as the danger lasts. This inside house need not take up any of the room ordinarily used by the fosis, but can be constructed on posts so as to occupy no floor room. A neighbor has tried this and it works admirably. Ijis has two cham I bers. The upper for roosting purposes, I with low perches and a sliding bottom to tacilitate the escape of droppings, is furnish ed with doors that open all along the front. The lower chamber has an alley along the back, and nests at the front with sliding doors to each so that the eggs can be readily cpllected. A hole in each end of the top Sbottom compartments allows the birds to pass freely in and out. 'l'he partitions be tt* en the nests are loose so that a re - .ired nests may be shuit off frtthe oTi,. properly white-washed, this can be kept ultte sweet, and would save many a fine bird at a very trifling cost of time, trouble b r money.--Rural New Yorker. EGGS--HOW INCREASED. If an increase of eggs be desir&1 In the poultry yard, before large sums of money are expended in the purchase of everlasting layers, we would recommend the system of keeping no hens atter the first, or, at the mQst, their second year. Early pullets give the increase, and the only wonder is that people persist as they do in keeping up a stock of old hens which lay one day and stop three, instead of laying three days and stop ping one. In some parts of England it is the invariable rule to keep the pullets only one year. Feeding will do a great deal-a surprising work, indeed-in the production of eggs, but not when old hens are concern ed; they may put on fat, but they cannot put down eggs. The tale is told, their work is over; nothing remains to be done with them but to give them a smell of the kitchen fire, and the sooner they get thiat the better. Ot course there are some old favorites whose lives ought to be spared as long as they can send forth their representatives. Judicious mating, by which we mean the advantage of a comparatively youthful cockerel, may be the means of even exhibition poultry making their appearance from the eggs of the good old hen, and here we have the ex ception to the rule upon which we insist. London Agricultural Galette. CARE OF POULTRY. The care that poultry is entitled to, to make it profitable, says an exchange, is not near so much as one would tlink. It is just like any other business-it needs daily at tention, not one lday in a month, but each and every d(lay. If you expect a cow to be profitable you attend to feeding her regu larly, give her good, comfortable quarters f to protect her from cold, storms, etc. Now the poultry should have equally as favorable treatment as any other stock. Construct houses, not too large, as you will permit too many to crowd together. They should be about eight feet wide, sixteen feet long, to accommodate each a flock of fifty fowls, fronting to the south, with large windows, so placed that the towls may enjoy as much sunlight as possible. Have it perfectly tight and dry, excepting means for ample ventil ation, without a possibility of a direct draft reaching the fowls at night after going to roost. A fowl will take cold while asleep, as easily as a person. Keep the roosting apartment clean ; sprinkle a little air-slaked hlne and dry ashes under the perch; have the house thoroughly whitewashed inside three or four times a year. See that they, have free access to plenty of pure, fresh water at all times; don't torce them to drink the drainage from the barn yard; many cases of cholera have been coused by this. A few drops of sulphate of iron put in their drinking vessels occasionally will be a ben efit. Spri~kle the perches with coal oil, and scatter sulphur in their nests and dusting boxes. Many fowls die from severe colds received by roosting in exposed places. Of course, every fowl that dies, it is said, had the chol. ery, when probably half of them werenaf tected in this way. DOMESTIC ECONOMY, SCIENCE IN THE KITCHEIN. A lady writer for the New York TI.tint says: Of late it has become quite the fashion! in many circles to talk about food, its prep re tion and especially the adaptation of vari ties of food to supply the diverse physical demands occasioned by diverse industlral'ý and intellectual labors. ".I am goin6' to write a cook book in eight chapters," aild one of ourtmost brilliant journalists, a T 7as 4litpl In selectin hist a l Ig his words. "' O pttteo V: to make perfect btead; anohi lt' s up coffee and its making, anothtr the po tatoes, another eggs, another steak : Co)m plex dishes are good in their way, but vhbat we most need to know is how to prepare the simple and ordinary articles of diet in the most perfect maniner." The establishment of cooking soools gives the best solution of the difliculties under which our housekeepers labor that has yet been offered. In our large cities cooking classes are being formed and taught by ae complished cuishlners,.men who have serv ed long apprenticeships .at the art, and un derstand the chemistry of cooking po lees than the mechanieal manipulation of fbod, The attendants on these classes are not se., vant girls chiefly, but their* mistresses, la dies ot refinement and culture who have be come at last convinced that to secure the health and happiness of their families science in the kitchen is an Indispensable re quisite. The ordinary programme at the ; schools is the preparation of a bill of fal for dinner, embracing soup, fish, roast, eJ) trees, entrements and dessert.. The chef, in his white cap and apron, in the presence of his class, weighs, compounds and cooks the various articles constituting the bill of farp, so that the pupils see with their own eyes how everything' is done, and learn all tih little niceties of preparation on which the excellence of food so much depends. Tlht arts of flavoring, of serving, of garnlshing, taught it) this way, are learned with *cciwx parative ease, and the lessons incutcated bf exactness in weight and measure, of prasd. ion in mixing and manipulating ingredien~t are invaluable. Only by such in~structoa as this can cookery ever to be made to take its proper place among the fine arts, and the cook in a family hold equal rank, as she should, with the music teacher or the drlw ing teacher. Only in this way can tie kitch en be lifted into equal honor with the par lor. Equal ? It she uld be held in ~lj et honor, as the englue room is held in oiMr tira tories -and machine shops. for without it what are all the rest worth ? The time will come when, connected with our schools, there will be kitchens in which cookery will be taught as a part of the reg ular instruction of the pupils, for this is a practical age, and the questiomn continually agitated by our educators is how shall our youth be best fitted to engage in the, active duties of lite, and we shall begit our study and our teaching, after having swung around the whole circle of the sdenuuce and the arts, where life begins-at the stomach.