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ROCKY MOUmNTAIN HUSBANDMAN
r-. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, .stock, o 0TrJeadINUg, 10 ener l Ct n. VOdL.2. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., JANUARy" 18, 1877 NO. 9. --18 17. O.9 UBISUED WEJJI(LY BY R. N. SUTI ERL , EDITOR ANSD PROPRIETORTO * he RocKYr Mor'ATAJN ITVU1BAND)MAN 1N iC~IgIier $ b, -, thie mi i '.e,: h iudmnti i :e1r1 *e1o oC the tern, ( UII1.1(":rrg iu ii cuAininu everI' de Jrtrndut of' Avrcul i, Muc'h-rair'ing, lIlloi 1dWure, Social itiid I )i ie.-,t Iu"t(. h' llv. ADVEII'r'I NG 1t 1'1'1:s. --- - - -.-;- -· -.;- - . -. -. N I ok $ '2 $3 $ t 7 $1 $It 0 $30 gwoelck 3 4 l 1 12) 5i 2S 40 1 month 5 8 15 1r0. 21 40 (100 Im)!lthS 101 10 2. I :0 42; j 80 120 4 months Is 2:1 1. ·fi b 5 2 20 I ywr :30 4') 00 75 OX) .105 i0 i '250 Transient ndvciti-ernents It auyyu : in ad vance. Itegular advCieirQfl c nt..4 jmVablie uI, ir Icly. Twenty-five per cclt. aiddI for Jpce.a 1 ad.vcrtise ments. AGRICULTURAL. BRAIN VS. MUSCLE. The long hinter evenilgs af:lird our farm ear an admirable oPllortlutity for plnnring their work tbr the conmini season. Muchi of your success will depend upon the amnount of brain work you hest:ow upon your acres before the muscu lar Imhor is demanded. We are firmly convinced that the bodily is sub ordinate and inferior to tihe mental labor necessary for farnming operations. We know many ohl fossils, -who know nothing and never will know anything. will laugh at this .assertion and regard it as the offspring of a theory which has never been tested by ac tual experience. They are mistakeln. In our schoolboy days. and that was rnany years ago. one of ofur ineiglhbors, a mam well to do in the world, was habitually a late riser, " contrary to the statute in such cases made and provided." Sometimes his habits were a source of annoyance to his neighbors, and once we liearid him expostulated with for wasting precious hours in bed. Ilis only response was. I can make more by one hour of thought in the morning than yon .,ra earn all day by severe labor." This re ply produced a great impression upon our boyish mind and we began to consider if, by such an argumentt, we could persuade yater to allow us an hour or two of thought ful ease in bed, instead of being engaged in the menial labor of milking cows, teeding pigs and currying oxen. A few stern les sons convinced us that, so far, as we were concerned, brain work, in bed, was a failure. Farming, as a scielice, is in its earliest in fancy. We are only on tile threshold of ag ricultural knowledge. 'There is very much for every one to learn. The earth is, in a great measure, a sealed book, and only ear nest study and constnunt thought can open out the heretofore unknown treasures of the soil. Agricul:.ural books and papers should be in every farmier's home, and their con tents should be carefully studied and suple Rtented with thloughtful experiment. The old wN-ay of cultivating the soil me hanically, as it were, will no longer entitle a man to rank as a farmer. The brain must direct and control the muscle, and the main strength andl awkwardness of the servant must obey the intelligence and skill of the master. Farnming is honorable as s avocation and profitable just in proportion as we be Stow upon it the thought that other success ful industries require. A non-reading. non thinking farmer is only a slave-a servant of Servants, and his most cruel task-master is -himself.-Son of the Soil. SU'GAR BEETS.-T-be cultivation of sugar beets in this country, for sugar purposes. has thuusfar proved a disastrous failure to *11 who have engaged in it. We have some hope that the climate of "alifornia may sut iciently.develop the saccharine quality in the beets to rnlhke sugar profitably front them. We see that there has been a great failure throughout Europe the past year. also-the beet thliling to make the usual amount of sugar. After all, there is tioti tag like the sugar cane for mniaklhg sugar. e hoe (o Iope our dltlicullielt thle t south may soo01 be p)ernmatlntly settled, so that every ho ly canl get sugar at the auite-hel llu rates. WVlen peace and:li prosperity again prevail, then we may look for chap sugar-not be tore.-Rural VWorld. AGRICULTURAL ITEMS. The best flax grown in the United States comes from Oregon. Missouri has the best tobacco crop this year ever cut in the State. WVilliston, S. C., boasts of a stalk of cotton fifteen feet highl, which resembles a thrce year-oldl pear tree in size and form. The total product of the coffee crop of the world for 1876, is estimated at about 900.000, 000 pounds, of which amount the United States imported in one-third, or 317,970,6t0 pounds. The fat of geese is probably the best that can be raised upon the farm, and is really between lard and butter in its nature. Geye are nearly as profitable on a farm, when properly managed, as swine or comunin poultry. It is thought t that the exports of wheat from California for the last fiscal year just closed would amount to 650,000 tons, leaving a surplus of 250,000 tons for consumption and seed purposes. Since July 1 about 6,000,000 centals have been exported. In the elevated regions of the interior of West Africa, where there are no dense pri maeval forests, extensive swamps and pesti lential jungles, cattle and horses show no sign of "infection" or poisoned state of the blood. 'T'hey flourish in uncounted herd. And in those regions men are healthy, vi orous and intelligent. The Jackson. (1,inn.) Republican says: Several of our citizens have lately been look ing over the grasshopper prospects. We have met quite a number who persist that the eggs are being destroyed, and, in fact, in places no eggs can be found where they were numerously deposited. We hope for the best; still our faith is weak in the de struction idea. An experiment was recently made in Sid ney, New South Wales, by way of utilizing the blood from an abattoir outside of the town. A five-acre lot adjoinining the al:t toir was prepared for a crop of barley, the waste blood being used instead of mandre. In eight weeks the barley was four feet in height, remarkably heavy nnd giving promn ise of an extraordinary crop. There is a prospect of a direct trade springing tip between the councils of Sov ereigns of industry in Massachusetts; conm pose(l of mechanics and operatives, and those in Maine, composed largely of farmers. Mr. Walker, a Cincinnati scientist, has al lowed himself to be stung by bees once a week for three weeks to ascertain the effect. lie says that after about the tenth time the pain and swelling were slight, the body seemed to become inoculated with the p)oison. SIHORTICULTURE. CURRANT TREES. A gardener writes to the London Journal of Horticulture of the advantage of growing cultrants as standard trees instead of bushes. He says: The systern of grafting which is adopted on the continent and in America is not nec essary in growing statndar(I currnnats in Eng land. Given vigorouts stocks, time is no doubt saived by grafting, but really the growing ot cutttings into miliature trees is by no means a slow process. Standard red currants are both ornament al and profitable, and the fruit on them is never attacked by birds so ).,'|stantly as is fruit growing on blushes I have grown standards for a number Of .'mTl's, and have tolntud them of the greatest value. They tale 1u1) but little room. are exceedingly fruitful, and unIIlqlestionably add to the at tractiveicles of the garden. The truit on standards generally ripens before that on bushes, and it. also keeps longer. If it is dlesired( to pl)r'srve the fruit as long as )Os sible it is easy to place round each separate head a guard of netting. This, however, is not necessary until the fruit from the bushes has been gathered, for the birds will not at tack the exposed standard trees so long as any hi(dden fruit remains on the bushes which they cnu eat in comparative peace and quietness. I ebhmmeneed the growing of standard enrrant trees on the score ot economy and to save garden ground. Mly kitcken garden space was limited, and the denilali for cur rants could not be met. I could not afford to devote another quarter cf the garden to bush fruit, as scarcity in another form-the vegetable supply-would have, followed. I therefore raised standards, and planted some at intervals among the bushes, .platling a standard between evely third and fourth bush in every third row. The heads of these were foramed well above the bushes, and, as anticipated, the bushes produced as fi eely as ever, and a large supply in addition was given by the standards above them. I also planted standards on the wgMt.lbor tiers near to the edg(1e next to the .:walks. The trees were planted 18 inches from :the walk, and 15 feet from tree to tree. HAle stems were 31 feet high, and the heads woee formed from two to three feet in diamneter, It was surprising the quantity of itie fruit that was produced by these standards', and a root or two of early potatoes were ittI ficed in one part of the border, and a few lettuces in another ; but these trilling losses were not felt, while the crops of currants were a substantial gain. The' miniature trees also added much to the ornamentation of the garden, and were generally admired for their appearance. The trees I raised from cuttings, In the ordinary manner of raising trees from cut tings, siort-jointed, medium-sized shoots are selected, cutting out the lower eyes and shortening the tops of the cuttings to the required height, leaving three or four buds on the top of each. In raising standards I found another plan, quicker and better. I selected the most robust shoots, carefully removing all the base buds, but not short eni,.g the cuttings, leaving the terminal bud of each untouched. These cuttings were often three feet long to begin with, and when carefully planted in a north border they invariably rooted and did well. They were put in in the autumn, and irnthe fol lowing summer made little growth, but in the season following they grew more than the required height. and were shortened ac cordinrly at the winter's pruning and tile heads formed. I found, however that a season was gain ed( by grafting roots on to the cuttings. A piece of bushy, fibrous root was dug up and its thick end cut into the inhape of a wedge; this was inserted into an upward slit made near the lower end of the cutting and secur ed with a piece of matting. When this was neatly and quickly done, and the cutting with its new root planted without any delay. thus avoiding dryin rIng. I rarely knew a fall nre to occur, and tihe cutting so grafted grew to the required height the first season. Standard citl'ranlts, of course, require stakes to supp~ort them. It is imtipot'tant that these be sound aLnd tirm. and tile Itgatures mzust also be irong. Tlhe stakes must be placed close up to the heads, or during a rough wind the healld of the tree inay be broken oft near the topmost ligature. Es peciallyt to those having small gardens, and who dtesire them to be as protitable as possi ble and .iso attractive9 I recommend that they grdw cuirrants as standards along the sides otf the wlks 'frths trhees will 'lld a valu:ble supply of fruit without taking qt ncllh grldllnl, and they will also impart a )pleasing ap)pearan:ee to tire garden. T'hose "Who li\ve near blackstinith anhd 'ia chine shops, tnnd can get iron thlilngs aid rusty chips of iron, and will'iork them into their flower bed.s;, .vWill add greatly to tlj rich and bright coloring of their flowers. New forests ai'e said to be growing tipt the westeru part of MassaiBlitsetts fasts than the old ones are cut ff. `specially ii the hill towns is this the case. Malny ,ati cality that w:ias impoverihed as fhr'm lanai twenty and thi'rty years ago, is now conerdl with a vigorous growth of youing foret the rapid increase in the population of the outlying agrienicultural districts having r&lj dered such a chatge incvitablet. DOMESTIC ECONOMY,. Cdrin1 Meat.-To one gallon of water take 1- poundtls of salt, * pound of sugar, J one r of saltpetre. , ounce ot potash. In this ratio the pickle can be increased to any quantity desired. Let these be boiled Sto gether hntil all the dirt from the sitgi.isie to the top and is skilnuled off. T'hlen thiVw it into a: tub to cool, and W'vhenl co1 ieO" t over your beef or pork. The meat trist ' well coVered with pickle, and should not le put down for at least, two days alter killngs during which time it shottld be sif1ghtly sprinkled with powlertld saltjetre, wlitch iremoves all the surfAie blood. &c., lea^f.ntg tIhemeat frtosh and clean. Some onlt "·ilb4 il .t.e pie le, and fidl it to answer .1i.A. be found in s it mi d d'elegraph Bread wils. 1'otatoes ottoe s s.-ot oe sist mentation, and renlder the dough ti ter e.t more tender when we wish to nitkt, briad in haste. Peel mand boil, 0resteami,a qtartot potatoes, mash them very fine, or, What; it better, press them through a colander Wlilii they are hot, add halt a pint of water an~fa salt-spoon-ful of salt, stir them into a batte then put in a yeast cake previously softetie or a teacupful of lively yeast, and make 'it a dough with two quarts of sifted ttdurt Knead half an hour, put plenty of lofi ron your board, and knead it until it rel. .ift'0 time board with a light tearilg soand. Dl careful not to let your (lodgh grbkw vt cold while you work it. Divide into loa e~ and set to rise in a warm place. Watach" t.i process, and when the loaves are quilte liht have your oven in good heat and bake th.ee. quarters ot an hour, This bread is onloi. well made, i. e., the potatoes Inade ery ~ner and kept hot, and perhaps the flour i wartit also; ,but it is not so good wheni stale as thbt made with a sealded sponge. Rose Cake.---Oe pound. of sugar, 1 flour. 6 oza. lutter, whites.ef 14 eggi spoonfhl ao:d, 1 teaspoonfuls cream trt~, J cup sweet or seot imilk, sift the crealirtam tar into the flour, dissolve the, soda in tllh milki For coloring, take 4 draahmii t eoch1 . nealI saune of soda, cream tattf'? and sil pulverize anstldssolve in water; :train aA color tralt the'batter, lpour the white batte in the pan, then poUi ihs the platk In a tr~p stir deep once or twic Do not stir I; . or it will all be colored. Velidt Cake.-4ne 'ponnd sugar. I of tIomiu Spoutnd'of hutter, five eggs 1 t1 9 ,tu a" coml water, one $4spooaful of crtan fhttt I espoonfll sa a;or mit nori ei the sugai and b tte to a white fCeaar PJlu@ solve the soda l the waiter, iand ,ift the cream tartar into tld liqour, "mict i thomr' ottghlyl add to the buiter and sngar th" pound of flour and the water, and beat It wehq; beat thmobdiks aind k'ites ot thmi .sparately bttotgether for'a minute. , stir into th* e; bbeat the cake we ( about three iptss; bak4il sh hoigrt Wial fintpitW4ti vre,.