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OCKY MOUNTAIN USBANDMAN
rIA CNY 4. A Journal Devoted to Agriculture, Live-stock, Home Reading, and Gen.eral NeWS. PER'S Cts. ONLS . DIAMOND CITY, M.w P.R FEBRUARY118.ULE COPY. 01. 2. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., FEBRUARY 1, 1877. NO. 11. LISHILED WEEKLY BY .N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AN) PROPRIETOR ocKY MOUNTAIN IIUSBANDMAN Is designed s the n:unIe inIlicatets, a husii1'`IndIium in every f the term, enmhracing in its coluinius every lent of Agriculture, Stock-raising, Ilorti Social and Iomestic F.cononm. ADVERTISING RATES. - - - - - - - - 0 - $ 3 $ 5 $ 11 $20 $30 S 3I 4 7 10 12 15 28 40 th a s 12 15 18 21 40 60 the 10 1( 24 30 36 42 80 1 120 iths 18 2., 36 45 54 65 120 200 1. .10 40 60 75 90 105I 180 250 incient advertisemnents payatile in advance. gular advertisements payable quarterly. Smty-live per cent. added for specid advertise its. _AGRICHLTURAL. THE PRESENT OF AGRICULTURE. he "Future of Agriculture" is a theme ch has employed the pen of many an listic writer on rural topics, because it is ups, much easier or more pleasant, to of what may happen than what has, is actually occurring about us. It is tainly not a laborious task to imagine 's-self finding pots tilled with gold, or t some rich relative dies and leaves us a tune ; but to work and earn a living and Dre by the sweat of the brow, is quite an ler thing. What the future of American riculture may be, no one can do more than Less at; consequently, it will be far more ofttable to attend to the present and leave use who live the longest to plow deepest, order to find the hidden wealth of the soil. course, we do not mean by this that a should skim his land until no more m shall rise to the surface, or waste that ch might be valuable to those coming r him; but we would have him look e to what is likely to happen in his own ime than in that of his children or grand dren. he present condition of agriculture among ivilized nations, is far in advance of what i ver was before, no matter how many eavor to persuade themselves and others hink otherwise, and any one who may ibt this has only to read history to be winced of the truth of the assertion. It 1 not be necessary to go back very far, or rch very close or long, to learn how much erior are the advantages the farmer en a to-day to those at his command twenty or fifty years ago. Railroads and other ns of transportation and communication our great cities and seaports have been bled and quadrupled within the memory armers who are yet in the prime of life; thousands of inland towns are now en ing a brisk trade in farm produce, all for h and good prices where, only a few s since, there was no sale except in bar for anything from the farm but wheat, ns and pork. here are, it is true, some isolated regions ere the farmer is experiencing some of old-time hardships; but this comes from ishing too far away from business centers, ich is a disadvantage many learn when late for rectification. Good markets and dy sale for farm produce are some of the any advantages which the farmer of to-day joys over farmers of fifty years ago; and has scores of labor-saving implements to lp him at both seed-time and harvest, and ere he once had to walk in doing his rk, he can inow ride more comfortably an even a Roman Emperor did when reeled about in his royal chariot. If these or-saving implements are worth anything the farmer, he should be able to raise his ps cheaper with their aid than without em, and then, by adding the advance in ee of farm products, one would naturally ppose there was a good opportunity of aking money in farming. But if we are believe all the complaints which reach us, a majority of farmers are in an almost des perate condition on account of the unprolit ableness of agricultural pursuits. There must be some cause for all these complainings of hard times among farmers, but who will dare say that it is low prices or cl short crops? We propound the question, sl What is it? and although it may be a con- D undrum which few will attempt to guess, al still those who will take the trouble to look r( closely into the present condition of agricul- P tLure and compare it with that of twenty-five 0 or thirty years ago, may be able to throw a I ray of light upon the subject.-Rural New tl Yorker. si MAKE FARM LIFE ATTRACTIVE. 1 The improvements that do most to in crease the comfort, and to render farm ,life attractive, says the Farmers' Vindicator, are not of the most costly character, and are within reach of every enterprising farmer. s In making the home attractive, costly or naments may be left to those who have the s means to lavish upon them; but every coun try mansion, or cottage, should be surround ed by shade trees to protect it, or rather its inmates, from the cold blasts of winter, as well as the intense heat of summer. The trees are within the reach of all, at trifling expense. The road ways, too, could be lined with trees, with little or no disadvantage to the adjoining lands. If the Patrons of Ilus bandry would take hold of this important subject in earnest, how easily they could line the highways of the whole country with beautiful, ornamental and fruit trees and tax themselves but lightly in time or money. Does any one doubt the desirability of such improvement ? Let such a one drive along a public road where even one farmer has, by forethought and a little enterprise, years before such visit, planted.such trees, and contrast his iml1ressions, with a look at his own barren highway, and then judge. The fact is, such investments cost but little, and never fail to pay. No one can pass such property without half wishing that he owned it, and, if he is ready and able to purchase, he is willing to pay well for such improvements. With the substantial comforts of country life, it is the same. They are within the reach of every farmer, great or small, and cost comparatively little. All that is need ed is judgment and a little well-timed labor, r to secure such comforts as fruits, which many farmers never see in their dwellings. Apple, pear, peach trees and grape vines, are as easily cultivated as corn; strawberries, r raspberries and blackberries can be grown I with success. Most of the drudgery and monotony of farm life results firom mere stupidity. It is commonly thought by those who live along for years on corn bread, bacon and sweet r potatoes, that such luxuries as delicious and healthful fruits are too costly for poor farm ers. This is nonsense. No class of people ' in the world can secure them so easily and so certainly. City people know little of a these luxuries in their perfection, as they rarely get them fresh from the orchards; n and if the farmer would only use his oppor tunities, his family would seldom complain n of their situation. Something good out of Nazareth after all. First, ni obliging Congressman ; second, a lot of pumpkin seeds from the Department of Agriculture ; third, a lot of Middlebor ough (Mass.) people; fourth, the free libra ry of that town. The Congressman got the seeds from the department, sent them to his Middleborough constituency, each planted one seed and the product was sent in for a fair held for the benefit of the library. Prof ,ts, $150. Thus we see that the whole affair from the Congressman down to the fairing was- 5-some pumpkins. Score one for the Department of Agriculture.-Colorado Farmer. PRESERVE your soil, that it may remain fruitful for generations to come. HORTICULTURE. i STHAWBERRIES. The Charles Downing maintains its high b character. Mr. Jones said it would not bear r shipping like the Wilson, but it yields well. a D)r. Long said it sold better than the Wilson, s and was large and productive. Dr. llumpih- a rey said it was the best berry to can, and he t: put up 7,000 cans of it last year. It holds 1 out longer in bearing than the Wilson. Mr. c Leslie had tested sixty varieties, and found r the Charles Downing the best. The fruit 1 stands up better than the Wilson, is better in quality, and withstands the sun better. t Mr. Leslie is a large cultivator of this fruit, t and pursues the following mode of culture: t HLe plants in rows 31 feet apart and one foot in the row ; the runners cover a strip 12 or i5 inches wide, the plants outside of this strip being treated as weeds. After freezing in early winter, the plants are covered with straw 4 inches thick, evenly distributed and shaken loosely ; this is raked oft in spring and left till after fruiting. The Charles Downing needs renewing once in three years, which is done by turning in the old plants with a plow and wheel coulter, first on one side, then on the other, turmng the furrows away from the rows. Then sprinkle on ma nure and level the ground. This seems to be an easy and cheap way of renewing on the same ground, and will doubtless answer well for the rich soils at the west, with the added manure.-Transactions Illinois Ilorti C aultural Society. STRAWBERRY PROTECTION. I think there can be no doubt that covqr ing strawberries before settled cold mrgo does more harm than good. The wet weather and extremes of heat and cold of early spring do more harm to such hardy plants than the steadier cold of early winter. We have followed the plan of covering them not until considerable falls of snow the straw or whatever material is used hav ing been put aside under cover until that time. While snow lasts, of course, there can be no better protection than it offers. But when nearly gone, melting during the day and freezing at night are likely to injure the plants as soon as, their leaves and stems are exposed. It is better therefore, to spread the covering upon the freshly fallen snow. It then, falling as the snow melts, finally rests evenly and lightly upon the plants un derneath. Those who, from neglect or want of time, failed to cover their strawberry patches as usual, may ascertain, by adopting this plan, that it is not yet too late to protect them as effectually now as at an earlier day.-Rural New Yorker. A NEW GOLDEN TREE. Speaking of Van Geert's nursery at Clamp thout, Belgium, the English Journal of Hor ticulture says : It is here, to (Clampthout) where the choicest of the rich collection of hardy trees with variegated foliage are increased, such as that valuable acquisition, the Golden Poplar, Populus canadensis aurea FJau Geerti, the finest of all golden-foliage hardy trees, of free and noble growth ; and not golden in Belgium only, for this tree has proved, in the Hammersmith nurseries of Messrs. J. & C. Lee, all that was represented by its raiser, as being as free in growth as the common Canadian Poplar, and with leaves not of a sickly hue, but of a warm and vigorous golden tint, the color increasing in intensity the better the trees are nourished and the more they are exposed to the sun. Easy as this tree is of increase, the great demand for it has taxed to the utmost Mr. Van Geert's endeavors to establish a sufficient stock, and consequently the trees in the Antwerp nur sery were all in a small state. This tree, which in ll probability will, in a few years, lighten and brighten, the park and forest scenery of many countries, is the result simply of attentive observation and the turn ing to account, as it were, of a freak of na ture. Mr. Van Geert, in passing through a much-frequented district, had noticed a bright yellow branch growing on an ordina ry poplar tree, and observing that it grew as freely as the rest of the tree, that it as sumed its golden tint early in the summer and preserved it throughout the season, that this was not a freak peculiar to one season, but was the same year after year, the tree or branch was secured for further experi ment, and thus the tree which will adld so much to landscape scenery and it's preserv er's fame was obtained, increased and dis tributed. Thousands of passers-by had no ticed the "'golden patch," but one only had turned the Lircumstance to account-the ob servant and fortunate Charles Van Geert. FoR small fruit culture, Montana possess es superior advantages over most of the old settled States. DOMESTIC ECONOMY. COOKS AND COOKING. It has been said that "poets are born and not made," through education or other wise, and the same axiom may be applied to cooks. The principles of cooking may be studied with care, and for a lifetime, and practical directions for compounding dishes, baking, boiling, and roasting, given without num ber; but with all these aids, a woman cannot become a good cook without practice, any more than she can become an accomplished performer on the piano by studying a book of. exerbises arran'gcd for that instrument.' is a certain indescribab glidl A or intuitive knowledge, which assists one cook to have everything turn out just right, while another, by the closest at tention, fails to produce any article in its greatest perfection. Good bread makers we have, it is true, but they are far from being common, al though it would be difficult to find a woman who makes bread that will own her bread is not quite as good as it is possible to make it. But- there is a difference of opinion as to w hat constitutes good bread. Some con sider lightness, even to a puffy condition, as the principal quality of a good article; but this is certainly a great mistake, for good bread should be of an even, uniform texture throughout, no holes in it As large as peas or marbles, for these show want of proper kneading. Of course, good, light white bread cannot be made from poor flour, or out of heated and soured wheat, and the man who pro vides such an article and expects his wife to make good bread, deserves to he disappoint ed, as he most surely will. There are also conditions to be observed which cannot be laid down in cookery-books or be known outside of each particular kitch en. These pertain to the water used, wvheth er soft or hard, also to the management of the fire, for if it fluctuates from a red-hot stove one minute to an almost cold one the 3 next, the cooking will not go on in a uniform f and regular manner. The secrets of success in cooking are, i knowing just what you want to produce, just how to do it, and then giving the nec essary attention to bring about the desired results, which can only be obtained through 1 constant practice. s It will not do to get into a flurry and pot y' in salt in place of sugar, or to leave out any e of the ingredients where all are required to s complete the article in hand ; but careful at r tention to all the small details are positively s necessary to produce satisfactory results. d A kitchen is a chemical laboratory, an'd the chemi"t who presides over it, must take 5, an interest in the compounding of each dish s, produced, else there will be no brillia:t ;t chemical results.-Mrs. Rustic in Rural 2ci4 It Yorker.