ROCKY MOUmNTAIN HUSBANDMAN
r-. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, .stock, o 0TrJeadINUg, 10 ener l Ct n.
VOdL.2. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., JANUARy" 18, 1877 NO. 9.
--18 17. O.9
UBISUED WEJJI(LY BY
R. N. SUTI ERL ,
EDITOR ANSD PROPRIETORTO
* he RocKYr Mor'ATAJN ITVU1BAND)MAN 1N iC~IgIier
$ b, -, thie mi i '.e,: h iudmnti i :e1r1
*e1o oC the tern, ( UII1.1(":rrg iu ii cuAininu everI'
de Jrtrndut of' Avrcul i, Muc'h-rair'ing, lIlloi
1dWure, Social itiid I )i ie.-,t Iu"t(. h' llv.
ADVEII'r'I NG 1t 1'1'1:s.
--- - - -.-;- -· -.;- - . -. -.
N I ok $ '2 $3 $ t 7 $1 $It 0 $30
gwoelck 3 4 l 1 12) 5i 2S 40
1 month 5 8 15 1r0. 21 40 (100
Im)!lthS 101 10 2. I :0 42; j 80 120
4 months Is 2:1 1. ·fi b 5 2 20
I ywr :30 4') 00 75 OX) .105 i0 i '250
Transient ndvciti-ernents It auyyu : in ad vance.
Itegular advCieirQfl c nt..4 jmVablie uI, ir Icly.
Twenty-five per cclt. aiddI for Jpce.a 1 ad.vcrtise
BRAIN VS. MUSCLE.
The long hinter evenilgs af:lird our farm
ear an admirable oPllortlutity for plnnring
their work tbr the conmini season. Muchi
of your success will depend upon the amnount
of brain work you hest:ow upon your acres
before the muscu lar Imhor is demanded. We
are firmly convinced that the bodily is sub
ordinate and inferior to tihe mental labor
necessary for farnming operations. We know
many ohl fossils, -who know nothing and
never will know anything. will laugh at this
.assertion and regard it as the offspring of a
theory which has never been tested by ac
tual experience. They are mistakeln.
In our schoolboy days. and that was rnany
years ago. one of ofur ineiglhbors, a mam well
to do in the world, was habitually a late
riser, " contrary to the statute in such cases
made and provided." Sometimes his habits
were a source of annoyance to his neighbors,
and once we liearid him expostulated with
for wasting precious hours in bed. Ilis only
response was. I can make more by one
hour of thought in the morning than yon
.,ra earn all day by severe labor." This re
ply produced a great impression upon our
boyish mind and we began to consider if,
by such an argumentt, we could persuade
yater to allow us an hour or two of thought
ful ease in bed, instead of being engaged in
the menial labor of milking cows, teeding
pigs and currying oxen. A few stern les
sons convinced us that, so far, as we were
concerned, brain work, in bed, was a failure.
Farming, as a scielice, is in its earliest in
fancy. We are only on tile threshold of ag
ricultural knowledge. 'There is very much
for every one to learn. The earth is, in a
great measure, a sealed book, and only ear
nest study and constnunt thought can open
out the heretofore unknown treasures of the
soil. Agricul:.ural books and papers should
be in every farmier's home, and their con
tents should be carefully studied and suple
Rtented with thloughtful experiment.
The old wN-ay of cultivating the soil me
hanically, as it were, will no longer entitle
a man to rank as a farmer. The brain must
direct and control the muscle, and the main
strength andl awkwardness of the servant
must obey the intelligence and skill of the
master. Farnming is honorable as s avocation
and profitable just in proportion as we be
Stow upon it the thought that other success
ful industries require. A non-reading. non
thinking farmer is only a slave-a servant of
Servants, and his most cruel task-master is
-himself.-Son of the Soil.
SU'GAR BEETS.-T-be cultivation of sugar
beets in this country, for sugar purposes.
has thuusfar proved a disastrous failure to
*11 who have engaged in it. We have some
hope that the climate of "alifornia may sut
iciently.develop the saccharine quality in
the beets to rnlhke sugar profitably front
them. We see that there has been a great
failure throughout Europe the past year.
also-the beet thliling to make the usual
amount of sugar. After all, there is tioti
tag like the sugar cane for mniaklhg sugar.
e hoe (o Iope our dltlicullielt thle t south may
soo01 be p)ernmatlntly settled, so that every
ho ly canl get sugar at the auite-hel llu rates.
WVlen peace and:li prosperity again prevail,
then we may look for chap sugar-not be
The best flax grown in the United States
comes from Oregon.
Missouri has the best tobacco crop this
year ever cut in the State.
WVilliston, S. C., boasts of a stalk of cotton
fifteen feet highl, which resembles a thrce
year-oldl pear tree in size and form.
The total product of the coffee crop of the
world for 1876, is estimated at about 900.000,
000 pounds, of which amount the United
States imported in one-third, or 317,970,6t0
The fat of geese is probably the best that
can be raised upon the farm, and is really
between lard and butter in its nature. Geye
are nearly as profitable on a farm, when
properly managed, as swine or comunin
It is thought t that the exports of wheat
from California for the last fiscal year just
closed would amount to 650,000 tons, leaving
a surplus of 250,000 tons for consumption
and seed purposes. Since July 1 about
6,000,000 centals have been exported.
In the elevated regions of the interior of
West Africa, where there are no dense pri
maeval forests, extensive swamps and pesti
lential jungles, cattle and horses show no
sign of "infection" or poisoned state of the
blood. 'T'hey flourish in uncounted herd.
And in those regions men are healthy, vi
orous and intelligent.
The Jackson. (1,inn.) Republican says:
Several of our citizens have lately been look
ing over the grasshopper prospects. We
have met quite a number who persist that
the eggs are being destroyed, and, in fact,
in places no eggs can be found where they
were numerously deposited. We hope for
the best; still our faith is weak in the de
An experiment was recently made in Sid
ney, New South Wales, by way of utilizing
the blood from an abattoir outside of the
town. A five-acre lot adjoinining the al:t
toir was prepared for a crop of barley, the
waste blood being used instead of mandre.
In eight weeks the barley was four feet in
height, remarkably heavy nnd giving promn
ise of an extraordinary crop.
There is a prospect of a direct trade
springing tip between the councils of Sov
ereigns of industry in Massachusetts; conm
pose(l of mechanics and operatives, and those
in Maine, composed largely of farmers.
Mr. Walker, a Cincinnati scientist, has al
lowed himself to be stung by bees once a
week for three weeks to ascertain the effect.
lie says that after about the tenth time the
pain and swelling were slight, the body
seemed to become inoculated with the
A gardener writes to the London Journal
of Horticulture of the advantage of growing
cultrants as standard trees instead of bushes.
The systern of grafting which is adopted
on the continent and in America is not nec
essary in growing statndar(I currnnats in Eng
land. Given vigorouts stocks, time is no
doubt saived by grafting, but really the
growing ot cutttings into miliature trees is
by no means a slow process.
Standard red currants are both ornament
al and profitable, and the fruit on them is
never attacked by birds so ).,'|stantly as is
fruit growing on blushes I have grown
standards for a number Of .'mTl's, and have
tolntud them of the greatest value. They
tale 1u1) but little room. are exceedingly
fruitful, and unIIlqlestionably add to the at
tractiveicles of the garden. The truit on
standards generally ripens before that on
bushes, and it. also keeps longer. If it is
dlesired( to pl)r'srve the fruit as long as )Os
sible it is easy to place round each separate
head a guard of netting. This, however, is
not necessary until the fruit from the bushes
has been gathered, for the birds will not at
tack the exposed standard trees so long as
any hi(dden fruit remains on the bushes
which they cnu eat in comparative peace and
I ebhmmeneed the growing of standard
enrrant trees on the score ot economy and
to save garden ground. Mly kitcken garden
space was limited, and the denilali for cur
rants could not be met. I could not afford
to devote another quarter cf the garden to
bush fruit, as scarcity in another form-the
vegetable supply-would have, followed. I
therefore raised standards, and planted some
at intervals among the bushes, .platling a
standard between evely third and fourth
bush in every third row. The heads of these
were foramed well above the bushes, and, as
anticipated, the bushes produced as fi eely
as ever, and a large supply in addition was
given by the standards above them.
I also planted standards on the wgMt.lbor
tiers near to the edg(1e next to the .:walks.
The trees were planted 18 inches from :the
walk, and 15 feet from tree to tree. HAle
stems were 31 feet high, and the heads woee
formed from two to three feet in diamneter,
It was surprising the quantity of itie fruit
that was produced by these standards', and
a root or two of early potatoes were ittI
ficed in one part of the border, and a few
lettuces in another ; but these trilling losses
were not felt, while the crops of currants
were a substantial gain. The' miniature
trees also added much to the ornamentation
of the garden, and were generally admired
for their appearance.
The trees I raised from cuttings, In the
ordinary manner of raising trees from cut
tings, siort-jointed, medium-sized shoots
are selected, cutting out the lower eyes and
shortening the tops of the cuttings to the
required height, leaving three or four buds
on the top of each. In raising standards I
found another plan, quicker and better. I
selected the most robust shoots, carefully
removing all the base buds, but not short
eni,.g the cuttings, leaving the terminal bud
of each untouched. These cuttings were
often three feet long to begin with, and
when carefully planted in a north border
they invariably rooted and did well. They
were put in in the autumn, and irnthe fol
lowing summer made little growth, but in
the season following they grew more than
the required height. and were shortened ac
cordinrly at the winter's pruning and tile
I found, however that a season was gain
ed( by grafting roots on to the cuttings. A
piece of bushy, fibrous root was dug up and
its thick end cut into the inhape of a wedge;
this was inserted into an upward slit made
near the lower end of the cutting and secur
ed with a piece of matting. When this was
neatly and quickly done, and the cutting
with its new root planted without any delay.
thus avoiding dryin rIng. I rarely knew a fall
nre to occur, and tihe cutting so grafted grew
to the required height the first season.
Standard citl'ranlts, of course, require
stakes to supp~ort them. It is imtipot'tant that
these be sound aLnd tirm. and tile Itgatures
mzust also be irong. Tlhe stakes must be
placed close up to the heads, or during a
rough wind the healld of the tree inay be
broken oft near the topmost ligature. Es
peciallyt to those having small gardens, and
who dtesire them to be as protitable as possi
ble and .iso attractive9 I recommend that
they grdw cuirrants as standards along the
sides otf the wlks 'frths trhees will 'lld
a valu:ble supply of fruit without taking qt
ncllh grldllnl, and they will also impart a
)pleasing ap)pearan:ee to tire garden.
T'hose "Who li\ve near blackstinith anhd 'ia
chine shops, tnnd can get iron thlilngs aid
rusty chips of iron, and will'iork them into
their flower bed.s;, .vWill add greatly to tlj
rich and bright coloring of their flowers.
New forests ai'e said to be growing tipt
the westeru part of MassaiBlitsetts fasts
than the old ones are cut ff. `specially ii
the hill towns is this the case. Malny ,ati
cality that w:ias impoverihed as fhr'm lanai
twenty and thi'rty years ago, is now conerdl
with a vigorous growth of youing foret
the rapid increase in the population of the
outlying agrienicultural districts having r&lj
dered such a chatge incvitablet.
Cdrin1 Meat.-To one gallon of water take
1- poundtls of salt, * pound of sugar, J one r
of saltpetre. , ounce ot potash. In this
ratio the pickle can be increased to any
quantity desired. Let these be boiled Sto
gether hntil all the dirt from the sitgi.isie
to the top and is skilnuled off. T'hlen thiVw
it into a: tub to cool, and W'vhenl co1 ieO" t
over your beef or pork. The meat trist '
well coVered with pickle, and should not le
put down for at least, two days alter killngs
during which time it shottld be sif1ghtly
sprinkled with powlertld saltjetre, wlitch
iremoves all the surfAie blood. &c., lea^f.ntg
tIhemeat frtosh and clean. Some onlt "·ilb4
il .t.e pie le, and fidl it to answer .1i.A.
be found in s it mi d
Bread wils. 1'otatoes ottoe s s.-ot oe sist
mentation, and renlder the dough ti ter e.t
more tender when we wish to nitkt, briad
in haste. Peel mand boil, 0resteami,a qtartot
potatoes, mash them very fine, or, What; it
better, press them through a colander Wlilii
they are hot, add halt a pint of water an~fa
salt-spoon-ful of salt, stir them into a batte
then put in a yeast cake previously softetie
or a teacupful of lively yeast, and make 'it
a dough with two quarts of sifted ttdurt
Knead half an hour, put plenty of lofi ron
your board, and knead it until it rel. .ift'0
time board with a light tearilg soand. Dl
careful not to let your (lodgh grbkw vt
cold while you work it. Divide into loa e~
and set to rise in a warm place. Watach" t.i
process, and when the loaves are quilte liht
have your oven in good heat and bake th.ee.
quarters ot an hour, This bread is onloi.
well made, i. e., the potatoes Inade ery ~ner
and kept hot, and perhaps the flour i wartit
also; ,but it is not so good wheni stale as thbt
made with a sealded sponge.
Rose Cake.---Oe pound. of sugar, 1
flour. 6 oza. lutter, whites.ef 14 eggi
spoonfhl ao:d, 1 teaspoonfuls cream trt~,
J cup sweet or seot imilk, sift the crealirtam
tar into the flour, dissolve the, soda in tllh
milki For coloring, take 4 draahmii t eoch1 .
nealI saune of soda, cream tattf'? and sil
pulverize anstldssolve in water; :train aA
color tralt the'batter, lpour the white batte
in the pan, then poUi ihs the platk In a tr~p
stir deep once or twic Do not stir I; .
or it will all be colored.
Velidt Cake.-4ne 'ponnd sugar. I of tIomiu
Spoutnd'of hutter, five eggs 1 t1 9 ,tu a"
coml water, one $4spooaful of crtan fhttt
I espoonfll sa a;or mit nori ei
the sugai and b tte to a white fCeaar [email protected]
solve the soda l the waiter, iand ,ift the
cream tartar into tld liqour, "mict i thomr'
ottghlyl add to the buiter and sngar th"
pound of flour and the water, and beat It
wehq; beat thmobdiks aind k'ites ot thmi
.sparately bttotgether for'a minute. ,
stir into th* e; bbeat the cake we (
about three iptss; bak4il sh hoigrt
Wial fintpitW4ti vre,.
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