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OCKY 1OUNTAIN IUSBANDMAN
4.00 A Journal Devoted to Arlculture, LiAe-stock, Home Beading, and General News. 1 r AIN O. VO "ULM. E ST.NGLE tOPY. VOL.2. DIAMOND CITY, M. T., APRIL 19, 1877. NO. 22. jURLjSHE) WE1LEKLY BY . N. SUTHERLIN, EDITOR AND I I'OPRIETOIb I lt o 0('KY MOUNTAIN IH SANDtU1AN i designed 1 be te name indiicates, a hulb, iidmlnan it. every eof the term, embra:cing in its :o.umuIns every irtrnent of Agriculturec, Stock-raising, ilorl-i re Soci.al and I)omestic E:c'onoollv. AI)VERTISING RATES. week $2 .$3 *- $. . 7-- - 11 $ $g 1 30 week 3 4 7ý 10 12 15 28 40 C month 8I 12 15 191t 1, 40 o 0 monthsl I 1 ]6 24 301' I 0 ,' 4`2 80 120 nmonthl3 IS 25 36 4 541 us 120 200 \ nar. 30 4o0 !o0 7 ol 0 ,) 105 180 2,50 Trsnsient advertise(ments pay:Die in advance. jpgular advertiscmenti payable qlial terly. Twenty-five per cent. added for spectal advertise -nte. AGRICUILTURAL. Evyi:i farmer should learn that true ceUn- t my is not simlply to cling on to a penny with the tctacity of a miser. There can be -much economy displayed in making as n saving. He that has studied these princi ples thoroughll will understand that econ- t Fiy means to make the best of everything. If there is anyt!l.ng you intend to market, )ut it in the best possible shape and make it attractive. Even a poor article, properly muanagedl, may be made to outsell a good one pre on the market in bad order. Now, wany of our farmer fricnds think that this is all bosh, and will say that it af fords a gooi s:ibject for an agricultural edi tor to let off some of his extra gas about, but nothing more. Such l)eople generally refuse to learn in :any school. But nothing is more asily demonst:rated than these facts. Take, flr example, dry hides. Those that are proderly haIdlckd are worth fully double as much as thcy would be if cut full of holes and allowed to dry iii an ungainly shape, or left exposed to the sun rain. There are many other thinis we could mention. There is really not a single article which the farmer produces which cannot be marketed to ad vantage. The habit of doing things well and in the proper time should be taught with particular care to the farmer's sons and daughters. Lessons well taught and habits well formed in early life, will be remembered when manhood, with its cares and necessi ties, come. WHEAT CULTURE. As the season for putting in the spring wheat crop arrives. farmers are generally in a great hurry; sometimes a little too much soto do their work in the best manner. A few words respecting the proper preparation of seed and soil may not be amiss at this time. Wheat generally does best on fall plowing. Then, in the spring, as soon as the frost is out of the ground and the sur face becomes sufficiently dry to pulverize nicely, it should be harrowed very thorough ly, or what is better, gone over with a culti vator to make the surface quite mellow to the depth of three or four inches. In regard to seed, it should be from wheat well ripen ed, and then so well cleaned as to contain nothing but wheat, and that of the largest kernels. Such seed will be much more like ly to prodauee hardy, vlgormus plants.. To obtain such seed with the fanning mills in use in this vicinity it would be necessary to run the grain through two or three times in order to screen and blow out all the lighter kernels and weed aixid grass seed. In West ern New York, where winter wheat is about the only kind raised, the crop is threshed in August, and the part necessary for sowing in September is the first cleaned. The fan ning mills there are supplied with an extra screen on purpose for cleaning seed wheat, with meshes so large as to allow all of the Smaller kernels to pass through. Perhaps from one-third to nearly one-half is thus re Jeeted. The rejected portion is thrown back on the pile to be fitted for market, or to be used otherwise as may be thought best. A crop grown from such seed will be likely to yield much better, and b'1 more certain in every respect. Some think that the increase per acre is from 4 to 8 bushels. The wheat plant requires a rich soil. It is a dainty feeder, and the soil must contain an abundant supply of all the elements ne cessary to its growth and development, and be so well cultivated and in such excellent condition that these elements of growth can be readily obtained. Good paying crops cannot be grown year after year from the same piece of land, nor from land from which grain crops of some sort have been taken a dozen or more years in succession, where no fertilizers are apuolied. Even a liberal supply of barn-yard manure alone, is fount to be i:suflicient at the East to se cure a bountiful crop, and surely our West ern prairies are no exception to the general rule. The same principles will apply here as elsewhere. In this section of country there is usually a sufficient growth of straw, indeed in some seasons a very heavy growth, but the yield in grain does not always cor respond. This seems to show a deliciency in the soil of the elements necessary to form the grain, and that some special fertilize's are needeed. The progressive farmer will endeavor to ascertain what these are, and whether it will pay to employ them. 'iThe fiorgoing statement seems to point unmistakably to two definite conclusions, without a proper observance of which, we cannot expect to be successful in growing wheat: 1. The seed must consist of the largest kernels of the very best variety ; that is, of some variety that has not been allowed to deteriorate by half cleaned seed, or by other careless management. 2. The soil must be of proper quality, specially prepared, and naturally rich, or at least not allowed to have lost a large propor tion of its fertility by a continuous course of cropping.-Cor. Prairis Farmer. THE GRASSHOPPER COMMISSION. It will be remembered that last October a convention of Governors of Western States assembled at Omaha, to confer upon the best methods of ridding the country of the peri odical visitation of locusts, and also to pre vent, as far as possible, their ravages. To this end the most eminent entomologists of the West were invited. The conclusions ar rived at were published by us at that time. The Secretary of the Interior, acting upon the request made by this convention, that a commission ot experts be appointed by the general government to investigate the habits of the locusts in their native haunts, or orig inal breeding places in the Far West, has designated the following gentlemen as mem bers of the locust commission: Professor C. V. Riley, State Entomologist of Missouri; Professor Cyrus Thomas, State Entomolc gist of Illinois; and Professor A. S. Packard Jr-, of Massachusetts,"editor of the American Naturalist. Mfr. Packard will, it is under stood, be the Secretary of the Commission. The commission will have its headquarters at Washinmgton, and a Western oflice at St. Louis. The work, it is expected, will be divided. Professor Riley taking the area east of the mountains and south of the fortieth parallel, Professor Thomas the country north of the fortieth parallel to the British American line, excepting Montana, and Professor Packard taking Montana, Idaho and Utah. The principal objects of the commission will be to ascertain what agency can be brought to bear in the destruction of the eggs in their natural breeding places. It is supposed that British America is one of the most prolific of the breeding grounds of the locust. If so, it is to be hoped that the Dominion, or the Home government, will co-operate with the United States in the endeavor to extirpate this pest of the trans Mississippi region. _THE POULTRY YARD. WHICH IS THE BEST BREED . For eggs the Leghlorns standl unrivaled the Browns lerliaps superior to the Whites. For flesh, anld as IIot hers and setters, I have :fbd 1none equal to Brahlmas, unless the I'lymouth locksk should prove so. There is great profit in the Brahlimia if good stock be obtained and they are properly cared for. Mr. Geo. W. Dewcesc, of Napa, has bred them for years and linds them to pay better than any other kind. lIe has just sold what young ones (broilers) lie had to spare, and he obtained $12 a dozen for his young Brah mas, hatched this year. Common fowls, grown, are selling at $7 per dozen. i[e shi) ped his young Brahimas to San Francisco, and his returns show sales of all at $12 per dozen, and his commission merchant wrote him to send more if he had the,'. It pays him to keep only Brahmna hens, and to buy pure Brahma cocks when lie desires new blood. If Bralunas be 'sold at a country store or mixed in with common fowls, the whole will bring but $7 or $8 per dozen, but if they be shipped separately they command a ready sale at double these figures. Mrs. McMahan, of Dixon, sent several coops to D. E. Allison & Co., San Francisco, and on their arrival the demand for them was so great by the retailers that Mr. Alli son auctioned them off on the wharf at $18 a dozen. They were all Brahmas, and sent in nice coops about four by six feet, and 20 inches high, with wire sides and ends. None of her shipments of Brahmas have ever sold for less than $12 per dozen. It pays, and pays well, to buy good stock and rear fowls to sell at such prices. I subjoin a clipping from a poultry journal by a correspondent who raises to sell in mar ket. Ile seems to prefer the Plymouth .Rocks. This is my first year with them and, so far I am decidedly prepossessed in their favor. ''We had lair success with the Brahmas, they being hardy, fairly good layers and good setters. The Cochiins were nearly the same as the Brahmas in their characteristics except not being as good layers and inveter ate setters. "About the time we obtatned our Cochins we also invested a little in White Leghorns, thinking that as the' Brahmas were good winter layers and the Leghorns good sum mer layers we could average the matter and have a constant stream of eggs the year round. "HIere again our hopes Were dashed to the ground, our Leghoris proving fully as good winter layers as the Brahmas, and estab lishing a reputation which they have since kept up. "For some time we had heard consider able about the Plymouth Rock fowls, and a year ago we obtained a cock of that breed, not the best by any means, as we did not •are to pay fancy prices for a cock to put with a mixed multitude of hens to raise chicks for the common market, yet he was a -very good one withal. "From what we learned of his character istics during the winter, together with the hearty and robust appearance of some early chicks of his get, we became satisfied that the Plymouth Rocks would give better sat isfaction on some points at least than either Brahmas or Cochius. "Acting upon these conclusions, we ob tained a setting of eggs which hatched very well as to numbers, although not so satisfae torily as to sex as we could have wished three-fourths of them being cockerels. "In these, and the large number of half blood Plymouth Rock chicks we have raised this summer, these conclusions and expecta tions have been as fully verified as is possi ble with one season's experience. "After some years' experience we seem to see our way clear to breed thorough-breds, and Plymouth Rocks and White Leghorns will be our specialties. "As we view the matter, the points of su periority which the Plymouth Rocks possess over the Asiatics are these: The -chicks feather'out younger and better than the Asi atics. a consideration of great importance l. raising chicks in early spring, and further, the birds come to maturity much earlier, weighing fully as much at three monthlis of age as the Asiatics have at four months bid. This also is a very important item towards making the credit side of the balance sheet give a. satisfactory showing."-Rural Press. DOMESTIC ECONOMY. REMARKS AND RULES FOR GOOD BREAD, With good flour, a good oven, and a good, sensible, interested cook, we can be pretty sure of good, wholesome bread. Yeast bread is considered the standard bread, and is, perhaps, more generally found on every table than any other kind. Hence It is important to know how to make good, sweet, wholesome, yeast bread. Good flour is the first indispensable, then good, lively yeast, either yeast cakes or bottled, the for mer is preferable in all respects. Then, of course, there must be the proper materials to work with. A bread bowl or pan-the pan is easiest kept clean-a stone or earthen jar for setting the sponge; a sieve-flour should always be sifted before making bread of any kind; first, to be sure that it is per fectly clean, secondly, sifting enlivens and aerates the flour, and makes both mixing and rising easier and quicker; a clean white cloth to cover the dough, and a woolen blan ket to keep the dough of even temperature while rising; baking pans, deep and shallow a large, strong spoon for stirring, and a little melted suet or fresh butter for oiling the pans; never use poor butter. If you want shortening, rich milk or cream scalded and cooled will answer the purpose and be most wholesome. But thorough kneading is bet ter still, and should always be done effect ually. Scalding a portion of the flour makes a sweeter bread and speeds the work. Wa ter, milk, or butter-milk may be poured boiling hot on a quart or two of the flour, stirring well, and cooling to a moderate temperature before adding the yeast-this makes the sponge. Scalded flour always makes a little darker bread, unless we use buttermilk, which makes a rich, creamy, white bread. Yeast is fermented flour or meal-the first stages of decomposition or decay. Understanding this, every baker will comprehend the necessity of regulating the extent of the fermentation with the greatest care; for a sponge or bread fer mented or "raised" too long, is decompos lug, spoiling--actually rotting ! This is the language of an experienced English baker to us only a few dhys ago, during a talk about'the delicate, foamy loaves "yeasted to death," which so many families are eating and calling "the staff of life," quite discard ing the firm sweet, substantial, home-made loaf which our mothers and grandmothers kneaded with their own skilled hands. Bread making should stand at the head of domes tic accomplishments, since the health and happiness of the family depends incalculable upon good bread; and comes a time in cv "ery true thoughtful woman's experience when she is glad she can make nice, sweet loaves, free from soda, alum, and other in jurious ingredients, or an earnest regret that she neglected or was so unfortunate as not to have been taught at least what are the requisites of good bread making.-Dr. Hol brook. Lniars will do well to give a large share of their attention to acquiring the "fine art" I of cooking. POTATOES, cut in small squares and put into cruets or bottles, with the watler to wash them, will clean quickly and well. a - - -·-c-ý-- - To prevent scorching, the secret is simply to keep a basin or cup of water in the oven. ' The steam generated not only pirevents scorching, but makes the meat cook liccr.